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BF 1555 .N48 1894 
I Nevius, John Livingston, 
1829-1893. 
Demon possession and allied 






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DEMON POSSESSION AND 
ALLIED THEMES 

BEING AN INDUCTIVE STUDY OF 

PHENOMENA OF OUR OWN TIMES 



BY REV. JOHN L. NEVIUS, D. D. 

For Forty Years a Missionary to the Chinese 



WITH AN INTRODUCTION 

By Rev. F. F. Ellinwood, D. D. 

Secretary of the Board of Foreign Missions of the Presbyterian Church, 
U. S. A., and author of "Oriental Religions and Christianity." 



With AN INDEX; Bibliographical, Biblical, 
Pathological, and General 



FLEMING H. REVELL COMPANY 
CHICAGO : : NEW YORK : : TORONTO 

Publishers of Evangelical Literature 



Entered according to Act of Congress, in the year 1894, by 
Fleming H. Revell Company, in the office of the Librarian 
of Congress, at Washington. 



INTRODUCTORY NOTE 

BY REV. F. F. ELLINWOOD, D. D. 

For several years I have been aware that Rev. 
Dr. John L. Nevius of Chefoo, China, was giving 
careful attention tX) certain strange psychical 
phenomena which were presented from time to 
time in the interior districts of the Shantung 
Province. I became more interested in the prog- 
ress of his inquiries from the fact that upon an 
acquaintance continued for more than a quarter 
of a century I regarded him as a man peculiarly 
fitted to examine so intricate and difficult a sub- 
ject. 

His philosophic insight, his judicial fairness of 
mind, his caution and his conscientious thorough- 
ness, appeared to me admirable qualifications 
for such a study. Moreover his thorough mastery 
of the Chinese language spoken and written, his 
intimate sympathy with the people, and his cor- 
respondingly truer interpretation of their inner- 
most thought and life, have rendered him still 
more capable of ascertaining the real facts in the 
case, and of forming accurate judgments upon 

them. 

jii, 



INTRODUCTORY NOTE 



Antecedently to any knowledge of the New 
Testament the people of North China believed 
fully in the possession of the minds and bodies 
of men by evil spirits. This belief is a part of 
that animism, or spirit worship, which has existed 
in China — as in many other countries — from the 
very beginning, of history or tradition. It has 
always been understood that the personality of 
the evil spirit usurped, or for the time being sup- 
planted that of the unwilling victim and acted 
through his organs and faculties. Physical 
suffering and sometimes violent paroxysms at- 
tended the presence and active influence of the 
spirit, and not only the particular demoniac but 
all his household were filled with more or less 
anxiety and distress. 

When therefore Christianity was introduced 
into China, and the narratives of demoniacal 
possession given in the New Testament were 
read, the correspondence that was at once recog- 
nized by the native Christians seemed complete. 

In relation to this particular form of New 
Testament miracles there has never been any 
difficulty on the part of Chinese Christians, if 
indeed among the heathen portion of the com- 
munity. And what is very striking in the ac- 
counts given by Dr. Nevius, is their uniform 
confidence shown in the power of Jesus, or even 
of an appeal to His name to expel the spirits and 
set the victims free. According to the testimony 



INTRODUCTORY NOTE 



of many witnesses no earnest Christian believer 
has ever continued to be afflicted. This seems 
to be a generally accepted fact, by the heathen 
who have known the circumstances, as well as 
by believers. 

It will be observed that nearly all the incidents 
related are given on the testimony not of mis- 
sionaries, but of native Christians — mostly na- 
tive pastors. The cases have been carefully 
investigated, however, by several different mis- 
sionaries, who have shared in the interest taken 
by Dr. Nevius, and no one of them appears to 
have any doubt of the veracity of the witnesses. 

Some of the facts also have passed under their 
own immediate observation. 

Missionaries in China have all proceeded with 
great caution in this matter. Dr. Nevius and 
others have avoided any measures which might 
lead the people to suppose that they claim the 
power to cast out devils even in Jesus' name. 
Nor does it appear that any native minister has 
claimed any such power. The most that has 
been done has been to kneel down and pray to 
Jesus to relieve the sufferer, at the same time 
inviting all present to unite in the prayer; and 
it seems a well established fact that in nearly or 
quite every instance, the person afflicted, speak- 
ing apparently in a different personality and 
with a different voice has confessed the power 
of Jesus and has departed. 



INTRODUCTORY NOTE 



Whatever theory we may adopt by way of ex- 
plaining these mysterious phenomena, the idea of 
intentional fraud on the part either of the af- 
flicted, or of the Christian witnesses and sympa- 
thizers, is excluded. 

The absence of all motive to deceive, the great 
number of instances, the well tried character of 
the witnesses, and all the circumstances con- 
nected with their minute and consistent narra- 
tives, establish beyond reasonable doubt their 
entire sincerity. Whatever the world at large 
may think the native Christians of Shantung are 
as fully convinced both of the reality of demon- 
iacal possessions, and of the available power of 
Jesus to remedy them, as were the disciples in 
the apostolic church. And the number of coin- 
cidences which Dr. Nevius has pointed out be- 
tween these cases and those described in the 
Gospels and the Acts of the Apostles is certainly 
remarkable. In regard to them each reader of 
the book must form his own conclusions. The 
author does not insist upon any particular inter- 
pretation, or any final conclusion. He is evi- 
dently impressed with the gravity of his sub- 
ject and the possibility of erroneous speculations. 
But in his extended researches he has found such 
speculations already rife, and he has considered 
them briefly in some of the later chapters of his 
book. 

A belief in demoniacal possession has existed in 



INTRODUCTORY NOTE vU. 

many lands and throughout the ages, and many 
and conflicting theories of explanation have been 
advanced by anthropologists and writers on psy- 
chology, hypnotism, etc. Some of these Dr. 
Nevius has answered, and, as I think, success- 
fully; and on the whole his mind seems inclined 
to the view that as yet no theory has been 
advanced which so well accords with the facts 
as the simple and unquestioning conclusion so 
universally held by the Christians of Shantung, 
viz: that evil spirits do in many instances possess 
or control the mind and will of human beings. 

Hypnotism, making due allowance for a thou- 
sand extravagances which have attended it, does 
seem to show that one strong and magnetic 
human will may so control the mind and will 
of its subject as by a mere silent volition to 
direct his words and acts. Who shall say then 
that a disembodied spirit may not do the same.-' 

Professor Shaler of Harvard in his Interpreta- 
tion of Nature has pointed out the fact of a 
strong reaction against the materialism which 
seemed confident of dominion a few years ago. 
Certain biological investigators, flushed with the 
success of their researches, were very confident 
that if they had not been able to discover the 
human soul with the microscope, they had at 
least identified it very closely with the substance 
of the brain and nerves. But now, as the pro- 
fessor shows, science is beginning to discover 



INTRODUCTORY NOTE 



realms of spirit lying beyond the physical, and 
of which we have as yet but the barest glimpses 
of knowledge. Evidently human research has 
not yet finished its work and is not ready to rest 
its case upon any dogmatic verdict. 

Over against materialistic speculation are the 
vagaries of spiritualists, theosophists and all 
apostles of Oriental or Occidental occultism. 
Their theories are on the opposite extreme, and 
it is one of their chief claims for recognition that 
they hope to save society from the deadening 
influence of materialism. 

Dr. Nevius, after considering both of these 
extremes, finds no better account of man's 
spiritual nature than that which is given in the 
Word of God: — No more rational view of his 
conflicts with evil, no more satisfactory and all 
sufficient remedy for that evil. While he does not 
dogmatize in regard to the mysterious maladies 
suffered in Shantung he deems it wise to state 
the facts, nor does he disguise the leanings of 
his own mind, in regard to them. 

F. F. Ellinwood. 
October 5, i8pj. 

Postscript : Since the above was written Dr. Nevius has gone to that 
world of unseen spirits where he no longer sees "through a glass darkly." 
He died peacefully, though without a moment's warning, at his house in 
Chetoo, Oct. 19, 1893. 



PREFACE. 

In this age of superabounding literature, an 
author in presenting a new book to the pubHc, 
often feels called upon to give his reasons for so 
doing. Good and sufBcient reasons will no doubt 
be thought especially called for in again raising 
the question: Is there such a thing as Demon- 
Possession in this latter part of the Nineteenth 
Century? 

The author's apology is, that in the prosecu- 
tion of his missionary work in China this subject 
was repeatedly forced upon his attention, so 
that it became absolutely necessary to examine it, 
and to form an intelligent opinion respecting it. 

In this investigation, in intervals of leisure 
during the past twelve years, facts have been 
elicited which seem to have more than a local 
and temporary interest, as they are nearly re- 
lated to some of the most important questions of 
the day, viz.; the Authenticity and Inspiration 
of the Bible; Spiritualism; and Materialism. A 
somewhat exceptional opportunity for observa- 
tion, and one which may prove transient, is an 
additional reason for making facts which have 
come to light the common possession of all who 
are interested in them. 



51- PREFACE 

As the matter contained in this volume is 
largely connected with the writer's individual 
experiences, an effort to suppress his own per- 
sonality, would be a useless affectation. It is 
hoped that this consideration will be regarded 
as a sufficient reason for using the first personal 
pronoun more frequently than would otherwise 
be necessary. 

Some of the readers of these pages will in all 
probability be disappointed in finding the char- 
acters and doings of spirits much less interest- 
ing and creditable than they are as represented 
in the familiar writings of Milton and Dante. It 
must be borne in mind, however, that this is 
not a work of the imagination, and that the au- 
thor is not responsible for the characters which 
he introduces. His object is to present a truth- 
ful statement of facts, confident that from such 
a course, nothing but good can come to the 
cause either of science or religion. 

I wish here to express my thanks to my friend 
Henry W. Rankin, Esq., son of Rev. Henry V. 
Rankin, formerly my beloved c/^Heague in 
Ningpo, for his kindly undertaking, on my lerving 
for China, to see this work through th^ "Pr^^ss, 
and also preparing the accompanying Index 

John L. Nevius. 
August, 1892. 



CONTENTS. 

Introductory Note, By Rev. F. F. Ellinwood, D. D. . iii 

Author's Preface i" 

Note of Explanation, By Henry W. Rankin ... 3 
CHAPTER I. 

First Impressions and Experiences 9 

CHAPTER II. 

Experiences in Central Shantung ^7 

CHAPTER III. 

Further Experiences in Central Shantung ... 3° 

CHAPTER IV. 

Circular Letter and Responses 4* 

CHAPTER V. 
Responses to Circular Continued ...... oo 

CHAPTER VI. 
More Responses to Circular ..,.•• 73 

CHAPTER VII. 
Other Communications from Various Sources in China . 84 

CHAPTER VIII. 
Demon Possession in India, Japan, and Other Lands . . 95 

CHAPTER IX. 
Demon Possession in Christian Countries . . . » " 

[1] 



2 CONTENTS. 

CHAPTER X. 

Character of the Evidence Presented and Facts Established 

by It 134 

CHAPTER XI. 
Explanations : Evolution and Other Theories . . 146 

CHAPTER XII. 
The Pathological Theory . . . . . . .175 

CHAPTER XIII. 
The Psychological Theory ...... 207 

CHAPTER XIV. 
The Biblical Theory 243 

CHAPTER XV. 
Teachings of the Sacred Scriptures Continued . . 263 

CHAPTER XVI. 
Historical Sketch of Demonism ...... 291 

CHAPTER XVII. 
Spiritualism ......... 3'4 

CHAPTER XVIII. 
The Facts and Literature of the Occult .... 333 

APPENDIX I. 
More Chinese Instances ....... 395 

APPENDIX II. 

Other Testimonies 427 

INDEXES. 
Bibliographical ........ 439 

Biblical 461 

Pathological ......... 4^4 

General . , . . , . . . . . 4^5 



NOTE OF EXPLANATION. 

In August, 1892, Dr. Nevius finished his work 
upon this book, placed it in the hands of the 
present writer to arrange for its publication, and 
returned to China. He had thought of adding 
another chapter, in which his principal argu- 
ment, and its applications, should be stated 
more at large and concluded less abruptly; but 
time and health did not permit. 

The unique foundations of his book lie in a 
collection of indisputable facts drawn from no 
libraries but from life. 

Yet he spent much time searching in libra- 
ries, and towards the last he did this when he 
greatly needed rest. Still other features which 
would add to the completeness of the book he 
would gladly have supplied, but he felt that his 
own work must cease, and that this must be 
done, if done at all, by other hands. Accept- 
ing the offer of a friend to prepare an index, 
he subsequently expressed the desire that this 
friend, bound to him by life-long ties of love 
and reverence, and by sympathy with his con- 
victions in this theme, should do more if he 
would, than read the proof and prepare the 
index. •:} 



4 NOTE OF EXPLANATION 

He desired the correction of any obvious in- 
accuracy of language or quotation, and the 
addition of such bibliographical or other notes 
as might further elucidate the subject, or en- 
hance the value of the book for students. With 
diffidence this editorial function was assumed, 
and with the hope of submitting results to his 
approval before the volume should take on its 
final form. The further examination of the re- 
lated literature, and the verification of refer- 
ence and quotations, insensibly grew to a larger 
task than was foreseen. It consumed much 
time, while still more delay was occasioned by 
illness and by other cares. 

Then came the sad news of the author's death, 
sad for the many hearts bereaved, though for him 
it meant a glad translation into the immediate 
presence of that Master whom he had served 
with devotion and delight. He had rounded 
out his forty years of missionary life, rich in 
manifold experience and priceless fruits. Dr. 
Nevius stood in the first rank of modern mis- 
sionaries as an evangelist, pastor, educator, or- 
ganizer, and founder of Christian literature in 
a pagan tongue. He was a man of rare versa- 
tility, and adaptability to untoward conditions, 
and there are many who knew him best as a 
successful promoter of the material interests 
of the great land of his labors and adoption. 
The number is also large of those who will look 



hlOTE OF EXPLANATION 5 

eagerly for the story of his life which his widow 
is eminently fitted to prepare. 

He was one of those all-around men of whom 
no class has furnished so many or so illustrious 
examples as the missionaries of the Cross of 
Jesus Christ from St. Paul down. As a writer 
he was a prolific author of important works in 
the Chinese language. In matters pertaining 
to China no man was better informed than Dr. 
Nevius. A book written by him some years 
ago as a general account of the land and people 
is still as good an introduction to the subject as 
can be found. It was called China and the 
Chinese, and was published by Harper Bros, 
in New York. 

It was no great pleasure in the subject that 
led him to prepare the present volume, but a 
deep sense of responsibility. Experiences un- 
welcome, as they were unsought, opened his 
mind to the significance of a much neglected 
class of facts; neglected by many who other- 
wise would be best qualified to interpret them, 
and who most need to understand them. But 
the facts, once known in their integrity, speak 
plainly for themselves, while the noble quality of 
this author's mind, his evident fairness, thorough- 
ness and soberness of argument, and his mag- 
nanimity towards all opponents of his views, are 
as unmistakable as they are rare and beautiful 
wherever found. 



6 NOTE OF EXPLANATIOhl 

Some will think the missionary has beaten the 
professional scientist on his own ground, and 
exhibited a model of inductive study, tested 
premises, and conclusions covered by the prem- 
ises, such as is seldom met. On the other 
hand, to many, so offensive are the views main- 
tained in this volume that a response from 
such persons of apathy or contempt may be 
naturally expected. But from all the pain 
of incurring such a reception for his faithful 
work he has been spared. 

As the bibliographical material accumulated, it 
seemed best to make a separate chapter of 
nearly all that part of it which had to do with 
books and writers not referred to by our author 
himself. And as these dealt with the entire class 
of those phenomena of which some varieties are 
more particularly treated in this volume, it was 
thought proper to introduce the description of 
books by some general remarks upon the class. 

The term occult was preferred to other desig- 
nations of this class as a whole for reasons which 
appear in the chapter, and for this eighteenth 
chapter on The Facts and Literature of the Oc- 
cult the present writer is alone responsible; 
so also for the statements of the BibliograpJiical 
Index that succeeds it, for some scattered foot- 
notes of a similar sort, and for that portion of 
the Appendix not concerned with Chinese in- 
stances. 



NOTE OF EXPL/INATION 7 

In these additions the aim has been to fulfill, 
so far as might be, the desires of the author, 
to make the book more useful to every reader, 
and, in some degree, to furnish for the student 
the critical apparatus that would facilitate orig- 
inal researches in this field. But the editor's 
work may be justly open to severer judgment 
than that done by the author. 

Debarred from the latter's counsel by long 
distance, then by his death, having to work 
alone, without the stimulus of companionship 
in dealing with a gloomy and oppressive theme, 
in much bodily weakness, and with insufficient 
access to books, it would not be surprising if at 
some points the bounds of prudence were ex- 
ceeded, or errors committed unawares. He 
can but hope that such errors, should they exist, 
may be charged to their proper source, and 
that nothing which he may have said or omitted 
shall impair the due effect of the author's words, 
or lessen the respectful attention which they 
receive. 

Henry W. Rankin. 
E. Northfield, Mass- 
June 23, 1894. 



DEMON-POSSESSION 

CHAPTER I 

FIRST IMPRESSIONS AND EXPERIENCES 

My first home in China was in the city of 
Ningpo, in the province of Che-kiang, which 
place we reached in the spring of 1854. My 
first work was of course that of acquiring the 
language. A native scholar, Mr. Tu, was en- 
gaged to serve me as a teacher. He was a 
strong believer in the "supernatural," and when 
we could understand each other through the 
medium of his vernacular, spiritual manifes- 
tations and possessions formed a frequent sub- 
ject of conversation. I brought with me to 
China a strong conviction that a belief in de- 
mons, and communications with spiritual beings, 
belongs exclusively to a barbarous and super- 
stitious age, and at present can consist only 
with mental weakness and want of culture. I 
indulged Mr. Tu, however, in talking on his 
favorite topics, because he did so with peculiar 
fluency and zest, and thus elements of variety 
and novelty were utilized in our severe and other- 
wise monotonous studies. But Mr. Tu's mar- 

9 



10 DEMON- POSSESSION 

velous stories soon lost the charm of novelty. I 
used my best endeavors, though with little suc- 
cess, to convince him that his views were the 
combined result of ignorance and imagination. 
I could not but notice, however, the striking re- 
semblance between some of his statements of 
alleged facts and the demonology of Scripture. 
This resemblance I accounted for as only appar- 
ent or accidental, though it still left in my mind 
an unpleasant regret that it was so strong, and 
I should also add a feeling amounting almost to 
a regret that such detailed statements should 
have been recorded in the Bible. 

In the summer of 1861, we removed from 
Ningpo to the province of Shantung in northern 
China. There again I met with many evidences 
of this same popular belief, which constantly 
confronted us in the prosecution of our mission- 
ary work. 

The first event in connection with this sub- 
ject in Shantung, which I recall to mind, oc- 
curred in a country station of one of my col- 
leagues, about the year 1868. This colleague 
was desirous of renting a native house to be 
used as a chapel in the market town of Chang- 
kia chwang, about thirty milles from Chefoo. 
After many fruitless attempts to secure such a 
place, he was surprised by the unexpected offer of 
an excellent building in a very desirable location, 
and on very reasonable terms. Fearing that 



FIRS T IMPRESSIONS AND EXPERIENCES 1 1 

delay might give rise to difficulties and obstruc- 
tions he concluded the bargain at once. The 
articles of agreement were drawn up, and na- 
tive Christians in his employ were immediately 
assigned to occupy and take charge of the 
premises. The next morning the new oc- 
cupants found a crowd of curious neighbors 
awaiting their first appearance on the street, 
and were asked with an air of mysterious in- 
terest how they had slept, and if they had 
passed a comfortable night. It soon transpired 
that the Christians had been sleeping in a 
"haunted house." No one in the village had 
for some years dared to use the building for any 
purpose, which fact accounted for its having been 
so readily obtained. 

So far there was nothing very remarkable in 
our having come into possession of a house sup- 
posed to be haunted, but the matter did not end 
here. Before night the occupants of a neigh- 
boring compound* came to see the Christians, in- 
forming them that the spirit had taken posses- 
sion of one of the women in their family, and 
insisted upon taking up its abode with them, as 
it had been driven away from its former dwell- 
ing place by the presence of Christians, with 
whom it could not live. This family seemed to 
think they had a right to complain of this un- 

» Compound. [Malay, kompung, a village.] In China and the East la- 
diss an inclosure, containing a house, outbuildings &c. Webster. 



12 DEMON-POSSESSION 

welcome visitor having been thus foisted upon 
them. The native Christians replied that they 
would do what they could to rid the complain- 
ants of the spirit, and returned with them to 
their home taking with them a New Testament, 
and a Prayer printed in large characters as a 
placard. After they had prayed and read the 
Scriptures the woman supposed to be possessed, 
was restored to her normal condition. The 
Prayer was posted on the walls, and the fright- 
ened inmates of the house were exhorted to 
withstand and drive out the spirit in the name 
of Jesus. They were not troubled afterward, 
though the spirit was heard of trying to gain an 
entrance into other families in the neighbor- 
hood. 

In the above statements the villagers gener- 
ally, and the native preacher, and the persons 
principally concerned (some of whom have since 
become Christians) all concur. The event ex- 
cited some interest in our mission circle for a 
time. It was accounted for as due, like other 
cases of "haunted houses," to fear and halluci- 
nation, and the subject was dismissed from our 
thoughts as unworthy of serious attention. 

In the year 1871, or 1872, the following ex- 
periences were met with in the village of Chu- 
mao in the district of Ping-tu. There was a 
native school there in which was a boy named 
Liu, about twelve years of age, who was sup- 



FIRST /MPRFSSfONS AND EXPERIENCES 13 

posed to be at times possessed by an evil spirit. 
When the attacks occurred he would start and 
cry out with fear, as if conscious of some unseen 
presence, and then fall down insensible. On 
these occasions a woman in the village who was 
believed to be a spirit-medium, or exorcist, was 
immediately sent for. On the recurrence of 
one of these attacks another of the pupils ran 
to call the exorcist. On his way he met a man 
named Liu Chong-ho, who had recently been 
to Teng-chow fu, as an "enquirer," and had, 
after studying the Scriptures there for a month 
or more, been baptized. On learning the boy's 
errand he told him not to summon the exorcist; 
and at once returned with him to the school. 
Requiring all the pupils to kneel with him, he 
earnestly called on Jesus for help. Then turn- 
ing to the prostrate boy he said in almost Scrip- 
tural words: "I command you in the name of 
Jesus Christ to come out of him!" The boy 
uttering a piercing cry, was at once restored to 
consciousness. I can say from personal knowl- 
edge that he never had another of those attacks 
from that day to this. Some years since he 
graduated from the high-school at Teng-chow 
fu ; and is now a useful and efficient man. Both 
his parents have become Christians. Liu Chong- 
-ho died in the autumn of 1888 of cholera. He 
had for more than fifteen years sustained the 
character of a worthy, steadfast Christian; and 



14 DEMON-POSSESSION 



at the time of his death was an elder in the 
Chu-mao church. The teacher of the school, 
Li Ching-pu, who afterward became a Chris- 
tian, fully corroborated the story. 

It may be well to state that no Protestant 
missionary, so far as I know, has ever given 
native converts instructions as to casting out 
spirits; and few, if any, have dreamed that their 
converts would have the disposition, the ability, 
or the opportunity to do so. When converts 
have undertaken to do it, it has always been from 
an unsuggested spontaneous impulse, the natural 
result of reading the Scriptures and applying its 
teachings tp their actual circumstances. 

When the boy above referred to was inter- 
rogated as to the reason for his crying out, he 
said it was because the spirit in leaving him hurt 
him; and he showed the place on his side where 
he was injured. Those present at the time still 
declare that they saw the spot, and believed 
that it originated as represented. This event, 
though somewhat startling, was not regarded as 
furnishing in itself any conclusive evidence of 
spirit-possession, and but little importance was 
attached to it. We supposed the boy to be suffer- 
ing from epileptic fits, or something of that 
nature. 

During the few years immediately following 
we were from time to time perplexed by similar 
occurrences, noticeably by one related to me by 



t^lRS T IMPRESSIONS AND EXPERIENCES 1 5 

the native teacher Li Ching-pu above referred 
to, and confirmed by many independent wit- 
nesses. It will be found given at length in 
Appendix A. This and other cases brought the 
subject of demon-possessions into practical re- 
lation with our work as missionaries. The 
question to be considered was, do cases of 
possession actually exist in China? If they do 
not, how are the phenomena to be accounted 
for, and by what means shall we convince the 
native Christians of their delusion? What at- 
titude shall we instruct them to take with refer- 
ence to the whole matter? 

I made enquiries of the more intelligent of 
our converts and found that the most of them 
believed in the reality of these manifestations, 
and could give more or less definite information 
of cases in their families, or among their neigh- 
bors, of which they had been eye-witnesses. I 
determined in my evangelistic tours in the in- 
terior to investigate the matter as opportunities 
offered. In the district of Ping-tu, 150 miles 
southwest from Chefoo, the Christians pointed 
out village after village which had either per- 
sons supposed to be "possessed," or exorcists. 
I had thought it would be easy to obtain the in- 
formation I required. But unexpected difficul- 
ties presented themselves. On making enquiries 
in the different villages, every person applied to 
declined giving information, and most of them 



16 DEMON-POSSESSION 

declared their absolute ignorance of what I was 
talking about. I soon learned the reason of 
this. To have a case of spirit-possession in a 
family is, as a rule, regarded as not only a great 
misfortune, but also a disgrace. A man would 
be almost as unwilling to give information of 
this kind about a neighbor, especially to a 
foreigner, as to accuse him of theft without any 
personal grudge leading him to do so. More- 
over, in this case he would not only fear the re- 
sentment of his neighbors;- but still more that of 
the avenging demon. So I found the object of 
my pursuit a very ignis-fatiius, ever eluding my 
grasp as I approached it. I again, and not un- 
willingly, discontinued the investigation of the 
subject. It however often obtruded itself in 
the course of ensuing years; and in such a way 
as to make the reconsideration of it imperative. 



CHAPTER II 

EXPERIENCES IN CENTRAL SHANTUNG 

In the spring of 1877 I took part in the work 
of famine-relief in Central Shantung, after which 
my mission-tours were extended farther west- 
ward, over the district covered by this famine. 

During the summer of 1878 I received a let- 
ter from a native assistant, Mr. Leng, relating 
some experiences which he had met with in the 
mountainous district of Ling-ku; his account of 
which, in his own words, is as follows: 

"While visiting the enquirers at *Twin-Mount- 
ain Stream' I was told of a young man, of the 
family name Kwo, living in the village of Hing- 
kia, who was suffering all sorts of inflictions 
from an evil spirit. I desired to see the man, 
and it was arranged that we should pay him a 
visit. We found Mr. Kwo at work in the fields, 
where I had a conversation with him, which 
was as follows: 'I have heard that you are 
troubled by an evil spirit. ' He replied: 'It is 
true, and most humiliating. That I, a man in 
the full vigor of health, should be a slave to this 
demon, is the trial of my life; but there is no 
2 17 



18 DEMON-POSSESSION 

help for it.' I said: 'I assure you there is 
help.' 'What do you mean.?' he asked. Ire- 
plied: 'I will tell you. I am associated with a 
foreign teacher of Christianity, who often visits 
the region east of you. His object is to urge 
all men to worship the one true God, and to be- 
lieve in Jesus Christ, the only heaven-appointed 
Saviour. Jesus Christ is all-merciful and all- 
powerful. It is His purpose to deliver us from 
the dominion of evil spirits; and they flee be- 
foreHim. ' 'But,' saidKwo, 'I have tried every 
thing, and in vain.' I said: 'You have not 
tried believing and trusting Jesus, and I assure 
you that if you will do this, and take Jesus to 
be your Saviour, the demon will leave you.' 
He replied: 'If what you say is true then I 
will believe in Jesus.' Seeing that he was sin- 
cere, I further exhorted and encouraged him. 
In the meantime we had reached his house, and 
he pointed out to me the shrine where he wor- 
shiped the demon. I then told him that the 
first thing to do was to tear away this shrine. 
To this he readily consented. After this we all 
knelt down praying the Saviour to protect and 
save him. I then gave Mr. Kwo directions how 
to acquire further knowledge of Christianity; 
and leaving with him a few Christian books I 
took my leave. As we separated he thanked us 
warmly for our visit." 

After receiving this account from my native 



FUR THER EXPERIENCES IN SHAN TUNG 19 

helper, I looked forward with no little interest 
to seeing this man. 

In the month of March, 1879, on my way to 
the village of the "Twin-Mountain Stream," 
Mr, Kwo, hearing of my approach, came out 
some distance on the road to meet me, and in- 
vited me to his house. Leaving my conveyance 
and luggage to go on to the inn by the main 
road, I accompanied him across the hills to his 
mountain home. On my way I learned further 
particulars of his previous life. He had never 
attended school, and until recently had been un- 
able to read. Moreover, (and this is very un- 
usual in China,) not a person in his village could 
read. He was a hardy mountaineer, thirty-eight 
years of age, bright and entertaining, with 
nothing in his appearance which could be re- 
garded as unhealthy, or abnormal. It was late 
in the afternoon when I reached his home. I 
was at once introduced into the reception- 
room, which was the place where the evil spirit 
had formerly been worshiped. 

I had scarcely seated myself when he called 
his little daughter, about ten years of age, to 
recite to me what she had learned. This bright 
child, who had never seen a foreigner, stood be- 
fore me without the slightest appearance of shy- 
ness, and repeated page after page of a catechism 
specially prepared for Chinese enquirers, both 
question and answer, as fast as her tongue 



20 DEMON-POSSESSION 

could go, evidently understanding what she said, 
on, on, half through the book, including the 
Ten Commandments, and the Lord's Prayer. 
Then she repeated selected passages of Scrip- 
ture, and various forms of prayer, and also a 
number of hymns. When she could go no 
farther she stopped suddenly, saying: "That 
is as far as I have got!" When she had finished 
her recitation, her mother, a pleasant intelligent 
young woman with a child in her arms, came 
in, and she in turn went over the same lessons, 
and with the same correctness. On examining 
Mr. Kwo himself, I found that he had got on 
still further in these same studies. 

This was only six months after Mr. Kwo had 
first heard of the religion of Jesus. Remember- 
ing his ignorance of the written language, and 
also that no one in his village could read, I en- 
quired how it was possible for him to learn all 
this. The reply was: "On Sundays I go to 
worship with the Christians at the Shen-jen 
kwo (Home of the Genii) or at the 'Twin- 
Mountain Stream,' and sometimes one of the 
Christians comes to spend a day or two with 
me. Whenever I meet those who can teach 
me, I learn a little; and what I learn I teach 
my wife and daughter." He then went on to 
say: "I told my wife and daughter that I in- 
tended to ask you for baptism on this visit. 
They said; 'But you must not leave us behind. 



FUR THER EXPERIENCES IN SHAN TUNG 2 1 

We too wish to be baptized. ' Now we are all 
here before you, and we request baptism." 
Having said this, he anxiously waited my de- 
cision. The answer immediately suggested to 
my mind was: "Can any man forbid water that 
these should not be baptized.^"* And with no 
hesitation, though with some anxiety, I baptized 
the father, mother, little girl, and infant. The 
reception to the church of this family, under 
these novel circumstances, was an event of 
great interest to me. As the sun was setting I 
wended my way across the hills to the village of 
the "Twin-Mountain Stream," Kwo accompany- 
ing me as my guide. 

After the services of the next day, which was 
Sunday, I requested Mr. Kwo to accompany me 
to the next preaching place; and then drew 
from him a fuller history of his experiences from 
the time when he first came under the control, 
as he supposed, of the evil spirit. I afterward 
had long conversations with his wife, and also 
conversed on the same subject at length with 
his father. All the different accounts supple- 
ment and confirm his own, and agree in every 
important particular. I give these statements 
as I received them. I offer no opinion of my 
own respecting the phenomena presented. Of 
course Mr. Kwo's statements respecting what 
he said and did when he was in a state of uncon- 
sciousness depend on the testimony of those 

* Acts x; 47. 



DEMON-POSSESSION 



about him. The story, in his own words, is as 
follows: 

"Near the close of year before last (1877) I 
bought a number of pictures, including one of 
Wang Mu-niang, the wife of Yu-hwang, (the 
chief divinity of China). For the goddess Wang 
Mu-niang I selected the most honorable position 
in the house; the others I pasted on the walls 
here and there, as ornaments. On the second 
day of the first month I proposed worshiping 
the goddess; but my wife objected. The next 
night a spirit came, apparently in a dream, and 
said to me: *I am Wang Mu-niang, of Yuin- 
men san, (the name of a neighboring mountain). 
I have taken up my abode in your house. ' It 
said this repeatedly. I had awakened and was 
conscious of the presence of the spirit. I knew 
it was a shie-kwei, (evil spirit), and as such I re- 
sisted it, and cursed it, saying: 'I will have 
nothing to do with you.' This my wife heard, 
and begged to know what it meant, and I told 
her. After this all was quiet, and I was not 
disturbed for some days. About a week after- 
ward a feeling of uneasiness and restlessness 
came over me, which I could not control. At 
night I went to bed as usual, but grew more 
and more restless. At last, seized by an irresist- 
ible impulse, I arose from my bed and went 
straight to a gambler's den in Kao-kia, where I 
lost at once 16,000 cash, (sixteen dollars, a 



FUR THER EXPERIENCES IN SHAN TUNG 33 

large sum for a peasant Chinaman). I started 
for home, and lost my way. But when it grew 
light I got back to my house. At that time I was 
conscious of what I was doing and saying, but 
I did things mechanically, and soon forgot what 
I had said. I did not care to eat, and only did 
so when urged to. After some days a gambler 
from Kao-kia came and asked me to go with 
him, which I did; and this time I lost 25,000 
cash. On the fifteenth and sixteenth of the 
first month, I went to Pe-ta where there was a 
theatre. The same night I again lost 13,000 
cash in gambling. The next morning I returned 
home, and just as I was entering my village I 
fell down frothing at the mouth and uncon- 
scious; and was carried to my house. Medicine 
was given me which partially restored me to 
consciousness. The next day I dressed myself 
and attempted to run away from home, but I 
soon found myself staggering; everything grew 
dark, and I rushed back to my room. I soon 
became violent, attacking all who ventured near 
me. My father hearing the state of things came 
from his home to see me. As he entered I 
seized a fowling-piece, which I had secreted un- 
der my bed, and fired it at him. Fortunately 
the charge went over his head into the ceiling. 
"With the help of the neighbors my father bound 
me v/ith chains, and took me to his home in 
Chang-yiu. A doctor was called who, after 



24 DEMON-POSSESSION 

giving me large doses of medicine without effect, 
left, refusing to have anything more to do with 
me. For five or six days I raved wildly, and 
my friends were in great distress. They pro- 
posed giving me more medicine, but the demon, 
speaking through me, replied: 'Any amount 
of medicine will be of no use.' My mother then 
asked: 'If medicine is of no use, what shall we 
do.''' The demon replied: 'Burn incense to 
me, and submit yourself to me, and all will be 
well.' My parents promised to do this, and 
knelt down and worshiped the demon, begging 
it to torment me no longer. Thus the matter 
was arranged, I all the time remaining in a state 
of unconsciousness. About midnight I attempted 
to leave the house. The attendants followed 
me, brought me back, and bound me again. 
Then my parents a second time worshiped the 
demon, begging it to relieve me from my suffer- 
ings, and renewing their promise that 1 myself 
should hereafter worship and serve it. I then 
recovered consciousness, and my mother told me 
all that had happened, and of the promise they 
had made for me. On my refusing consent to 
this, I again lost all consciousness. My mother 
besought the favor of the demon, renewing her 
promise to insist upon my obedience, and I 
again recovered consciousness. In their great 
distress my father and mother implored me to 
fulfill their promise, and worship the evil spirit; 



PURTHER EXPERIENCES IN SHANTUNG 25 

and at last I reluctantly consented. The demon 
had directed that we should call a certain woman 
in Kao-chao who was a spirit-medium, to give us 
directions in putting in order our place for wor- 
ship. So all was arranged, and on the first and 
fifteenth of each month we burnt incense, offered 
food, and made the required prostrations be- 
fore the shrine on which the picture of the god- 
dess was placed. The spirit came at intervals, 
sometimes every few days, and sometimes after 
a period of a month or more. At these times 
I felt a fluttering of the heart, and a sense of 
fear and inability to control myself, and was 
obliged to sit or lie down. I would tell my wife 
when these symptoms came on, and she would 
run for a neighboring woman less timid than 
herself, and they two burned incense to the 
demon in my stead, and received its directions, 
which they afterward communicated to me, for 
though spoken by my lips I had been entirely 
unconscious of them. The demon often bade 
us not to be afraid of it, saying it would not 
injure us, but that, on the contrary, it would 
help us in various ways; that it would instruct 
me in the healing art, so ttiat people would 
flock to me to be cured of their diseases. This 
proved to be true; and soon from my own vil- 
lage the people came bringing their children to 
be healed by the aid of the demon. Sometimes 
it would cure the sick instantaneously, and with- 



DEMON-POSSESSIOhf 



out the use of medicine. Sometimes it would 
not respond when first summoned, and when it 
did appear would say it had been absent in such 
and such places; but it never said on what 
business. Many diseases were not under its 
control, and it seemed as if it could perfectly 
cure only such as were inflicted by spirits. My 
own child had long been ill, and I invoked the 
demon, but it did not come. The child died. 

"The demon said he had many inferior 
spirits subject to him. He also frequently in- 
dicated his plan for my future life and employ- 
ment. It was that through his assistance I 
should grow more and more skilled in healing 
diseases. The people would soon be willing to 
make a return for my services. In time of 
harvest I should go about from family to family 
getting contributions of grain, and these contri- 
butions as they accumulated should be applied 
to the support of the neighboring temple." 

I would remark that Mr. Kwo's own account 
of Leng's visit exactly corresponded with that 
given above. Mr. Kwo, however, added the 
following. Said he: "The death of our child 
occurred a few days after we had torn down the 
spirit's shrine. My wife was much distressed, 
believing it was in consequence of my having 
offended the demon. She urged me to restore 
the shrine and resume the worship. I told her 
that whatever might happen I would not break 



FURTHER EXPERIENCES IN SH/INTUNG 27 

my vow to worship and trust in Jesus, A few 
days after that the demon returned and, speaking 
through me, of course, a conversation ensued be- 
tween it and my wife, which was as follows: 
•We understood that you were not to return. 
How is it that you have come back again?' The 
demon replied: 'I have returned but for one 
visit. If your husband is determined to be a 
Christian this is no place for me. But I wish 
to tell you I had nothing to do with the death 
of your child. ' 'What do you know of Jesus 
Christ'.? they asked. The answer was: 'Jesus 
Christ is the great Lord over all; and now I am 
going away and you will not see me again. * This, 
said Mr. Kwo, was actually the last visit; and 
we have not been troubled since." 

The above is a full account of Mr. Kwo's case 
up to the spring of 1879. In October of that 
year I visited him again. Arriving at his house 
after a long and tiresome journey I requested 
him after our evening meal to conduct the usual 
family worship. He opened the Bible and read 
with fluency and accuracy the fourteenth chapter 
of St. John's Gospel; and then followed a 
prayer, the simplicity, appropriateness, and earn- 
estness of which surprised me greatly. On the 
next day, which was Sunday, I baptized nine 
adults in his house. They were from neighbor- 
ing villages and had received their instruction in 
Christianity chiefly from hini. His hpime had 



28 DEMON-POSSESSION 



already become an independent centre of relig- 
ious interest. 

I have given this case particularly, because I 
am familiarly acquainted with the persons con- 
cerned in it; and to show its intimate connection 
with the progress of Christianity in that neigh- 
borhood. 

It is now (1892) fourteen years since Mr. Kwo 
was baptized. Persecutions have tried the 
faith of the whole company of Christians in 
that neighborhood. Mr. Kwo's father, after 
suffering severe losses in business, took to strong 
drink, and died, leaving his family in consider- 
ably reduced circumstances. Under the com- 
bined influence of old habits, evil and idolatrous 
associations, persecutions, and poverty, many 
of the Christians in that vicinity grew cold, and 
gave up the outward observance of Christian 
duties; though most of them still profess to be 
believers in Christianity. Mr. Kwo continued 
to be one of the most reliable and useful men 
in that region. He also grew more familiar with 
the Bible and Christian truth. He has his faults, 
as others have, but he is a decided and out- 
spoken Christian, and his is a happy Christian 
home. Neither he nor his neighbors think of 
doubting that he was rescued from the dominion 
of an evil spirit through faith and trust in 
Christ. 

D/iring the last .two years, interest in Chris- 



FURTHER EXPERIENCES IN SHANTUNG 29 

tianity has greatly revived in Mr. Kwo's neigh- 
borhood, and there have been large accessions 
to the church, not a few of whom received their 
first religious impressions in the church in Mr. 
Kwo's house. 

In 1889, Mr. Kwo, in company with many 
otheremigrants from Central Shantung, removed 
with his family to the province of Shen-Si to 
take up cheap lands left vacant by the ravages 
of the famine of 1 877, His leaving was a matter 
of much regret on the part of his foreign teachers, 
and the native Christians associated with him. 
For many months we could obtain no infor- 
mation concerning him, and fears were enter- 
tained that he had perished by the way as many 
of the emigrants did. We received letters from 
him in 1890 stating that he had found a new 
home; that he wanted for nothing; and that he 
had commenced a new work for Christ, and 
had a little company of neighbors, and newly 
formed acquaintances, worshiping with him in 
his house every Sunday. 



CHAPTER III 

EXPERIENCES IN SHANTUNG: CONTINUED 

Early in the summer of 1879 I heard from 
the native assistant, Leng, of a case of supposed 
"possession," in which he had failed to afford 
relief. This failure he attributed to want of 
faith. At my request he gave me an account of 
the case, which, in his own words, is as fol- 
lows: 

"This spring when I was at Tse-kia chwang, 
in the district of Shiu-kwang, I was giving the 
Christians there an account of the case of Mr. 
Kwo at Hing-kia, when an enquirer present said: 
'We have a similar case here. ' It was that of a 
woman, also named Kwo, She was thirty-two 
years of age, and had suffered from this infliction 
eight years. It happened that at the time of 
my visit the woman was suffering more than 
usual. Her husband, in the hope that the de- 
mon would not disturb his wife in the house of 
a Christian, had brought her to the home of his 
brother-in-law, Mr. Sen, who had lately pro- 
fessed Christianity. On my arrival they said 
to me: 'She is here, on the opposite side of 

30 



EXPERIENCES IN SH/iNTUNG: CONTINUED 3 1 

the court,' and they begged me to cast out the 
spirit; as they had tried every method they knew 
of without effect. Then without waiting for 
my assent, they brought the woman into the 
room where I was. I said: *I have no power to 
do anything of myself. We must ask God to help 
us. ' While we knelt in prayer the woman was 
lying on the '^k' ang, apparently unconscious. 
When the prayer was finished she was sitting up, 
her eyes closed, with a fluttering motion of the 
eyelids, her countenance like one weeping, and 
the fingers of both hands tightly clenched. She 
would allow no one to straighten her closed 
fingers. I then, hardly expecting an answer, 
as the woman had hitherto been speechless, 
said to the demon: 'Have you no fear of God.^ 
Why do you come here to affiict this woman?' 
To this I received instantly the following reply: 

'Tien-fu Yia-su puh kwan an. 
Wo tsai che-li tsih pa nian, 
Ni iao nien wo, nan shang nan, 
Pi iao keh wo pa-shin ngan. ' 

[Translation] : 

'God and Christ will not interfere. 1 have 
been here seven or eight years; and I claim 
this as my resting-place. You cannot get rid 
of me.' 

She continued for some time uttering a suc- 
cession of rhymes similar to the above, without 

* The earthen bed of North China. 



32 DEMON-POSSESSION 

the slightest pause; the purport of them all be- 
ing: 'I want a resting-place, and I'll not leave 
this one. ' The utterances were so rapid that 
the verse given above was the only one I could 
remember perfectly. I can recall another line: 
'You are men, but I am s/iien/ (i. e. one of the 
genii). After repeating these verses, evidently 
extemporized for the occasion, a person present 
dragged her back to her apartments — the demon 
not having been exorcised. 

Mr. Leng revisited this regon in the month of 
August. His further, and more satisfactory ex- 
periences in connection with this case, I also 
give in his own words: 

"I was attending service one Sunday at a vil- 
lage called Wu-kia-miao-ts, two miles from Tse- 
kia chwang, and Mr. Sen from the latter village 
was present. Noticing in Mr. Sen's hand a 
paper parcel I enquired what it contained, and 
was told that it contained cinnabar. This is a 
medicine which is much used for the purpose 
of expelling evil spirits. Mr, Sen said he had 
procured it to administer to the possessed 
woman, Mrs. Kwo, who was suffering from her 
malady very severely. I then spoke to the 
Christians present as follows: 'We are wor- 
shipers of the true God. We ought not to use 
the world's methods for exorcising demons, but 
rather appeal to God only. The reason why 
we did pot succeed before wag our w^nt of 



EXPERIENCES IN SHANTUNG: CONTINUED 33 

faith. This is our sin.' I went on to tell them 
how willing God is to answer prayer, referring 
to my own experience in the famine region, 
when, reduced almost to starvation, I prayed to 
God for help, and was heard and rescued. I 
asked those present if they would join me in 
prayer for Mrs. Kwo, and they all did so. After 
this I set out for Tse-kia chwang in company 
with two other Christians. 

"While this was transpiring at Wu-kia-miao- 
ts the Christians at Tse-kia chwang were at- 
tempting to hold their customary Sunday serv- 
ice; but Mrs. Kwo (or the demon possessing 
her) was determined to prevent it. She raved 
wildly, and springing upon the table threw 
the Bibles and hymn-books on the floor. 
The wife of a younger Mr. Sen, who was a 
Christian, then became similarly affected; and 
the two women were raving together. They 
were heard saying to each other: 'Those three 
men are coming here, and have got as far as the 
stream.' Some one asked: 'Who are coming .-*' 
The woman replied with great emphasis: 'One 
of them is that man Leng. ' As I was not ex- 
pected to visit that place until a few days later, 
a daughter of the family said: 'He will not be 
here to-day.' To which the demon replied: 
'If he does not come here to-day, then I am no 
shien. They are now crossing the stream, and 
will reach here when the sun is about so high,' 

J Demon 



34 DEMON-POSSESSION 

and she pointed to the west. No one could 
have known, in the ordinary way, that we were 
coming, as our visit was not thought of until 
just before starting. Moreover the two men 
who went with me were from different villages, 
at a considerable distance in opposite directions, 
and had had no previous intention of accom- 
panying me. When we arrived at the village a 
large company were assembled at Mr. Sen's 
house, attracted by the disturbance, and curi- 
ous to see the result of it. After a time I went 
into the north building where the two raving 
women were sitting together on the k' ang. I 
addressed the demon possessing them as fol- 
lows: *Do you not know that the members of 
this family are believers in the true God. and 
that this is a place used for his worship.? You 
are not only disturbing the peace of this house, 
but you are fighting against God. If you do not 
leave, we will immediately call upon God to 
drive you out. ' The younger of the two women 
then said to the other: 'Let us go — let us go!' 
The other drew back on the k' ang angrily say- 
ing: T'll not go! I'll stay and be the death of 
this woman!' I then said with great vehe- 
mence: 'You evil, malignant spirit! You have 
not the power of life and death; and you can- 
not intimidate us by your vain threats. We will 
now call upon God to drive you out. ' So the 
Christians al) knelt to pray. The bystanders 



EXPERIENCES IN SHANTUNG: CONTINUED 35 

say that during the prayer the two possessed 
persons, awakening as if from sleep, looked 
about, and seeing us kneeling, quietly got down 
from the k' ang and knelt beside us. When we 
rose from prayer we saw the women still kneel- 
ing; and soon after Mrs. Kwo arose and came 
forward greeting us naturally and politely, evi- 
dently quite restored." Here ends Mr. Lcng's 
narrative. 

I myself visited the place in the month of Oc- 
tober in company with Rev. J. A. Leyenberger, 
at which time Mrs. Kwo asked for baptism. As 
she gave evidence of sincerity and faith in 
Christ, she was baptized, together with thirteen 
others. As far as I know she has had no return 
of her malady. 

The statements of Mr. Leng, as given above, 
were confirmed by minute examinations of all 
the parties concerned, and their testimony was 
clear and consistent. No one in the village or 
neighborhood doubts the truth of the story ; nor 
do they regard it as anything specially strange 
or remarkable. 

Mrs. Kwo is highly esteemed in her neighbor- 
hood, and has, since her baptism, been regarded 
by all who know her as an intelligent and con- 
sistent Christian. She is a woman of pleasing 
manners, and a retiring disposition, apparently 
in good health, and there is nothing unnatural 
or peculiar in her appearance. For nearly two 



36 DEMON-POSSESSION 

years after her baptism, threatened returns of 
her old malady gave her and her friends no little 
anxiety. She says that she was frequently con- 
scious of the presence of the evil spirit seeking 
to gain his former control over her, and was 
almost powerless to resist the unseen influence 
which she felt threatening her. At such times 
she at once fell on her knees and appealed to 
Christ for help, which she never failed to re- 
ceive. She says that these returns of the demon 
became less and less frequent and persistent, 
and after a time ceased altogether. Mrs. Kwo 
has never in her normal condition shown any 
aptitude for improvising verses; and I presume 
could not now compose a single stanza. 

The morning following the baptism of Mrs. 
Kwo, one of the Christians in the village in- 
formed my traveling companion, Mr. Leyen- 
berger, and myself, that a woman living in a 
neighboring house, who was a spirit-medium, 
was then under the influence of a demon, and 
was improvising verses referring to us. We 
enquired the character and history of the woman, 
and received the following reply: "She was in 
your audience yesterday morning. She has 
frequently come to our services, and was for a 
time much interested in hearing about Chris- 
tianity. But she said that she always felt dis- 
tressed after being at our meetings, and on that 
account she had ceased attending them. There 



EXPERIENCES IN SHANTUNG: CONTINUED 37 

had been a struggle in her mind between a desire 
to be a Christian, and the influence of the de- 
mon which controlled her; between a sense of 
right and duty, and her unwillingness to give up 
the gains of her business as a spirit-medium. 
She spends her time going about among the vil- 
lages in the neighborhood telling fortunes, and 
healing diseases, and in this way makes a good 
deal of money for the support of herself and 
family." 

We were desirous of seeing this woman, 
especially as her case resembled Mrs. Kwo's in 
the particular of extemporising verses. After 
some hesitation and delay we were allowed to 
enter. As we approached we heard the meas- 
ured cadences of the woman's monotonous 
chant, which, we were told, had already contin- 
ued for more than an hour. Entering the house 
we saw her lying on the k' ang. Her appear- 
ance was that of a corpse; the face expression- 
less, and no part of the body stirred except the 
lips and tongue; which were giving forth utter- 
ances with the rapidity and uniformity of clock- 
work. Everything she said was in measured 
verse, and was chanted to an unvarying tune. 
The first half of each verse seemed like the 
meaningless chants heard in Buddhist temples; 
but the latter half was evidently impromptu, and 
referred to us, and the Christian religion, and 
our work as missionaries. Her voice never 



38 DEMON-POSSESSION 

faltered, and she never hesitated an instant for a 
word. The rapid, prefectly uniform, and long 
continued utterances, seemed to us such as could 
not possibly be counterfeited, or premeditated. 
Her daughter-in-law, at our suggestion, tried to 
arouse her, calling her loudly by name. But it 
seemed like talking to the dead. Her respi- 
ration was natural, and her pulse full and regu- 
lar, the skin neither dry nor moist; and there 
was not the slightest evidence of fever or excite- 
ment. Her arm when lifted fell down again 
entirely limp. After watching her for some 
minutes we went to attend morning prayers with 
the Christians. On our return she presented 
exactly the same appearance, but her utterances 
had ceased, and she was speechless, motionless, 
and apparently unconscious. Her daughter-in- 
law told us that it was useless trying to awaken 
her; but that sooner or later she would come 
back to consciousness herself. We were told that 
later in the day she roused and went about her 
work. Not many months after this she died. 
On the eleventh of October, 1879, at Shin- 
tsai, in the district of Ling-ku, I was conversing 
with a simple-minded countryman who was an 
applicant for baptism, when the subject of de- 
moniacal possessions was brought up very in- 
cidentally and unexpectedly. I asked the en- 
quirer: "Have you met any opposition in your 
family in consequence of your desire to be a 



EXPERIENCES IN SHANTUNG: CONTINUED 39 

Christian?" He replied: "I have from one 
source; my sister-in-law has for many years 
been possessed by a demon, and the demon ob- 
jects to my being a Christian, and so my sister- 
in-law is afraid, and advises me against it." 
"What does the demon say?" I asked. He re- 
plied: "It said: 'If you believe in, and worship 
Jesus, this is no place for me. I must leave.' 
I said to it: 'I was not aware that I was inter- 
fering with you, or your interests. I believe 
Christianity to be the true doctrine; and I trust 
in Christ for salvation and eternal life; and I do 
not want to give up Christianity.' The demon 
replied: 'It may be very good for you; but it is 
very bad for us!" 

Then I went on to question the man; "How 
do you know that it was a demonV "Why," 
he replied, "it spoke!" "Was it not your sister- 
in-law who spoke ?" "No, my sister-in-law knew 
nothing about it; she was unconscious. She 
was frightened when she heard of it." "Had not 
the demon been in the habit of speaking?" I 
asked. He replied: "Only once — years ago. 
Then it told her that when she arrived at the 
iage of thirty-six, it wanted her to heal diseases." 
t asked again: "If she did not speak when the 
demon came to her, what did she do?" He 
answered: "She only breathed hard, and was 
unconscious." 

The narrator of this incident was a few months 



40 DEMON-POSSESSION 



later baptized. Some years after the sister-in- 
law and her husband were also admitted to 
church-membership. There has been no return 
of the malady — whatever it was. Though ex- 
tremely poor, they are intelligent and sincere 
Christians. 



CHAPTER IV 

CIRCULAR LETTER AND RESPONSES 

The experiences detailed in the preceding 
chapters made more imperative the duty of 
forming an intelligent opinion respecting these 
manifestations, in order to determine what 
position should be taken with reference to them 
in my intercourse with native Christians and 
helpers. With the view of gaining information 
and assistance from missionaries in other parts 
of China, the following Circular was issued, and 
sent to the various Protestant missions. A cor- 
responding Circular in Chinese was sent to the 
native Christians. 

To Protestant Missionaries engaged in the 
work of Christ, Greeting: Dear Brethren: 

The subject of demon-possession has for some 
years past been constantly forced upon my 
attention in connection with missionary work, 
and the founding of Christian churches. I am 
desirous of learning from missionaries in other 
fields how far their experience corresponds with 
my own in this part of China; what the real 
nature of these manifestations is; and what les- 

41 



42 DEMON- POSSESSION 

sons we are to learn from them. I should be 
much obliged for answers to the following ques- 
tions, or for general information, either in English 
or Chinese, bearing on this subject. Will you 
kindly forward the enclosed Chinese circulars 
to any intelligent and reliable native Christians, 
who, you think, would be able and disposed to 
assist in this matter. 

I. Are cases of supposed demoniacal posses- 
sion common in your locality or not.-* 

II. Are the subjects of them persons consti- 
tutionally weak and unhealthy, or those in 
whom the functions of body and mind are in 
other respects normal } 

III. Do you know cases in which these 
manifestations are certainly involuntary, or 
where the subject is averse to them, and strives 
to be free from them? 

IV. Please state minutely the symptoms of 
these cases. 

V. Are these manifestations uniform, or do 
they vary.^ And if they vary, how may they 
be distinguished and classified.'* 

VI. To what agent or agents are they 
ascribed .' 

VII. In supposed cases of demon-possession 
in which the subject gives forth utterances ap- 
parently proceeding from a different personality, 
is there any conclusive proof that this is really 
the case.'' Does the subject retain a recollec- 



CIRCULAR LETTER AND RESPONSES 43 



tion, after passing from one of these abnormal 
states, of what he has said or done while in it ? 

VIII. What are the methods by which 
heathen Chinese exorcise demons; and how far 
are they effectual? 

IX. In what way do Christians cast out 
spirits; and how far are they successful.^ 

X. Is this undertaken by Christians gener- 
ally, or only by certain individuals, who seem 
specially disposed and enabled to do it.-* If this 
is done by a particular sort of Christians, how 
do they differ from others.-* 

XI. Do you know cases in which excluded 
church-members, or those who have afterwards 
been excluded, have cast out evil spirits.'' * 

XII. Where cases of supposed demon-pos- 
session have occurred, has their influence on the 
church appeared to be injurious or the contrary .-• 

XIII. Do you know of exemplary Christians 
who have been the subject of supposed demon- 
possession ? 

Will you be so good as to give in detail the 
history of any supposed case or cases of demon- 
possession, bringing out the answersto the above 
questions, or presenting other phases of the sub- 
ject not suggested by them ; giving names of per- 
sons, and places, and dates.^ 

I especially desire distinct and authentic 
statements from eye and ear witnesses. 

Hoping that you will favor me with the re- 

* Thig question refers to the statements in Matt, vii; 22, 23. 



44 D£MON'POSSEFS/ON 

suits of your observations and experience in 
this matter, 

I remain yours in the fellowship of the Gos- 
pel, 

John L. Nevius. 
Chefoo, September 1879. 

In answer to this circular communications 
were received from all parts of China; of which 
a selection giving a good representation of the 
whole, will be found in this and the following 
chapters. The number connected with a para- 
graph designates it as an answer to the question 
of the same number in the above circular. 

Rev. J. L. Nevius, D.D. 
Dear Bro: — 

In accordance with your recent circular I send 
you enclosed a paper prepared by my native 
teacher, on the subject of demon-possession; 
which I hope will give you the desired infor- 
mation with regard to that matter here. It (i. 
e, supposed demon-possession) is very common 
in our mission field, especially that part with 
which I have been recently connected; and, had 
I the requisite time, I would write out what I 
know of the matter. However, I maybe able to 
send you other papers on the subject from well- 
informed natives here. I am very busy in view 



CIRCULAR LETTER AND RESPONSES 45 

of a contemplated visit to the United States in a 
few weeks. 

I remain in haste, 

Very sincerely yours, 

W. J. Plumb. 
Missionary of the American Methodist Board. 

Literal translation of the communication from 
Mr. Plumb's teacher, Chen Sin Ling. 
"To the Teacher Ni Greetings: 

I write in reply to a circular asking for infor- 
mation respecting possessions by spirits. I am 
a native of the district city of Chang-lo. I was 
reared in the provincial capital (Fu-chow). 
From a child I have attended school, and given 
myself to study. I was first a Confucianist, 
and afterward entered the religion of Jesus. 
Of late years I have been connected with differ- 
ent foreign missionaries as a scribe. Being 
quite willing to communicate anything I know 
on the subject, I hereby give you a statement of 
what I have myself seen and heard; following 
the order of your questions. 

L As to cases of possession in the province 
of Fukien in general, I know but little, and have 
no opportunity of knowing. In the city of Fu- 
chow cases are met with occasionally. They 
are more numerous in the villages. In the dis- 
trict of Tu-ch'ing they are exceedingly common. 
There are many also in the district of Chang-lo. 



46 DEMON-POSSESSION 

These cases are familiarly called Fan Hu-li (In- 
flictions by the fox). * 

II. When a man is thus afflicted, the spirit 
{kwei) takes possession of his body without re- 
gard to his being strong or weak in health. It 
is not easy to resist the demon's power. Though 
without bodily ailments, possessed persons ap- 
pear as if ill. When under the spell of the de- 
mon they seem different from their ordinary 
selves. 

III. In most cases the spirit takes posssesion 
of man's body contrary to his will, and he is 
helpless in the matter. The kwei has the power 
of driving out the man's spirit, as in sleep or 
dreams. When the subject awakes to con- 
sciousness he has not the slightest knowledge of 
what has transpired. 

IV. The actions of possessed persons vary 
exceedingly. They leap about and toss their 
arms, and then the demon tells them what par- 
ticular spirit he is, deceitfully calling himself a 
god, or one of the genii come down to the abodes 
of mortals. Or it professes to be the spirit of a 
deceased husband or wife, or a Jiti-sien ye (one 
of the fox fraternity.) There are also kwei 
(demons) of the quiet sort who talk and laugh 
like other people, only that the voice is changed. 
Some have a voice like a bird. Some speak 

* It is believed by the Chinese that demons are specially fond of pos- 
sessing the bodies of foxes and weasels, and that demons possessing men 
are also connected with foxes. So in Japan. See p. 104. 



CIRCULAR LETTER AND RESPONSE^ 47 

Mandarin,* and some the local dialect; but 
though the speech proceeds from the mouth of 
the man, what is said does not appear to come 
from him. The outward appearance and manner 
are also changed. 

In Fu-chow there is a class of persons who 
collect in large numbers, and make use of in- 
cense, pictures, candles, and lamps, to establish 
what are called "Incense-tables." Tao-ist priests 
are engaged to attend to the ceremonies, and 
they also make use of "mediums." The Tao- 
ist writes a charm for the medium, who taking 
the incense stick in his hand stands still like a 
graven image, thus signifying his willingness to 
have the demon come and take possession of 
him. Afterwards the charm is burned, and the 
demon is worshiped and invoked, the priest in 
the meanwhile going on with his chanting. After 
a while the medium begins to tremble, and then 
speaks and announces what spirit has descended, 
and asks what is wanted of him. Then whoever 
has requests to make, takes incense sticks, wor- 
ships, and makes prostrations, speaking of him- 
self as "//-/5," (follower or pupil) and asks a 
response respecting some disease, or for protect- 
ion from calamity, etc. In winter the same 
performances are carried on to a great extent by 
gambling companies. If some of the responses 
hit the mark a large number of people are 

* Mnndarin is the spoken Iangiiap;e of the northern provinces of China, 
and ij tiuite different from the language of the province of Fukien from 
which this communication comes. 



48 DEMON-POSSESSION 

attracted. They also establish a shrine and offer 
sacrifices, and appoint days calling upon people 
from every quarter to come and consult the 
demon respecting diseases, etc. 

There is another practice called Kiang-lan. * 
They take a forked branch of a willow, attach 
to it a pencil, and place beneath it a large platter 
covered with sand. There are two persons 
supporting the branch, one on each side, for the 
purpose of writing. They then burn charms, 
and worship, and invoke the demon; after which 
the pen moves tracing characters on the sand. 

There is also a class of men, who establish 
what they call a "Hall of Revelations." At the 
present time there are many engaged in this 
practice. They are for the most part literary 
men of great ability. The people in large 
numbers apply to them for responses. The 
mediums spoken of above are also numerous. 
All the above practices are not spirits seeking to 
possess men, but men seeking spirits to possess 
them, and allowing themselves to be voluntarily 
used as their instruments. 

V. As to the outward appearance of persons 
when possessed, of course they are the same 
persons as to outward form, as at ordinary 
times; but the color of the countenance may 
change, the demon may cause the subject to 
assume a threatening air, and a fierce, violent 

* This is nearly equivalent to Planchette. Compare Proceedings of the 
Psychical Society, iSb8, and Epfs Sargent's book Planckette. 



CIRCULAR LETTER AND RESPONSES 49 



manner. The muscles stand out on the face, 
the eyes are closed, or they protrude with a 
frightful stare. Sometimes the possessed person 
pierces his face with an awl, or cuts his tongue 
with a knife. In all these mad performances 
the object of the demon is to frighten people. 
Their actions need to be carefully watched in 
order rightly to interpret them. 

VI. As to the question: "Who are those 
spirits supposed to be.'"' The names by which 
they are called are very numerous, and it is 
difficult to give a full account of them. Some 
are called Shin (gods); as for instance U-hwang, 
or Tai-san, or Ching-hwang, and in fact any of 
the whole host of deities. Others are called genii, 
and their names are associated with Tao-ism, as 
for instance Lu-tsu and a great many others. 
Beside this they falsely assume the name of the 
god of medicine, or of deities who preside over 
cattle and horses, etc., etc. When they take 
possession of a man, if they personate a scholar, 
they affect a mild and graceful literary air; if 
they personate men of warlike reputation, they 
assume an air of resolution and authority. They 
first announce their name, and then act so that 
men will recognize them, as being what they 
profess to be. 

VII. The words spoken certainly proceed 
from the mouths of the persons possessed; but 
what is said does not appear to come from their 

4 Demon 



50 DEMON-POSSESSION 

minds or wills, but rather from some other per- 
sonality, often accompanied by a change of 
voice; of this there can be no doubt. When 
the subject returns to consciousness he invariably 
declares himself ignorant of what he has said. 

VIII. The Chinese make use of various meth- 
ods to cast out demons. They are so vexed and 
troubled by inflictions affecting bodily health, 
or it may be the moving about or destruction of 
family utensils, that they are driven to call in 
the services of some respected scholar, or Tao- 
ist priest, to offer sacrifices, or chant sacred 
books, and pray for protection and exemption 
from suffering. Some make use of sacrifices and 
offerings of paper clothes and money in order to 
induce the demon to go back to the gloomy 
region of "Yang-chow." Or a more thorough 
method is adopted; as for instance using peach 
branches and willow branches, or the blood of 
different animals, and charmed water to drive 
them away. Some also profess to seize them 
and confine them in bottles. As to whether 
these methods have any effect, I do not know. 
As a rule, when demons are not very trouble- 
some, the families afflicted by them generally 
think it best to keep them quiet by sacrifices, and 
burning incense to them. 

IX. Christians are occasionally invited to 
families where there are possessed persons, where 
they simply read the Scriptures, sing hymns, 



CIRCULAR LETTER AND RESPONSES 51 

\ 



and pray to God. They know of no other meth- 
od of expelling demons. When this is done the 
afflicted person gains relief for the time, though 
it is not certain that the cure will be permanent. 
But if he sincerely believes the truth, and enters 
the Christian religion, there is very little fear of 
the demon's giving him further trouble. In the 
district of Tu-ching the number of those who 
for this cause have become Christians is very 
great. They speak of the demons from which 
they have suffered as "Spirits of mad foxes." 
As to whether they are right in this supposition, 
I do not know. 

X. As to there being any difference among 
Christians as to their ability to cast out devils, I 
suppose they are all alike. It is simply this: 
If any Christian prays to God with true faith in 
Christ, the desired help will be granted. 

XI. I presume unworthy Christians and those 
who have been excommunicated would not be 
able to cast out demons, though I do not know 
much about this. 

XII. In the spread of the Gospel, if cases of 
possession are met with, and Christians are able 
through faith in Christ to cast out the demons, 
the effect would certainly be favorable to 
Christianity. 

XIII. Near my home there have certainly 
been cases of possessed persons becoming Chris- 
tians. As to whether they will continue true and 



52 DEMON-POSSESSION 

faithful it is impossible to say — God only knows. 
I have heard that in the district of Tu-ching there 
are many of this class. In my native district, 
Chang-lo, there is a man who was formerly 
possessed by a demon. He believed in Christ, 
and entered the Christian religion, and was en- 
tirely relieved from the control of the demon. 
He afterwards turned aside from the truth, gave 
up his Christian profession, and the demon re- 
turned and tormented him until his death." 

Other communications received from different 
provinces containing full answers to the several 
questions of the circular so closely resemble the 
preceding that they need not be given in full. 
Some extracts from them may be of interest as 
presenting new phases of the subject, or giving 
further Chinese testimony on some points of 
special interest. 

Extracts from Wang Wu-Fang' s answer to 
the circular. 

(Mr. Wang Wu-Fang is a well-known and 
greatly respected native helper connected with 
the English Baptist Mission of Shan-tung.) 

II. Cases of demon-possession are found 
among persons of robust health, as well as those 
who are weak and sickly. 

III. In many unquestionable cases of posses- 
sion the unwilling subjects have resisted; but 



CIRCULAR LETTER AND RESPONSES 53 

have been obliged to submit themselves to the 
control of the demon. 

IV. In many cases of possession the first 
symptoms occur during sleep, in dreams. The 
subject is given to weeping. When asked a 
question he answers in a word or two, and then 
falls to weeping again. He perhaps asks that 
incense, or paper money may be burned, or for 
other sacrificial offerings; or he complains of 
heat or cold. When you give the demon what 
it wants the patient recovers. In a majority of 
cases of possession the beginning of the malady 
is a fit of grief or anger. The outward mani- 
festations are apt to be fierce and violent. It 
may be that the subject alternately talks and 
laughs; he walks awhile and then sits; or he 
rolls on the ground, or leaps about ; or exhibits 
contortions of the body, and twistings of the 
neck. Before we became Christians, it was 
common among us to send for exorcists who 
made use of written charms, or chanted verses, 
or punctured the body with needles. These are 
the Chinese methods of cure. 

V. Demons are of different kinds. There 
are those which clearly declare themselves, and 
those who work in secret. There are those which 
are cast out with difficulty, and others with ease. 

VI. In cases of possession by demons what 
is said by the subject certainly does not proceed 
from his own will. When the demon has gone 



54 DEMON-POSSESSION 

out, and the subject recovers consciousness, he 
has no recollection whatever of what he has said 
or done. This is true invariably. 

VII. The methods by which Chinese cast 
out demons are, enticing them to leave by burn- 
ing charms, and paper money; or by begging 
and exhorting them; or by frightening them 
with magic spells and incantations; or driving 
them away by pricking with needles, or pinch- 
ing with the fingers, in which case they cry out 
and promise to go. 

VIII. I was formerly accustomed to drive out 
demons by means of needles. At that time 
cases of possession by evil-spirits were very 
common in our village, and my services were in 
frequent demand. After I became a Christian 
these cases rapidly diminished, and finally almost 
disappeared. When persons from adjacent vil- 
lages called upon me as before to cast out 
spirits, it was difficult to know what I ought to 
do. I could not, as a Christian, follow the 
former method, so I declined to go. But the 
elders of the villages would not let me off. On 
one occasion I told them the demon might per- 
haps be cast out merely by prayer for God's 
help. They replied that they were quite willing 
I should use whatever method I preferred. I 
was not sure that I should be successful, but I 
determined to try. When I arrived at the man's 
house I commenced singing a hymn; and the 



CIRCULAR LETTER AND RESPONSES 55 

person possessed immediately cried out, and 
covered his head. Before the close of the 
prayer which followed he had recovered. 

There was another case which I met with on 
the twenty-fifth day of the first month of the 
present year (1880). The subject, who was 
twenty-three years old, was the wife of the 
second son of Li Mao-lin. When under the in- 
fluence of the demon she was wild and unman- 
ageable. This continued six days without inter- 
mission. The family applied to " Wn-po''' (me- 
diums, literally female magicians,) and persons 
who effected cures by needles; but without suc- 
cess. They were at their wits' end, and, all 
other means having failed, a person named Li 
Tso-yuen came and applied to me. I declined 
going, but he urged me at least to go and look at 
her, which I consented to do. "When we entered 
the house, she was surrounded by a crowd of 
people and her noisy demonstrations had not 
ceased. When they learned that we were ap- 
proaching, the people present opened a way for 
us, and the possessed woman at once took a 
seat, began adjusting her hair and wonder- 
ingly asked: "Why are there so many people 
here .-"' Her husband told her what she had been 
doing for several days past. She exclaimed in a 
surprised way: "I know nothing about it." The 
people thought it very remarkable that she 
should be restored as soon as I entered the 



DEMON-POSSESSION 



house; and I, of course, was very thankful foi 
the result. From this time the fame of Chris- 
tianity rapidly spread, and there were many ac- 
cessions to the church. 

More than ten days after this, the woman had 
another attack; and they again sent for me. I 
went to the place accompanied by another Chris- 
tian. As we entered, she recovered as before, 
and sat up; to all appearances quite well. We 
availed ourselves of this opportunity to preach 
to the family for a long time. On our way home 
my friend delightedly exclaimed: "Even the 
devils are subject to us!" * 

Ten days afterward, during the night, we 
heard a loud knocking at the door. It was a 
messenger from Li Tsoyuen, who informed us 
that the possessed woman was worse than ever; 
that her face was purple, her body rigid, her 
skin cold, her respiration difficult, and her life 
almost extinct. I called a Bible student who 
was near by to accompany me. He was an 
earnest Christian, and I supposed that on our 
arrival at the house the demon would leave as 
before. To our surprise the woman remained 
rigid and motionless, as dead. The sight fright- 
ened us, and we betook ourselves to prayer. 
Presently she turned her head away from us, 
seeing which, the family were delighted, and 
cried out together : ** She has come to life again ! " 
We then sang a hymn. When we had finished, 

* Luke X, 17- 



CIRCULAR LETTER AND RESPONSES 57 

the woman drew a long breath, and was soon 
restored. Her sister-in-law asked her many 
questions. She had no recollection of what had 
occurred. The sister-in-law said to me: "The 
demon knew your name, and said, the previous 
time, that when you came it would leave; and 
when you should return home, it would come 
back again: How is this.^" I replied: "Be- 
lievers in Christ can cast out devils. If you 
should believe, the demon would be afraid of 
you." The family then asked for Christian 
books, which I promised, and afterward sent 
them. After this time the demon did not re- 
turn. This is an account of my own experience. 

IX. As to excommunicated church-members 
casting out spirits, I know nothing. If they have 
not entire faith, they certainly cannot. 

X. In our preaching, to be able to tell people 
that in our holy religion there is the power to 
cast out demons, and heal diseases, thus mani- 
festing the love and mercy of God, is certainly 
a great help to the spread of the Gospel. 

XI. In the village of Ta Wang-kia there is 
a man named Wang Pan-hu who was possessed of 
an evil spirit; but was entirely relieved after be- 
coming a Christian. I know also other similar 
cases, of which I cannot now make a full record. 
These have all come under my personal knowl- 
edge." 

Translation of extracts from a communication 
of Wang Ynng-ngen of Peking. 



5S DEMON-POSSESSION 

After referring briefly to a case of possession 
which he had met with, he adds: 

I. "I have known many other cases which it 
is unnecessary to record in full. It may be said 
in general of possessed persons, that sometimes 
people who cannot sing, are able when possessed 
to do so; others who ordinarily cannot write 
verses, when possessed compose in rhyme with 
ease. Northern men will speak languages of 
the south, and those of the east the language of 
the west; and when they awake to conscious- 
ness they are utterly oblivious of what they have 
done. 

IV. Cases of possession are less frequent in 
peaceful times, and more frequent in times of 
civil commotion; less frequent in prosperous 
families, more so in unlucky ones; less frequent 
among educated people , and more so among the 
ignorant. 

V. The varieties of outward manifestations 
of demons are very numerous, and their trans- 
formations remarkable. The same demon will 
transform itself into any number of manifesta- 
tions; so that it is very difficult to comprehend 
them. This is what they are specially noted 
for." 

Below are given translations of a few extracts 
from a communication from an excommunicated 
church-member, and former preacher, Chung 
Yuen-shing. This man is believed by native 



CIRCULAR LETTER AND RESPONSES 59 

Christians who know him to have in former years 
cast out devils. These extracts taken from his 
paper are given principally to present his views 
on question eleventh. 

XI. "If imperfect Christians or excommuni- 
cated persons meet with cases of possession, there 
is no reason why they should not cast them out, 
as well as others; for we read of those who cast 
out devils in Christ's name who did not follow 
Him."* 

Mr. Chung, in the paper from which the above 
is taken expresses the belief that evil spirits some- 
times connect themselves with idols, or graven 
images; giving them a certain efBcacy, and thus 
deluding their worshipers through them. This 
is the belief of many native Christians. 

* Refers to Luke IX, 49, 50, a passage, however, that should be differ- 
ently understood. 



CHAPTER V 

RESPONSES TO CIRCULAR: CONTINUED 

The following letter, though only a private 
one, is of special interest, as relating to the 
region beyond the border of China proper. 

Letter from Rev. James Gilmour, of the 
London Missionary Society, and author of Life 
in Mongolia. 

"My dear Dr. Nevius: 

I send you four diabolical communications 
which I hope you will find useful. If everybody 
sends you as many as I do, you'll have plenty 
of "demoniacal possessions," by the time you are 
finished. I am glad I can give you no personal 
experience in this line, though I must say with 
one of old referring to Satan, that 'I am not 
ignorant of his devices. ' * 

In Mongolia I find more or less belief — 
generally more — in demoniacal possessions, but I 
have never had a case put into my hands to 
treat; and the Monguls are so thoroughly im- 
bued, one and all, with the spirit of lying, that 
I have found it useless to repeat what the most 

• a Cor. II, II. 

60 



RESPONSES TO CIRCULAR: CONTINUED 61 

respectable say; even when they have no con- 
ceivable motive for not telling the truth. Per- 
haps their free and untrammeled life accustoms 
them to such absence of restraint that they can- 
not confine themselves to truth. Seriously (and 
perhaps you think it time) I have often had the 
subject of possession called up to my mind dur- 
ing ten years residence in Mongolia and China 
by witnessing the transports of passion into 
which children and grown people are sometimes 
thrown by quite inadequate causes; and I shall 
await with much interest the result of your in- 
vestigations. Wishing 3'ou prosperity in all your 
interests, 

Believe me faithfully yours, 

James Gilmour. 

P. S. Hsu Chung-ki is a steady-going man, 
a Christian of some four or five years' standing. 
The other two "Ma" and "Wau," are recent con- 
verts of whom nothing can be said. J. G." 

Translation of a communication from Hsu 
Chung-ki. 

"Thirty-four li west of my home is a small 
village called Ho-kia-chwang. In it lived a Mr. 
Chin, who was very wealthy, and had a large 
family. He was also a noted scholar, and had 
many disciples. All at once his home became 
the scene of very strange manifestations. Doors 
would open of their own accord, and suddenly 
shut, or would shut and suddenly open. The 



63 DEMON POSSESSION 

rattling of plates and bowls was often very an- 
noying. Foot-falls were sometimes heard, as of 
persons walking in the house, although no one 
could be seen. Often straw was found mixed 
with the millet, and filth with the wheat. Plates, 
bowls, and the teapot would suddenly rise 
from the table into the air; and the servants 
would stretch out their hands to catch them. 
These were constant occurrences. Various per- 
sons were called to the house to put an end to 
these disturbances. Efforts were made to pro- 
pitiate the spirits by burning incense to them, 
and by vows and offerings. Mr. Chin entered 
a protest against the spirits in the Tung-Yoh 
Temple. All possible means were tried, but 
with no avail. This state of things continued 
for two years. The wealth of the family mys- 
teriously disappeared. Mr. Chin died, and now 
all his descendants are in extreme poverty." 

The other three papers, sent by Mr. Gilmour, 
I have not thought it necessary to insert. 

The following are extracts from a paper 
written by Rev. Timothy Richard; Missionary 
of the English Baptist Church. It was sent me 
in response to my circular, though originally pre- 
pared for a social and literary meeting of the 
foreign residents in Chefoo. 

"The Chinese orthodox definition of spirit is, 
'The soul of the departed;' some of the best of 
whom are raised to the rank of gods. Officials 



RESPONSES TO CIRCULAR: CONTINUED 63 

who have conducted themselves with consider- 
able credit, so as to obtain a good name from 
the people, and favor in the sight of the emper- 
or, when they die are deified by the emperor, 
and temples are erected to their memory; and 
their images are placed in the temples that the 
people may worship them, and copy their noble 
examples. These in process of time become 
the people's guardian angels, and lastly their 
gods. All those spirits which are not so fortu- 
nate as to appear in the Imperial Edict, or to be 
deified by the universal consent of the people 
have their lot cast among a class called 'de- 
mons, ' who, however, vary indefinitely, as the 

good spirits do, in their powers 

Having dwelt on demons in general let us now 
proceed to a special class of human phenomena 
which the Chinese attribute to the influence of 
demons. We shall commence where this in- 
fluence is least, and end where it is greatest. 
First then, as to their power to produce diseases. 
There is no disease to which the Chinese are or- 
dinarily subject that may not be caused by de- 
mons. In this case the mind is untouched; it 
is only the body that suffers; and the Chinese 
endeavor to get rid of the demon by vows and 
offerings to the gods. The subjection in this 
case is an involuntary one. 

"Next come ihose possessed hy the evil spirit. 
These the Chinese distinguish from lunatics 



64 DEMON-POSSESSION 

both by their appearance and language. There 
is more of the cringing nature in the possessed, 
and the patient is perfectly consistent with 
the new consciousness, which is said to be 
the demon's. When questioned as to his home 
the demon answers that it is in the mountains, 
or desert — generally in some cave. Some- 
times he says the person whom he had 
possession of before is dead; and having no 
other abode he takes up his quarters with the 
new victim. Sometimes he says he is traveling, 
or is only come to pay a visit to a brother or sis- 
ter, to a father or mother, and that after a short 
stay he will go away. Persons possessed range 
between fifteen and fifty years of age, quite ir- 
respective of sex. This infliction comes on very 
suddenly, sometimes in the day, sometimes in 
the night. The demoniac talks madly, smashes 
everything near him, acquires unusual strength, 
tears his clothes into rags, and rushes into the 
street, or to the mountains, or kills himself un- 
less prevented. After this violent possession 
the demoniac calms down and submits to his fate; 
but under the most heart-rending protests. These 
mad spells which are experienced on the demon's 
entrance, return at intervals, and increase 
in frequency, and generally also in intensity, 
so that death at last ensues from their violence. 
"A Chefoo boy of fifteen was going on an er- 
rand. His path led through fields where men 



RESPONSES TO CIRCULAR: CONTINUED 65 

were working at their crops. When he came 
up to the men, and had exchanged a word or 
two with them, he suddenly began to rave vio- 
lently; his eyes rolled, then he made for a pond 
which was near by. Seeing this, the people ran 
up to him, stopped him from drowning himself, 
and took him home to his parents. * When he 
got home he sprang up from the ground to such 
a height as manifested almost superhuman 
strength. After a few days he calmed down 
and became unusually quiet and gentle; but his 
own consciousness was lost. The demon spoke 
of its friends in Nan King. After six months 
the demon departed, and the boy recovered. 
He has been in the service of several foreigners 
in Chefoo since. In this case no worship was 
offered to the demon. 

"Now we proceed to those who, though invol- 
untarily possessed, yield to, and worship the de- 
mon. The demon says he will cease torment- 
ing the demoniac, if he worships him, and will 
reward him by increasing his riches. But if not 
he will punish his victim; make heavier his tor- 
ments; and rob him of his property. People 
find that their food is cursed. They cannot pre- 
pare any, but filth and dirt comes down from the 
air to render it uneatable. Their wells are like- 
wise cursed; their wardrobe is set on fire; and 
their money very mysteriously disappears. Hence 

* Compare Matt. XVII, 15. 
5 Demon 



66 DEMON-POSSESSION 

arose the custom of cutting off the head of a 
string of cash, that it might not run away. . . . 
When all efforts to rid themselves of the demon 
fail, they yield to it, and say: 'Hold! Cease 
thy tormenting, and we will worship thee!' A 
picture is pasted upon the wall, sometimes of 
a woman, and sometimes of a man, and incense 
is burned, and prostrations made to it twice a 
month. Being thus reverenced, money now 
comes in mysteriously, instead of going out. 

"Even mill-stones are made to move at the 
demon's orders, and the family becomes rich at 
once. But it is said that no luck attends such 
families, and they will eventually be reduced to 
poverty. Officials believe these things. Palaces 
are known to have been built by them for those 
demons, who, however, are obliged to be satisfied 
with a humbler shrine from the poor. 

"A further stage is reached when the demon 
says: 'It is not enough that you worship me 
privately at your own house ; you must go about 
to declare my power, and influence your neigh- 
bors. ' By this time the demoniac's will is al- 
most powerless: he therefore goes forth immedi- 
ately. Hitherto if he worshiped a demon, he 
would scarcely own it except with shame. Now 
he boasts of his power. He professes to heal 
diseases by the demon's aid. 

"In seeking the aid of demons, the suppliant 
takes with him incense and paper money, besides 



RESPONSES TO CIRCULAR: CONTINUED 07 

valuable presents of bread, red cloth, and red 
silks, which are presented in connection with 
offerings and prostrations. This class neither 
dance nor beat drums, nor ring bells, but sit and 
commence a slow shaking as from ague, then 
yawn, gape, and at last shake so violently that 
their teeth chatter. Then they fall into a fit like 
the former class. They tell the suppliant to 
return home and place a cup outside the win- 
dow, and the right medicine for the sick person 
will be put into it by a spirit. The suppliant is 
at the same time made to vow that he will con- 
tribute to the worship of the particular demon 
whose power and intervention he now invokes; 
and that he will also contribute towards some 
temple in the neighborhood. 

"Somewhat simliar to this class is another 
small one which has power to enter the lower 
regions. These are the opposite of necroman- 
cers, for instead of calling up the dead, and learn- 
ing of them about the future destiny of the in- 
dividual in whose behalf they are engaged, they 
lie in a trance for two days, when their spirits 
are said to have gone to the Prince of Darkness 
to enquire how long the sick person shall be left 
among the living 

"Let us now note the different methods adopted 
to cast out the evil spirits from the demoniacs. 
Doctors are called to do it. They use needles 
to puncture the tips of the fingers, the nose, the 



68 DBMON-POSSESSION 



neck. They also use a certain pill, and apply 
it in the following manner: The thumbs of the 
two hands are tied tightly together, and the two 
big toes are tied to each other in the same man- 
ner. Then one pill is put on the two big toes at 
the root of the nail, and the other at the root of 
the thumb nails. At the same instant the two 
pills are set on fire, and there they are kept till 
the flesh is burned. In the application of the 
pills, or in the piercing of the needle, the invari- 
able cry is: 'I am going; I am going immedi- 
ately. I'll never dare to come back again. Oh 
have mercy on me this once. I'll never return !' 
"When doctors fail, they call on people who 
practice spiritualism. They themselves cannot 
drive the demon away, but they call another 
demon to do it. Both Confucianists and Taoists 
practice this method. They write a charm and 
burn it. They also burn incense and prostrate 
themselves. If the burnt charm has not the 
name of a particular spirit written upon it, the 
nearest spirit will come. Sometimes the spirits 
are very ungovernable. Tables are turned, 
chairs are rattled, and a general noise of smash- 
ing is heard, until the very mediums themselves 
tremble with fear. If of this dreadful character, 
they quickly write another charm with the name 
of the particular spirit whose quiet disposition is 
known to them. Lu-tsu is a favorite one of this 
kind. After the burning of the charm and in- 



RESPONSES TO CIRCULAR: CONTINUED 69 

cense and when prostrations are made, a little 
frame is procured to which a Chinese pencil is 
attached. Two men on each side hold it on a 
table spread with sand or millet. Sometimes a 
prescription is written, the pencil moving of its 
own accord. They buy the medicine prescribed, 
and give it to the possessed. Sometimes the 
demon writes a charm which they are to copy, 
and paste upon the door or window, or make the 
demoniac carry about like a talisman; or he 
may have to burn it, and take its ashes in a cup. 
Should this fail the relatives may go to the tem- 
ples, worship a particular god, and then get his 
name written on a tablet, and take it home, burn 
incense, offer sacrifices, and promise unusual 
devotion, in case their prayers should be heard. 
Should this fail again, they go and prosecute the 
demon before the tutelar deity of the district to 
which the demoniac belongs. This they do by 
writing their complaint against the evil spirit in 
full. This charge they take and burn in the 
presence of the idol within the city walls. As 
soon as burnt, this is supposed to appear in the 
presence of the god, in the spiritual world. But 
fearing the god will not take up the case, they 
never fail to burn heaps of paper money along 
with it. 

"Should they find that this again fails to liber- 
ate the poor victim, they may call in conjurors 
such as the Taoists, who sit on mats, and are 



70 DEMON-POSSESSION 

carried by invisible power from place to place. 
They ascend to a height of twenty or fifty feet, 
and are carried to a distance of four or five //.* 
Of this class are those who in Manchuria call 
down fire from the sky in those funerals where 
the corpse is burnt. These conjurors not only 
use charms, but recite incantations, make magic 
signs, and use some of those strange substances 
which the astrologers use to keep away evil in. 
fiuences. 

"These exorcists may belong to any of the three 
religions of China. The dragon-procession, on 
the fifteenth of the first month, is said by some 
to commemorate a Buddhist priest's victory over 
evil spirits. Some of these may make use of the 
astrologist's mysterious articles; such as ver- 
milion ore, a black mule's hoof, a black dog's 
blood, or the sword of the seven stars. In 
addition to these they use many charms and re- 
cite incantations or prayers. They paste up 
charms on windows and doors, and on the body 
of the demoniac, and conjure the demon never 
to return. The evil spirit answers: 'I'll never 
return! You need not take the trouble of past- 
ing all these charms upon the doors and win- 
dows. ' 

"Exorcists are specially hated by the evil spirits.! 
Sometimes they feel themselves beaten fearfully; 
but no hand is seen. Bricks and stones may fall 
on them from the sky or housetops. On the road 

•A /lis one-third of a mile. tSee Acts, xix, 14-17. 



RESPONSES TO CIRCULAR: CONTINUED 71 

they may without any warning be plastered 
over, from head to foot, with mud or filth; or 
may be seized, when approaching a river, and 
held under the water and drowned. Owing to 
the great danger to which these exorcists are 
exposed, they never venture anywhere without 
having charms, talismans, and all kinds of 'abra- 
cadabras' about them. Weak people cannot do 
these things; hence all of this class are men in 
the strength of manhood. 

"Lastly, Christians may be called in to cast 
out the devils. Both Roman Catholic and Prot- 
estant missionaries are in possession of a thou- 
sand instances, in which after all other efforts 
are found unavailing, a prayer offered by a Chris- 
tian, foreign or native; or even the possessor of 
a New Testament, or a portion of the Bible; or 
even proximity to a Christian place of worship, 
has driven away the demon, and restored the 
demoniac to a sound mind, praising God. 

"Thus in considering this subject, one feels 
himself transported back to the days of the Apos- 
tles; and is compelled to believe that the do- 
minion of Satan is by no means broken yet. 

"In closing we may remark that most of these 
evil spirits are said to be foxes, weasels, or 
snakes. But they are by no means confined to 
these. The Liao-chai, a book published a cen- 
tury ago, (1765) is the production of a scholar 
whose style is held up as the pattern for every 



72 DEMON-POSSESSION 

student. In it birds, fishes, beasts, stones, 
flowers, and in fact almost everything in its turn, 
is represented as instinct with spirit; and as 
sometimes appearing in human form. Scholars 
invariably say such things are not true ; but when 
questioned further they admit that there are 
similar stories believed by people who have 
never heard of Liao-chai. The truth seems to 
be that the author of this book gathered together 
all sorts of legends which were current among 
the people; some of which were general, while 
others were only known to a few persons, or in 
particular localities." 

One hundred and sixty four of the best stories contained in the Liaochai 
have been translated into English by Herbert A. Giles, of H. M.'s consu- 
lar service. The translation is in two volumes,8 vopp. 434, 404; and was 
published in 1880 by Thos. De La Rue & Co. 110 Bunhill Row, London. 
Mr. Giles says the book is known to the Chinese as the Liao-Chai-Chih-I, 
or more familiarly as the Liao-Chai. The author was F'u Sung-Ling, who 
completed his collection of tales in 1679, though it was not printed until 
1740. Since then many editions and commentaries have been made, of 
which the best appeared in 1842, in sixteen small 8vo volumes of about 
160 pages each. It is an invaluable repertory of Chinese folk lore. 



CHAPTER VI 

MORE RESPONSES TO CIRCULAR. 

Letter from Mr. W. D. Rudland of the China 
Inland Mission. 

Tai-Chow, July 8, 1881. 

"My dear Dr. Nevius: 

You may think it strange that I have not be- 
fore answered your note asking for information 
respecting demoniacal possessions in this part 
of China. The main reason for my delay is that 
I wished to investigate on the spot a case which 
the enclosed letter refers to. The letter I think 
speaks for itself; and needs no further expla- 
nation. It was written by a very reliable native 
helper, in whom I had good reason to confide, 
and was sent to Mr. Williamson, who was super- 
intending the work here during my absence in 
England. A copy of the letter was sent to the 
editor of 'China's Millions,' but was not thought 
fit for publication. On my return to China in 
the autumn of 1876 Mr. Williamson kindly gave 
me a copy of the letter, and we visited the place 
together, making what enquiries we could about 
the matter. Since then, having a station there, 
73 



74 DEMON-POSSESSION 

I have frequently visited the place, and become 
well acquainted with all the parties concerned. 
I have visited the place since receiving your note 
and took the opportunity of investigating the 
case in the house where it occurred. I heard 
an account of the facts from several different 
persons who were present, and all agree in their 
statements. To my mind, it is as clear a case 
as it is possible to conceive of. The natives 
here all believe most firmly that the woman was 
possessed of a devil; and that the reading of 
God's word was the means of its being cast out. 
The young man mentioned as having been con- 
verted at the time was baptized by Mr. William- 
son, and is now one of our junior native helpers. 
Just now he is here for study during the week, 
and supplying a station on Sunday. About three 
years ago I baptized the mother and the elder 
brother and sister together, so that of a family 
of six, five are now Christians. But strange to 
say, the woman who was possessed is not con- 
verted, nor is her husband. They both say they 
believe, but have made no profession. The 
woman is perfectly well. As I can vouch for 
the facts, you can make what use you like of this 
letter, and put my name to it if you wish. The 
portion of Scriptures read, was the first ten verses 
of St. John's Gospel." 

A translation made by Rev. Wm. A. Wills of 
the Chinese paper above referred to, written by 
Chang Ah- Hang. 



RESPONSES TO CIRCULAR: CONTINUED 75 

"At Yang-fu-Miao, forty h' S. E. of Tai-chao, 
is a family consisting of an elderly woman, two 
sons, and the elder son's wife; all of whom live 
together. The eldest son was a zealous Bud- 
dhist, and leader in the idolatrous ceremonies in 
the neighboring temple; the younger a Chris- 
tian, and a member of the Tai-chao church. 

In June 1876 the son's wife was seized with 
violent pain in the chest. The Christian brother 
went to a place seven miles distant, to get ad- 
vice about it. After his departure she swooned 
for an hour, then revived and said her husband's 
first wife (long since dead) had come to take her 
and her husband away. The friends present 
were much alarmed, and promised the demon 
that if it would leave the woman they would call 
six priests to chant the classics for three days. 
The answer was: 'Not sufficient.' They then 
said they would burn a quantity of paper, over 
which the name of Buddha had been repeated 
many times. The answer as before was: 'Not 
sufficient. ' The husband brought the classics, 
chanted several, and placed the book on her 
heart, hoping by this means to get rid of the 
demon. She said: 'You can't get rid of me by 
this means. ' Then a fishing net was spread 
over the woman, and she said: 'You can't catch 
me with this. ' After several methods had been 
tried the Christian brother returned, to whom 
they related all that had passed. He said to 



DEMON-POSSEFS/ON 



her: 'Why do you talk in this foolish, confused 
manner,' She replied: *I am not confused; I 
am your deceased sister-in-law. ' He said: *You 
are an evil spirit; leave her!' He read the New 
Testament to her, but she turned away, and did 
not want to hear. After two or three verses 
had been read, she said: 'Your reading pains 
me to death. Don't read! Don't read. I will 
go. ' The woman then got up and attended to 
her duties; and until the time I left Tai-chao, 
at the end of 1878 was well in body and mind. 
The husband was convinced of the power of God, 
and professed to believe in Christianity. The 
neighbors were greatly astonished, and one young 
man present also believed." 

Letter from Rev. H. V. Noyes of the Ameri- 
can Presbyterian Mission, Cantoti. 

"I do not know that anything I send you now 
in regard to demoniacal posssesions will be in 
time to be of any service. I have not personally 
seen much of it; but there have been occasional 
instances here, and especially some years ago, 
of the native preachers' casting out devils — as 
the natives call it. I send you an account of 
two instances, as I happen to know the native 
preachers well. Some time in the year 1868, 
in the fourth month of the Chinese year, Ho- 
kao, a preacher of the London Mission, was 
preaching in Fatshan, and a portion of bis dig- 



RESPONSES TO CIRCULAR: CONTINUED 77 

course referred to Jesus casting out devils. After 
the service a man came and asked Ho-kao if he 
could cast out devils, stating that he had a son 
thus possessed; and if Ho-kao could give him 
relief he would be very grateful. Ho-kao replied 
that he could not; but Jesus did of old, and 
could now if He chose to do so. All that he 
himself could do would be to pray to Jesus; and 
that he would be very willing to do. Ho-kao 
then went with the man to his home in a village 
not far from Fatshan, and found that his son, a 
grown up man, had been disordered for ten or 
more days, attacking people with knives, and 
making attempts to set fire to the house; so 
that he had been chained to a tree, with a little 
mat-shed near him to protect him when it rained. 
The people were afraid of him. Ho-kao asked 
the family and friends all to kneel down; and 
some one forced the man himself down on his 
knees. Ho-kao then prayed. As soon as the 
prayer was finished the chained man gave one 
or two leaps as high as he could, and then Ho' 
kao said: 'Take off the chains!' They were 
all afraid to do this, so Ho-kao himself took 
them off, and led the man into the house. He 
was quiet and seemed much exhausted, and soon 
fell asleep. The family wished to burn incense, 
etc., etc., but were told to do nothing of the 
kind. The father of the demoniac tore down 
everything pertaining to idol-worship in his 



78 DEMON-POSSESSION 

house, and would have nothing more to do with 
it thereafter. He soon joined the church, and has 
been in connection with it ever since. The de- 
moniac has never had any return of his trouble. 
The man Ho-kao who prayed with him is an 
earnest preacher, and a very good man. He is, 
I suppose, now about fifty years of age. Ho-kao 
afterwards had a somewhat similar experience 
with some other cases, but I am not acquainted 
with the particulars. 

"I know of another instance which occurred 
early in the autumn of 1872. A native assistant, 
of the English Wesleyan Mission, was passing 
along one of the streets of his native village, 
when he saw a small company making sport of a 
man, who they said, was possessed of a devil. 
They called to the native assistant and challenged 
him to come and cast out the demon; as he 
claimed that the God of the Christians had such 
power. He went and prayed with the man, who 
then became much more quiet. The assistant 
visited him for two or three days, when he ap- 
peared to be perfectly well and, seemed to form 
an exceedingly strong attachment for the native 
assistant who had prayed for him. The circum- 
stance led to the formation of a class which met 
every evening for the study of the Bible, and 
some were converted. I omitted to mention in 
connection with the case at Fatshan that the 
effect seemed to be good in drawing favorable 



RESPONSES TO CIRCUL/1R: CONTINUED 79 

attention to the work going on in connection 
with the chapel there. 

"A man who came back from California some 
years ago, a member of the Presbyterian church, 
was said to be able to exorcise evil spirits; but 
was one hundred and fifty miles from here, and 
I am not acquainted with the particulars." 

In July 1880 Mr. Noyes wrote again as follows: 
"There is a case of the supposed casting out of 
evil spirits which I have not mentioned. It 
happened ten years ago at Hin-kong, in the 
Hai-ping district. A returned Californian named 
Chao Tsi-ming prayed in the name of Jesus for 
a slave girl who had been afflicted as they said, 
by an evil spirit, for eight or nine years; and she 
recovered and has been well ever since. One 
of our native preachers went there afterwards, 
and found a great deal of interest taken by the 
villagers in the circumstances. I have obtained 
from Ho Yuing-she, the preacher of the London 
Mission, a written statement of his experience 
in Fatshan in casting out spirits and enclose it 
herewith." 

Translation of Communication from Ho 
Yuing- she. 

"I was stationed in the city of Fu-san, and 
engaged in chapel preaching, when I was visited 
by a man from the neighborhood of Shin-Tsuen, 
about twenty // distant. He said that his elder 
brother Tsai Se-hiang had been for several 



80 DEMON-POSSESSION 

months afflicted by an evil spirit; and they had 
made use of every kind of magic for expelling 
demons, and had exhausted all the forms of idol- 
worship without the slightest result. He said 
that night and day they were borne down by 
this calamity, and found themselves absolutely 
powerless; that they had heard that Jesus was 
the Saviour of the world, and that by His name 
evil spirits might be cast out; and therefore they 
had come to beg the disciples of Jesus to visit 
them, and in the name of Jesus cast out the de- 
mon. I said: 'Your determining to come and 
invite a disciple of Jesus to your home to cast 
out the devil by prayer, is certainly an excellent 
thing; but it is not certain that the members of 
your family will be willing to trust and follow us. 
Please enquire particularly whether his wife, chil- 
dren, and brothers are willing to give up all 
idolatrous practices, and reverencethe true God. 
If they are willing to do this, bring me word 
again, and I will gladly go. ' The next day the 
man came again, and said all were willing to 
comply with the Christian customs, and begged 
me to come. I then with a companion went 
back with him to his home. Arriving at his 
house I saw Tsai Se-hiang's wife, children and 
relatives all very sad and distressed. I asked 
the wife about her husband's malady. She said: 
'My husband has been afflicted for a long time; 
we have wasted our substance on physicians; 



RESPONSES TO CIRCULAR: CONTINUED 81 

but without avail. All the day long he moans 
and mutters; he has almost ceased to be a man. 
In the night his malady is still more severe. In 
our extremity we have besought you two gentle- 
men to visit our humble home, and pray for 
him; and in the name of Christ cast out the 
evil spirit. It depends on you to bring back 
peace and happiness to our family; and our 
grateful remembrance of you shall have no end. ' 
I said to the woman: 'Do you believe in Christ?' 
She replied: 'I believe.' I said: *If you be- 
lieve kneel with me and pray.' After prayer 
we looked at Tsai Se-hiang and saw that his 
countenance was peaceful and natural. All the 
family were wild with delight, and their astonish- 
ment knew no bounds. We then bade them 
adieu, and came away. Very strangely and un- 
expectedly about ten days afterwards Mrs. Tsai 
Se-hiang again worshiped idols; and from that 
time her husband's malady returned. She im- 
mediately sent her brother in-law to inform me 
of what had happened. He told me that his sis- 
ter-in-law had not kept her promise, that she 
had disobeyed the commands of our religion, 
and gone to the temple to worship idols; and 
the evil spirit had returned. 'So,' said he, 'we 
are obliged to come and trouble you again, and 
if you will come and pray for him our gratitude 
will be more than we can express. ' This time 
we ourselves did not go, but told the messenger 
6 Pemon 



83 DEMON-POSSESSION 

to return and tell his sister-in-law that she her- 
self ought in sincere repentance and reformation 
to trust in the power of Jesus, and in simple faith 
pray without ceasing; and she might hope that 
her husband would again be restored to health. 
The wife followed my direction, and continued 
in earnest prayer night and day; and the evil 
spirit was driven away and entirely left her hus- 
band. From that time he was completely cured. 
In the eighth month he came to the chapel with 
gifts and offerings to express his gratitude. I 
very gladly accepted his thanks, and acknowl- 
edgments, but declined his gifts." 

The following communication was forwarded 
to me by Rev. J. Innocent, of the English 
Methodist Mission in Tien-tsin. He says in his 
letter dated Feburary i, 1881: "I have obtained 
the enclosed account from one of our catechists 
who was stationed at the place where, and at 
the time when, the event narrated took place. 
I fear it lacks detail." 

[Translation] 

"In the province of Shantung, Wu-ting fu, 
Shang-ho-hien, in the village Yang-kialo, there 
is a family named Yang, in which a woman was 
grievously tormented by evil spirits, and had 
been for fifteen years. She frequently appeared 
on the streets declaring to the people that the 
teachings of the Christian religion came from 
heaven; and that men ought to believe and rev- 



RESPONSES TO CIRCULAR: CONTINUED 83 

erence this religion. She was asked: 'Has not 
the Mi-mi religion (a local sect) power to cast 
you out?' She replied: 'The Mi-mi kiao is a 
religion of demons; how could it cast me out? 
I am also a demon (mo-kwei).' Some of the 
native Christians heard this and said: 'When 
Jesus was in the world He healed diseases, and 
cast out demons. Why cannot we who believe 
in Christ do the same?' Whereupon those pres- 
ent, Yang Ching-tsue, Yang Shing-kung, and 
Yang Shiu-ching earnestly prayed for God's help 
in casting out this demon. After prayer they 
proceeded to the afflicted woman's house. Be- 
fore they reached it the woman said: 'There 
are three believers in the heavenly doctrine com- 
ing. ' On their arrival she called each one by 
name, and asked them to be seated. She then 
said: 'You are the disciples and servants of the 
God whom I greatly fear. ' They then asked: 
'What is your name?' The answer was: 'My 
name is Kyuin (Legion).' The three men then 
charged the demon to leave the woman's body. 
The demon replied: 'I have helped this woman 
fifteen years. She has not an ornament on her 
head or her feet which she has not obtained by 
my assistance. ' After a violent fit of weeping the 
demon promised to leave the woman on the 
tenth day of the first month. And on that day 
agreeably to its promise, it left."* 

♦ Compare Acts, XVI, 16-18, and Luke VIII, 30. Mk. iii, 23. i Cor. x, 20, 



CHAPTER VII 

OTHER COMMUNICATIONS FROM VARIOUS 
SOURCES IN CHINA 

The following is taken from the "Christian 
Herald and Signs of the Times" of August 4, 
1880. 

"A Chinese demon-possessed woman becoming 
a Bible-woman." 

"The Rev. W. R. Stuart, of the Foochow 
Mission in China, (EngHsh Church Missionary 
Society) in his report of work during the past 
year, furnished the following marvelous cure of a 
demon-possessed woman. 

** -One Sunday morning, about a year ago, a 
woman with her husband and four children came 
to my house here, and asked to be taken in and 
taught 'the doctrine. ' We replied that we had 
no place where they could reside, and no means 
whereby to support them. The poor people fell 
down before us, knocking their heads on the 
ground, beseeching that we would have pity on 
them, and teach them the doctrine, (i. e. Chris- 
tianity) for that the woman was possessed by an 
evil spirit, and had come a very long way at con- 

84 



FURTHER COMMUhllCATIONS 85 

siderable expense, in obedience to a dream com- 
manding her, if she would get rid of the evil 
spirit, to go to Foochow, and learn the doctrine 
of Jesus. Still we replied that it was quite im- 
possible that we should take them in. However, 
just at that time the students of our Theological 
College were in need of a cook, and hearing of 
this family they sent over word that they them- 
selves would take the man as their cook, and 
subscribe among themselves sufficient to sup- 
port the family for a while; allowing them to 
occupy an empty room underneath the college. 
To this we agreed; the entire expense being 
borne by the students. 

"Some few days afterwards I was suddenly 
summoned by a message that the woman was 
in one of her fits, and I immediately went down 
with Dr. Taylor. We found her sitting on her 
bed, waving her arms about, and talking in an 
excited manner. She evidently had no control 
over herself, and was not conscious of what she 
was saying. Dr. Taylor, in order to ascertain 
whether it was merely a hysterical fit, or some- 
thing over which she had control, called for a 
large dinner knife, and baring her arm laid the 
edge against the skin, as though he intended to 
cut; but the woman seemed to take no heed 
whatever. He then threw a cupful of water in 
her face; but she seemed to mind this as little 
as the knife; never for a moment stopping in 



86 DEMON-POSSESSION 

her loud talk; and strange to say, as far as I 
could follow it, it was entirely about God and 
Christ and the Holy Spirit; and that she believed 
in the Son of God. 

"This was the more strange, seeing that, as far 
as we could reason, the woman never had any 
opportunity whatever of learning the doctrine. 
Holding her hand I induced her to stop for one 
moment, and said: 'Who is this Son of God; 
do you know.?' She replied at once in the same 
wild way as before: 'Yes, I know. He is Jesus: 
Jesus is the Son of God. ' * 

"A few moments afterwards she shivered all 
over three times in a strange way. I caught her 
hands thinking she was about to fall. But she 
seemed to get better, and lay quietly down on 
the bed. The next day or two she remained in 
bed, and on Saturday night following she again 
had a dream. The evil spirit seemed to seize 
her by the neck, commanding her to leave Foo- 
chow at once, and return to her home, or it 
would kill her. However instead of obeying she 
ran by herself Sunday morning to the church, 
and while there the pain which she had been 
feeling all the morning in her neck left her, and 
she experienced a strangely happy sensation; 
and since that day she has had no return of 
those attacks which she had been subject to con- 
tinually for three years previously, and to ob- 
tain a cure for which she, poor woman, had pre- 

• Coi«pare Ittark ni, tt. 



FURTHER COMMUNICyiTIONS 87 

sented many costly offerings to the idols. Now 
for a year she has been working with Mrs. 
Stuart, and nothing could exceed her diligence 
and earnest desire to learn the way of God more 
perfectly. Just lately she has returned home 
well able to read the New Testament, and parts 
of the Old Testament, burning with a desire to 
teach her relations and friends at Chia-Sioh, 
none of whom, as yet, know anything of the 
truth." 

Further particulars connected with this case 
are given in an account of it written by Mrs. 
Stuart, and published in "Woman's Work," 
May, 1880. After alluding to the happy experi- 
ence referred to above Mrs. Stuart says: 

"All the Christians there, both men and wo- 
men, had been praying very earnestly for her, 
and were greatly rejoiced when they heard of 
this happy result. 

"Soon after this she joined our class of Chris- 
tian women, who came to our house daily to 
study, and was most remarkable for her great 
diligence and eager desire to learn. She learned 
quickly and easily, and seemed to take great de- 
light in it. Her great anxiety was to learn 
enough herself to be able to teach her relations 
and friends, especially her parents; for she was 
so afraid that they might die before she had 
taught them to know and love the Saviour. 

"Her relations, hearing that she was cured, were 



88 DEMON-POSSESSION 

very much astonished, and sent her messages 
several times asking her to come back and teach 
them about the Christian's God; for they be- 
lieved He must have greater power than their 
idols' She remained with us however until she 
had learned to read the colloquial New Testa- 
ment very fairly; and a short time ago the whole 
family returned to their native village, taking 
with them a well instructed Christian woman to 
help them in teaching their heathen relations 
and friends. She begged us to remember them 
in prayer that God would give them wisdom and 
incline the hearts of the people to listen to them; 
for she felt she must obey the Saviour's com- 
mand given of old to one in a similar position: 
'Return unto thine own house and show how 
great things God hath done unto thee.'"* 

The following are extracts from an account 
of a supposed case of "possession" in the pro- 
vince of Kwang-tung, which was published in 
1880. Many interesting details relating to Chi- 
nese social life and customs are omitted. 

"How a Familiar Spirit was Ejected from the 
Yong Family." 

Translated from the verbal narrative of Mrs. 
Yong, by Miss A. M. Field, author of "Pagoda 
Shadows." 

"'The first thing that I remember in my life is 

the distress of extreme poverty When 

I was fifteen years old my mother was attacked 

* Compare Luke VHl, 38, 39. 



FURTHER COMMUNICATIONS 89 

by a demon, and she could not drive it away. 
Christians have only to resist the devil and he 
flees from them; * but people who know nothing 
about God have only their own strength with 
which to meet demons, and they have to suc- 
cumb to them. My mother had violent palpi- 
tations of the heart, spasmodic contractions of 
the muscles, and foaming at the mouth. Then 
she would speak whatever the demon told her to 
say, and would do whatever he impelled her to 
do. My father told her that it was very bad to 
be a spirit-medium; but if she was going to be 
one she must be an honest one, and never give 
other than good advice, nor take more than fair 
pay for her services. She never took more than 
two or three cents from any one who came to 
her for a consultation with the demon. There 
were several spirit-mediums in our village, but 
none was so popular as my mother became. . . . 
When I was twenty-two my father died, and 
shortly after, the two young women that my 
mother had taken as wives for two of my 
brothers, died, within twenty days. My brothers 
then said that my mother's familiar spirit was a 
harmful one, and that they would no longer live 
in the house with it. The two elder boys went 
away and became the sons of a well-to-do kins- 
man; the third set up housekeeping apart from 
us; and the youngest hired himself out to a 
petty official. My mother was greatly distressed 

♦ Jas. IV, 7. 



90 DEMON-POSSESSION 

by all this, and thought she would try to rid 
herself of her possessor; but the demon told her 
that if she tried to evict him she would be the 
worse for it; and she then dared to do nothing 
for her own salvation." 

Then follows a long account of the manner in 
which the family heard of Christianity which 
they finally embraced. Then the story proceeds 
as follows: "As the Holy Spirit entered my 
mother's heart the demon went out. When she 
knew about the true God, and trusted in Jesus, 
she no longer feared the demon, and when he 
came and agitated her heart and twisted her 
muscles, she prayed to God till the demon left 
her. The idols were all put out of the house, 
and the other members of the family began to 
believe. 

All the neighbors protested against my 
mother's ceasing to interpret the will of the 
gods to them. When they saw that my brother 
Po-hing and I were determined to be Christians 
they urged my mother to separate from us, and 
continue her old occupation. But we held to 
our mother, and finally brought her heart and 
all with us. We have less money than we had 
when my mother was a spirit-medium; but we 
have what is worth more than money, a knowl- 
edge of the truth, and the joy that comes from 
the consciousness that we are in the way to 
Heaven 



FURTHER COMMUNICATION 91 

The familiar spirit troubles my mother no 
more. Every member of our household is a be- 
liever, and several of our neighbors come to our 
house for Sunday worship." 

At the end of the above translation Miss 
Field adds the following remarks: 

"This old woman, named Lotus, was, when I 
first saw her, the least hope-inspiring of all the 
women who have come under my instruction. 
Her son and daughter had urged her to come out 
here to see me, hoping I might lead her to the 
Saviour, but not daring to present other motives 
for her coming than that of "seeing the Teacher- 
ess' pretty foreign pictures and furniture." She 
came with them, saying she did not care about 
hearing any preaching, but as she had not been 
away from home for a long time she would go 
and see the Teacheress. She seemed such a 
wreck as a demon might make of a woman. 
Her hands shook so that she could scarcely hold 
a book; her head vibrated incessantly from 
palsy; and her split tongue, slashed often in her 
frenzies to draw blood for medicine, appeared 
like a forked one, about to fly out of her mouth 
as she talked. Her mind was completely satu- 
rated with heathenism. I wondered whether 
the rays of Divine light would ever penetrate the 
great depth of paganism in which her soul was 
sunk; and whether they would ever so quicken 
it that it would burst the tangled coils of the 



93 DEMON-POSSESSION 

superstitions which bound it. That was three 
years a^o. To-day that old woman is a Chris- 
tian, singularly quick in apprehending the high- 
est spiritual truths, and with a great love for 
the Bible, which she delights in reading to her- 
self and others. 

"Had I stood beside the Lord in Judea when 
he healed the demoniac that raged among the 
tombs, and with my mortal eyes had seen that 
man sitting at the feet of Jesus, clothed and in 
his right mind, the miracle would have appeared 
to me no greater than this one, and no more truly 
the work of His hand." (Swatow, China, 1880.) 

My readers will probably think that the cases 
of supposed demon-possession already given are 
quite sufficient for a fair presentation of the 
whole subject, and that a continuation of these 
cases, which might be indefinitely multiplied, 
would be not only useless, but monotonous and 
wearisome. 

As some persons, however, may be specially 
interested in further details, and especially in 
new phases of these phenomena, other cases 
from our Shantung stations and other places in 
North China, may be found in the Appendix. 
These coming from familiar acquaintances, who 
could be questioned and cross-questioned, are 
specially accompanied with circumstantial de- 
tails. Similar facts and experiences from other 
eastern nations, and from European nations, are 



FURTHER COMMUNIC/iTIONS 93 



given in the chapters immediately following. 
Before closing this chapter I think it well to 
make some reference to the experience and testi- 
mony of Roman Catholic missionaries in China, 
on this subject. It would not be difficult to 
multiply evidence from this source to almost any 
extent. I will content myself with introducing 
an extract from the letter of D. M. St. Martin, 
a translation of which was kindly sent me by 
S. Wells WilHams LL.D. This communication 
is important, as showing how common supposed 
cases of demon-possession were in China more 
then half a century ago; and how missionaries of 
the Romish church dealt with them. 

TRANSLATION. 

"Experience moreover has proved that relig- 
ion spreads the more it is persecuted. Those 
who had no knowledge of this before, astonished 
at the faithfulness and intrepidity of the con- 
fessors of this faith, acknowledged at least that 
there was in it something more than human. 
They then longed to be instructed in the truth. 
As simply as possible were taught to them the 
doctrines of the gospel ; and with the same sim- 
plicity they believed. 

Strongest of proofs for them was the fact, al- 
ways remaining, of the Christian's power over 
demons. It is amazing how much these poor 
infidels are tormented by them. From them 



94 DEMON-POSSESSION 

they can discover no remedy save in the prayers 
of the Christians, by whose assistance they are 
delivered and converted. I am at this moment 
awaiting the outcome of an event that bids fair 
to turn to the advantage of religion. There is 
at a distance of seven or eight leagues from here 
the home of certain pagans which, during a 
month past, has been infested with demons. 
They maltreat all there who oppose them, and 
have been seen from time to time setting the 
house on fire; so that the wretched occupants 
are kept ever on the alert. They have had re- 
course to all kinds of superstition; having called 
upon their Bonzes, who are the priests of the 
country; but the Bonzes could do naught. The 
pater fauiilias^ at whose house we reside, pro- 
posed to go thither; and upon accepting his sug- 
gestion I gave him what instruction was neces- 
sary, and he went He is a man of most admir- 
able faith. He was converted some five or six 
months ago, and has himself converted all his 
family, which is an unusually large one. He 
has worked many marvelous cures, saying to the 
sick: 'Believe, and thou shalt be made whole,' 
and this practice is usually attended with suc- 
cess. He has already been persecuted for the 
faith, and borne his sufferings with the greatest 
constancy. My trust in God's compassion is 
such that I know his journey will be a perfect 
success." 

Letters of D. M. Saint Martin. 



CHAPTER VIII 

DEMON-POSSESSION IN INDIA, JAPAN AND OTHER 
LANDS. 

The "Contemporary Review," February, 1876, 
contains an article from the pen of a well-known 
English missionary in India, the Rev. Robert C. 
Cardwell, D.D., now missionary bishop, which 
gives the observations and conclusions of one 
who is well qualified to speak on this subject. 
The article is entitled "Demonolatry, Devil 
Dancing, and Demoniacal Possession." Ex- 
tracts only can be given here, as the paper is too 
long to be presented entire. 

Dr. Cardwell says: ** I have examined several 
of the phases of modern devil worship, but must 
confess that I am in a state of considerable per- 
plexity. I daresay I have seen almost as much 
of the ciiltiLS of evil spirits in the East as any 
living man has; but still, although I am far from 
being credulous, I should like to be convinced 
fully and finally of the unreality of several of the 
manifestations and phenomena which have come 
before my notice. . . . 

"I write of that I have seen. And I ask calmly 
95 



96 DEMON-POSSESSION 

and advisedly, the strange startling question: 
Does devil-possession, in the sense i7i which it 
is referred to in the New Testament, exist at 
this present time amongst the least eivilized of 
the nations of the globe? I have met several men 
of the widest learning, and deepest experience, 
who never would answer me fully and frankly 
this question. It is one of the easiest things in 
the world to sneer at the very mention of such a 

proposition 

"At the outset of this enquiry a question arises 
which in itself is open to endless argument: 
What was the nature of demoniacal possession 
in the time of our Lord and Saviour Jesus Christ? 
No doubt the simplest answer would be an abso- 
lute negation of the premise, by affirming that 
there never was such a thing as devils entering 
into men, and indeed that devils do not exist. 
Into such a realm of controversy it is impossible 
for me to follow the reasoner. 1 am a Christian 
in my fixed beliefs, and credit the plain sense 
of the sacred narrative. The God incarnate 
cast out demons who seem to have done their 
best to become themselves incarnate. Evil 
spirits dwelt in the bodies of men and exercised 
tyrannical influence over their victims. By the 
mouths of men they spoke, though with them 
they could not become corporate. They had 
the power of inflicting bodily punishment. They 
rent some; others they made to gnash v/ith their 



DEMON-POSSESSION IN INDIA 97 

teeth. They hurried them hither and thither. 
They bore them away from the society of their 
fellows. They hurled living beings headlong to 
self-destruction. In a word they appear to have 
had a distinct spiritual personality. If I believe 
rightly it was not merely hysteria, epilepsy, 
mania, or various kinds of raving madness that 
Christ cured; He 'cast out evil spirits' which 
had 'taken possession' of the bodies of men. 
These spirits were the emissaries of Satan ; as 
God He had power over them and prevailed. 
This appears to me to be part of a Gospel which 
is not against, but beyond reason, and must as 
such be humbly received. 

"But let my view be ever so incorrect, it only 
partially affects my main argument. I contend 
that it appears that certain demonolators of the 
present day, as far as the outward evidence of 
their affliction goes, display as plain signs of 
demoniacal possession as ever were displayed 
eighteen hundred years ago. I hold that — as 
far as sense can be trusted, and history relied 
upon — several peyadis, or devil- dancers, could 
be produced to-morrow in Southern India, who, 
as far as can be ascertained, are as truly possessed 
of evil agencies as was the man who was forced 
by the fiends within him to howl that he was 
not himself, but that his name was Legion. Not 
a few of the persons I refer to are, on ordinary 
occasions calm. They have their avocations, 

7 Demon 



98 DEMON-POSSESSION 

and often pursue them diligently. Sometimes 
they have their wives and children; they possess 
their inherited hut, small plantation garden, well, 
and score of palmyras. They eschew bhang as 
a rule, and the juice of the poppy, and arrack. 
They are quiet, sleepy men and women who oc- 
cupy much of their time in staring over the yel- 
low drifting sands at the quailflocks, as they flit 
hither and thither, or at the gaunt solitary wolves 
which skulk under the shade of thorny thickets, 
waiting for an unwary goat to pass by. But 
evening draws near; the sunset reddens over 
the Ghauts; the deep mellow notes of the wood- 
pigeons grow fainter, and they cease; fire-flies 
twinkle out; great bats flap by lazily overhead; 
then comes the dull tuck of the tom-tom; the 
fire before the rustic devil-temple is lit; the 
crowd gathers and waits for the priest. He is 
there! His lethargy has been thrown aside, the 
laugh of the fiend is in his mouth. He stands 
before the people, the oracle of the demon, the 
devil-possessed!, . . . He believes he is pos- 
sessed of the local demon whom he continually 
treats just as if it were a divinity; and the peo- 
ple believe in his hallucination. They shudder, 
they bow, they pray, they worship. The devil- 
dancer is not drunk; he has eschewed arrack, 
and is not suffering from the effects of Ganja, 
abin mayakham, as the Tamil poet calls it. 
He has not been seized with epilepsy; the se- 



DEMON-POSSESSION IN INDIA 99 

quel shows that. He is not attacked with a fit 
of hysteria; although within an hour after he has 
begun his dancing, half of his audience are 
thoroughly hysterical. He can scarcely be mad, 
for the moment the dance is over he speaks 
sanely, and quietly and calmly. What is it 
then? You ask him. He simply answers: 'The 
devil seized me, sir. ' You ask the bystanders. 
They simply answer: 'The devil must have 
seized him.' What is the most reasonable in- 
ference to draw from all this? Of one thing I 
am assured — the devil-dancer never 'shams' ex- 
citement Whether this be devil-posses- 
sion or not, I cannot help remarking that it ap- 
pears to me that it would certainly have been 
regarded as such in New Testament times. It 
is an extremely difficult thing for a European to 
witness a devil-dance. As a rule he must go 
disguised, and he must be able to speak the 
language like a native, before he is likely to be 
admitted into the charmed circle of fascinated 
devotees, each eager to press near the possessed 
priest, to ask him questions about the future, 
whilst the divine afflatus is in its full force upon 
him." (See Virgil's account of the Sibyl, p. 430.) 

The author closes a long and graphic descrip- 
tion of the phenomena of devil-dancing in the 
following words: 

"Shrieks, vows, imprecations, prayers, and 
exclamations of thankful praise rise up all blended 



100 DEMON-POSSESSION 

together in one infernal hub-bub. Above all rise 
the ghastly gutteral laughter of the devil-dancer, 
and his stentorian howls: 'I am God! I am 
the only true God!' He cuts and hacks and 
hews himself, and not very infrequently kills 
himself then and there. His answers to the 
queries put to him are generally incoherent. 
Sometimes he is sullenly silent, and sometimes 
whilst the blood from his self-inflicted wounds 
mingles freely with that of his sacrifice, he is 
most benign, and showers his divine favors of 
health and prosperity all round him. Hours 
pass by. The trembling crowd stand rooted to 
the spot. Suddenly the dancer gives a great 
bound in the air. When he descends he is mo- 
tionless. The fiendish look has vanished from 
his eyes. His demoniacal laughter is still. He 
speaks to this and to that neighbor quietly and 
reasonably. He lays aside his garb, washes his 
face at the nearest rivulet and, walks soberly 

home a modest well-conducted man 

"After all has been said and described, the 
prime question remains: Do there exist in the 
present day such instances of demoniacal pos- 
session as those which elicited the marvelous in- 
tervention of Christ.? If the case now-a-days of 
the demonolators of Southern India differs from 
that of the Hebrews, who in the time of Christ 
were possessed with devils, will any one point 
out to me the exact bound and limit of the differ- 



DEMON-POSSESSION IN INDU 101 

ence ? The question I raise is surely one which 
Christians of all creeds may fairly and calmly 
consider and argue. Is there such a thing as 
'demoniacal possession' in the present day, 
amongst barbarous and uncivilized tribes? And 
if it does exist, does it materially differ from the 
kindred afflictions which the Great Physician, 
in His infinite mercy, deigned to cure, whilst He 
walked as Man amongst men?" 

An article in the "Nineteenth Century," Oc- 
tober, 1880, on "Demoniacal Possessions in In- 
dia," by W. Knighton, Esq., is interesting and 
important as giving the views and observations 
of an English official in India. Here again we 
have room only for the following extracts: 

"In conversation with an intelligent Talukdar, 
Abdul-kurim by name, when I was a magistrate 
in Oudh, I learned that this Satanic or demonia- 
cal possession was commonly believed in not 
only by the peasantry of Hindustan proper, but 
also by the higher classes, the nobility, and 
learned proprietors. . . . 

"The exorcists have their own method of pro- 
cedure, but violence and the infliction of pain to 
cast out the devils are the most common. When 
the cure is not effected, the devil is said to be 
vicious and obstinate. Then severe beating 
is resorted to, and in some instances cotton wicks 
soaked in oil are lighted and stuffed up the nos- 
trils, etc. . . . Both Hindus and Mohamme- 



103 DEMON-POSSESSION 

dans resort to the Dongah at Ghonspore, bring- 
ing with them their afflicted relations to be ex- 
orcised — idiots, lunatics, hysterical patients, all 
are brought; for the ignorant villagers class 
them all under the same category; they are all 
equally possessed with devils, and Ghonspore is 
the place to have the demons cast out. Cures 
must of course sometimes be effected or the 
superstition could not survive; cures doubtless 
the result of the action of pain or unwonted ex- 
citement to diseased nerves. Faith in Ghons- 
pore and its efficacy in the cure of the possessed 
with devils is spread all over the adjoining 
country." 

In the article from which the above extracts 
are taken, Mr. Knighton gives a detailed account 
of a case which he examined into particularly. 

It was that of a young woman named Melata, 
the wife of a man named Ahir, who was a culti- 
vator in the employ of Abdul-Kurim above men- 
tioned, Mr. Knighton said he saw the woman 
after the supposed exorcism of the devil. "A 
well formed, active, intelligent woman with large 
lustrous black eyes. When her father and 
mother died she sank into melancholy. Then 
it was that she became possessed. Neither she 
nor her husband had any doubt of the fact. . . 
"I conversed with several villagers on the subject. 
Possession by an evil spirit was plain to all of 
them, and the old hag, her enemy, who lived 



DEMON-POSSESSION IN INDIA 103 

opposite to her, was accused as the cause. . . 
She became morbid, sullen, taciturn. At length 
her disease culminated in dumbness. 

"The woman was taken to the shrine at Ghons- 
pore and treated at first by beating, questioning, 
and enchantments; but all in vain. Then 'by 
the ojah's command, ' said Gemganarain, 'I tied 
her hands behind her. I tied her feet. Cotton 
wicks steeped in oil were prepared. They were 
lighted and stuffed up her nostrils and into her 
ears. It cured her. It drove out the devil. 
She shrieked and spoke. She was convulsed 
and became insensible. She is well now. The 
devil has left her. And it was true. In three 
days she returned with me; and the old hag 
died; and she has been well ever since. The 
darkness of hell was in our home before; now 
we have the light of heaven.' All the villagers 
confirm this; none more readily than Melata 
herself." (See p.p. 193-4 in this volume.) 

In a visit to Japan in the summer of 1890 I 
found on inquiry that the beliefs and experiences 
of the natives of Japan with regard to demon- 
possession are not unlike those of the Chinese. 
I had a conversation and some correspondence 
with one of the professors in the Imperial Uni- 
versity in Tokyo, who is making a special in- 
vestigation of this subject, and we may hope 
that the results of his enquiries will be made 
known to the public at no distant date. In the 



104 DEMON-POSSESS/ON 

meantime we have some very interesting state- 
ments relating to demonology in a recent work 
entitled "Things Japanese," by Basil Hall Cham- 
berlain, professor of Japanese and Philology in 
the Imperial University of Japan. It was pub- 
lished in 1 890, 

Professor Chamberlain says : " Chinese notions 

concerning the superhuman power of the fox, 
and in a lesser degree of the badger and the dog, 
entered Japan during the early Middle Ages. 
One or two mentions of the magic foxes occur 
in the Uji Jui, a story of the eleventh century, 
and since that time the belief has spread, and 
grown, till there is not an old woman in the land 
— or, for the matter of that, not a man either — 
who has not a circumstantial fox story to relate, 
as having happened to some one who is at least 
an acquaintance to an acquaintance. . . The 
name of such tales is legion. More curious and 
interesting is the power with which these demon 
foxes are credited of taking up their abode in 
human beings in a manner similar to the pheno- 
mena of possession by evil spirits so often re- 
ferred to in the New Testament. Dr. Baelz, of 
the Imperial University of Japan, who has had 
special opportunities for studying these cases in 
the hospital under his charge, has kindly com- 
municated to us some remarks, of which the fol- 
lowing is a resume : 

"Possession by foxes (kitsuni-tsuki) is a form 



DEMON-POSSESSION IN INDM 105 

of nervous disorder or delusion not uncommonly 
observed in Japan. Having entered the human 
being, sometimes through the breast, more often 
through the space between the finger nails and 
the flesh, the fox lives a life of his own, apart 
from the proper self of the person who is harbor- 
ing him. There thus results a sort of double 
entity or double consciousness. The person 
possessed hears and understands everything that 
the fox inside says or thinks, and the two often 
engage in a loud and violent dispute, the fox 
speaking in a voice altogether different from that 
which is natural to the individual. The only 
difference between the cases of possession men- 
tioned in the Bible and those observed in Japan 
is that it is almost exclusively women that are 
attacked, mostly women of the lower classes. 
Among the predisposing conditions may be men- 
tioned a weak intellect, a superstitious turn of 
mind, and such debilitating diseases, as for in- 
stance, typhoid fever. Possession never occurs 
except in such subjects as have heard of it al- 
ready and believe in the reality of its existence. 
"To mention one among several cases. I was 
once called in to a girl with typhoid fever. She 
recovered; but during her convalescence, she 
heard the women around her talk of another 
woman who had a fox and who would doubtless 
do her best to pass it on to some one else in 
order to get rid of it. At that moment the girl 



106 DEMON-POSSSESION 

experienced an extraordinary sensation. The 
fox had taken possession of her. All her efforts 
to get rid of him were vain. 'He is coming! he 
is coming!' she would cry as a fit of the fox 
drew near. 'Oh! what shall I do? Here he is.' 
And then in a strange, dry, cracked voice the 
fox would speak, and mock his unfortunate host- 
ess. Thus matters continued for three weeks, 
till a priest of the Nichiren sect was sent for. 
The priest upbraided the fox sternly. The fox, 
(always of course speaking through the girl's 
mouth) argued on the other side. At last he said 
'I am tired of her. I ask no better than to leave 
her. What will you give me for doing so.^' 
The priest asked what he would take. The fox 
replied, naming certain cakes and other things, 
which, said he, must be placed before the altar 
of such and such a temple, at 4 p. M. on such 
and such a day. The girl was conscious of the 
words her lips were made to frame but was 
powerless to say anything in her own person. 
When the day and hour arrived, the offerings 
bargained for were taken by her relatives to the 
place indicated, and the fox quitted the girl at 
that very hour." 

Dr. Baelz' theory for eitplaining these phe- 
nomena will be given in a subsequent chapter. 

While the guest of Dr. D. B. McCartee, in 
Tokyo, July 23, 1890, I had a conversation on 
this subject with his scribe and literary assistant 



DEMON-POSSESSION IN INDIA 107 

whose name is Ga-ma-no uchi. He stated that 
he had heard of no cases of demon-possession in 
Tokyo, but that they were not infrequent in his 
home in Ki shiu, in the district Wa-ka-ya maken. 
He gave in detail a case he knew, of a boy about 
fourteen years old named Mo-ri Sa-no ki-chi, 
possessed as was asserted by a person calling 
himself by a name which Mr. Ga-ma-no uchi had 
forgotten, whose home was in Sendai. Mr. Ga- 
ma-no uchi said that he held long conversations 
with this new personality, who described accur- 
ately his former home Sendai, which place the 
boy had never visited. The boy was some- 
times his original self, and at other times the 
new personality spoke through him There 
were not two co-existing personalities, (the boy 
and the supposed spirit conversing together) but 
only one personality at a time. When a phy- 
sician was called, the boy often resumed his 
original consciousness. He was cured by priests 
who held a service over him, upbraiding the 
spirit and commanding it to leave. The spirit 
promised to leave on condition of certain offer- 
ings being made. When they were made • the 
boy Mo-riSa-no ki-chi, was restored to con- 
sciousness, and by degrees gained his strength 
and became well again, 

Mr. Ga-ma-no uchi is a man of intelligence 
and literary culture, and by profession a phy- 
sician. When asked how he explained these 



108 DEMON-POSSESSION 

facts and conversations, he replied that they 
might be explained by either of the three follow- 
ing hypotheses. 

1. Fever and brain excitement. 

2. Nervous disorder or insanity. 

3. Being frightened, excited, and deceived 
by the priests. 

When asked how the boy knew about a place 
he had never visited he said that the boy's ac- 
counts were only true in general, and not in 
minute particulars, and that he might have 
learned what he knew from studying geography. 

It may be observed here that Mr. Ga-ma-no 
uchi's testimony respecting demon-possession 
in Japan differs from that of Dr. Baelz as re- 
gards sex, the fox, and a double personality. 

Additional cases of a similar character might 
be obtained to an indefinite extent from semi- 
civilized nations of the past and present. A full 
and interesting compilation of facts on this and 
kindred subjects may be found in Dorman's 
"Origin of Primitive Superstitions," and Tylor's 
"Primitive Culture." These authors give not 
only facts but theories to account for them. It is 
sufficient to state here that the facts given in the 
above mentioned volumes correspond through- 
out to those presented in the preceding chap- 
ters; showing the remarkable uniformity which, 
notwithstanding variations in minor particu- 
lars, resulting from race peculiarities and differ- 



DEMON-POSSESSION IN INDIA 10*.) 

encG of culture, have characterised these mani- 
festations always and everywhere. 

Some of the facts collected by Dr. Tylor will 
appear incidentally in a subsequent chapter, in 
considering his theories for accounting for these 
facts. 

Rev. J. Leighton Wilson, D. D., formerly a 
missionary in Africa, in speaking of demon-pos- 
session in that land, says: "Demoniacal posses- 
sions are common, and the feats performed by 
those who are supposed to be under such influ- 
ences are certainly not unlike those described in 
the New Testament."* 

Rev. Thaddeus McRae, author of "Lectures 
on Satan," quoting the testimony of a late mis- 
sionary in India, says: "The Rev. Dr. Ramsey 
remarks in his work *A Satanic Delusion,' that 
the most of our missionaries in the heathen world 
have witnessed such scenes as correspond very 
well with the Scriptural account of demoniacal 
possessions, and if they are not in reality de- 
moniacal possessions, it will be very difficult to 
account for them on any other theory. He gives 
some cases, and adds that 'the Christians who 
have witnessed them, so far as I have known 
their views, agree in regarding them as veritable 
possessions. ' Dr. Ramsey cites the testimony 
of other missionaries to the same effect. "f 



* Western Africa p. 217. 
t Lectures on Satan, p. 138. 



1 10 DEMON-POSSESSION 

In January, 1883, in a lecture upon Zollner, 
showing him to be "a Biblical demonologist," 
Joseph Cook spoke as follows: 

"Prof. Phelps has published an article with 
the title: 'Ought the Pulpit to ignore Spiritual- 
ism?' and his answer is 'No.'* I showed that 
article to no less a man than Prof. Christlieb, 
who brought it back to me and said: 'I endorse 
every word of it.' I have heard him teach his 
own theological students that demoniacal posses- 
sion is a modern fact. I am giving his opinion, 
not mine. 'Keep your eyes open,' he said to 
me, 'and when you are in India study the topics 
of magic and sorcery, and demonaical possession. 
Ask veteran missionaries whether they do not 
think there is something like demonaical posses- 
sion on the earth to-day .-' 1 have done that, and I 
have found that about seven out of ten of these 
acutest students of paganism do believe in de- 
moniacal possession, and affirm that they can 
distinguish cases of it from nervous disease. 
About three out of ten have told me that such 
cases collapse on investigation. "t 

* See My Portfolio, (p, 150). By Austin Phelps, D. D. 
C. Scribner's Sons. N. Y. 1882. 

f See Occident, (p. 143). By Joseph Cook. Boston. H. M 
& Co. 18S4. 



CHAPTER IX. 

DEMON-POSSESSION IN CHRISTIAN COUNTRIES. 

The phenomena we have been considering are 
certainly rarely met with in western and nomi- 
nally Christian lands. But though rare they 
are not wholly wanting. Perhaps they may be 
more common than is generally supposed. 

A remarkable case of what was regarded as 
"possession" by demons is given in the "Biogra- 
phy of Rev. John Christopher Blumhardt" pub- 
lished in Germany in 1880. 

Blumhardt was born in 1805 and died in 1880. 
His first pastorate was in Iptingen in Wiirtem- 
berg, then in Mottlingen, also in Wiirtemberg. 
At the latter place he became famous for his 
"prayer cures," relieving applicants not only 
from physical ills, but especially from spiritual 
and mental disorders of various kinds, and all 
and only by prayer. 

Among other cases brought to him for healing 
was that of Gottliebin Dittus who was believed 
to be possessed of demons. The account of this 
case, and the manner and success of the treat- 
ment, occupies forty-five pages of the memoir, 
111 



113 DEMON'FOSSHSSION 

After he had cured Gottliebin Dittus, com- 
plaints were made to the government against 
Blumhardt, averring that he dealt in magic arts, 
etc. In his own defence he then wrote a pam- 
phlet giving all the facts in the case. 

The department of Public Worship, Instruc- 
tion, etc., after investigation decided that Blum- 
hardt was blameless, and expressed itself satis- 
fied of his piety, and the simple means he em- 
ployed in effecting Gottliebin's cure. 

I am indebted to the late Theodore Christlieb, 
D.D., Ph.D., Professor of Theology, and Univer- 
sity Preacher, Bonn, Prussia, for calling my at- 
tention to this case; and to a German friend for 
the selection and translation into English of the 
extracts which follow. 

"Gottliebin Dittus was a young unmarried 
woman belonging to the laboring class. At the 
first meal after removing to Mottlingen in Wiir- 
temberg, while the blessing in the words, "Come 
Lord Jesus, be our guest, "was being pronounced 
a sudden rusthng noise was heard, as though 
made by a woman's dress, and Gottliebin fell 
senseless to the floor. She is described as sickly, 
shy, and not prepossessing in her appearance, 
and as very religious. When Blumhardt first 
prayed with her, and she folded her hands to ac- 
company him, her hands were suddenly torn 
apart, as she said, by some external force. She 
told Blumhardt that she saw a vision of a woman 



IN CHRISTIAN COUNTRIES 113 

with a dead child in her arms (a person who had 
been dead two years), who said, 'I want rest,' 
and, 'Give me a piece of paper; and I will not 
come again. ' Blumhardt advised Gottliebin not 
to hold any conversation with the apparition, 
nor accede to its demands. He then requested 
a woman to sleep with Gottliebin. This woman 
also heard noises, etc. 

"A committee of prominent citizens, including 
the Burgomaster and Blumhardt, made a 
thorough investigation. Persons were stationed 
all around the house and in the various rooms, 
and several in Gottliebin's chamber. Noises 
were heard which gradually increased in vio- 
lence. They were heard by all the watchers, 
and seemed to concentrate in Gottliebin's room. 
Chairs sprang up, windows rattled, plaster fell 
from the ceiling, etc. When prayer was offered 
the noises increased. Nothing was discovered 
to account for these manifestations. 

"The young woman was then removed to an- 
other house to live with a family. Noises etc., 
continued for a while in the house where she 
formerly lived, and then commenced in that to 
which she had been removed. Every time she 
saw the vision she fell into convulsions, which 
sometimes lasted as long as four hours. 

"One evening several persons besides Blum- 
hardt being in her room while she had convul- 
sions, he conceived a sudden purpose: 'I stepped 

8 Devion 



114 DEMON-POSSESSION 

resolutely forward, ' he says, 'grasped her firmly 
by both hands, and with a loud voice calling her 
by name, I said: 'Put your hands together and 
pray Lord Jesus help me. We have seen long 
enough what the devil can do. Now we will see 
what Jesus can do!' She spoke the words, and 
immediately all convulsions ceased. This hap- 
pened several times. She often made a threat- 
ening motion to strike Blumhardt, when he pro- 
nounced the name Jesus. After recovering con- 
sciousness she invariably said she had no recol- 
lection of what had happened. Every time 
Blumhardt visited her he took with him promi- 
nent citizens, the mayor, physicians, and others, 
all of whom corroborate everything he says. 
Another time when he invoked the name of 
Jesus the patient shivered, and a voice proceeded 
from her entirely different from her own, which 
was recognized by those in the room as that of 
the aforesaid widow, saying: 'That name I 
cannot bear.' Blumhardt questioned the spirit 
as follows: 'Have you no rest in the grave?' 
It answered: 'No.' 'Why.^' 'On account of 
my evil deeds.' 'Did you not confess all to me 
when you died?' 'No; I murdered two chil- 
dren, and buried them secretly.' 'Can you not 
pray to Jesus?' 'No; I cannot bear that name. ' 
'Are you alone?' 'No.' 'Who is with you?' 
'The worst of all. ' 
"On a subsequent visit the mayor received a 



IN CHRISTIAN COUNTRIES 115 

blow as if from an unseen hand. Blumhardt, how- 
ever, though threatened, was himself never 
touched. 

"On one occasion after prayer, which was con- 
tinued longer than usual, the demon suddenly 
broke forth in the following words: 'All is now 
lost. Our plans are destroyed. You have shat- 
tered our bond, and put everything into confu- 
sion. You with your everlasting prayers — you 
scatter us entirely. We are 1,067 ^^ number; 
but there are still multitudes of living men, and 
you should warn them lest they be like us for- 
ever lost and cursed of God. ' The demons at- 
tributed their misfortunes to Blumhardt, and in 
the same breath cursed him and bemoaned their 
own vicious lives; all the time ejaculating: 
'Oh, if only there were no God in heaven!' 

"Blumhardt held conversations with several 
of the demons, one of whom proclaimed himself 
a perjurer, and yelled again and again : 'Oh 
man think of eternity. Waste not the time of 
mercy; for the day of judgment is at hand.' 
These demons spoke in all the different Euro- 
pean languages, and in some which Blumhardt 
and others present did not recognize. 

"The end came between the second and twen- 
ty-eighth of December, 1843. After continued 
fasting and prayer on the part of Blumhardt, the 
demons seemed gradually to forsake Gottliebin, 
and instead took possession of her sister and 



116 DEMON.POSSESSION 

brother. The first struggle took place in the 
person of her sister Catherine, who at times was 
possessed of such super-human strength that it 
took several men to hold her. One night after 
hours of prayer Blumhardt commanded the 
demon to come forth, when a fearful outcry was 
heard by hundreds of people penetrating to a 
great distance, and the demon avowed himself 
an emissary of Satan, The struggle lasted all 
night, and then yelling: 'Jesus is victor' the 
demon departed. After this time the three 
persons afflicted had no recurrence of the 'pos- 
session. ' Gottliebin's health was restored. 
Several physicians testify that a deformed limb 
and other maladies which they had attempted in 
vain to relieve her of, were suddenly cured." 

The book states that three men who witnessed 
the phenomena, including two sons of Blum- 
hardt, were still living (in 1880), and could tes- 
tify to the truth of the statements above made. 

W. Griesinger, M.D., Professor of Clinical 
Medicine and of Mental Science in the Univer- 
sity of Berlin : Honorary Member of the Medico- 
Psychological Association: Membre Associe 
Etranger De La Society Medico-Psychologique 
de Paris, etc. etc., gives in his work entitled 
"Mental Pathology and Therapeutics" a descrip- 
tion of cases in Germany of what he calls De- 
mono-melancholia and Demonomania. He gives 



IN CHRISTUN COUNTRIES 117 

also references to still more numerous cases of 
the same kind in France.* The extracts which 
follow are taken from pages 1 68— 171 of the 
American edition of the above named work, pub- 
lished in New York by William Wood & Co., 
1882. 

The English translators, C. Lockhart Robert- 
son, M. D. Cantab, and James Rutherford, M. 
D. Edin. give their estimate of Professor Gries- 
inger as a medical authority, and of the char- 
acter of the book translated in these words: "Pro- 
fessor Griesinger is essentially the representative, 
and the acknowledged leader, of the modern 
German school of Medical Psychology. As such 
his work must be an object of deep interest to 
every student in Medical Science." 

Extracts : " In the vast majority of cases those 
religious delusions of the melancholic are to be 
regarded as symptoms merely of an already ex- 
isting disease, and not as the causes of the affec- 
tions. 

"The symptoms are also similar in that interest- 
ing form of melancholia in which the sentiment 
of being governed and overcome manifests itself 
in the idea of demoniacal posession,the so-called 
demono-melancholia which is met with in all 

*M. Macario, "Etudes cliniques sur la D^monomanie," 'Annal 
M^d, Psychol, ' i, 1843, p. 400; Esquirol, translated by Bernhard, 
i, p. 380. See also on this subject — Calmeil, 'De la Folia,' 
Paris 1845, i p. 85; Albers Archiv. f. Physiol. Heilk, XIll 1854, 

6224; Portal, 'Mem. sur plusiers Maladies,' II, p. 110; Moreau, 
u Hachich,' etc. pp. 336 and 354; Baillarger, 'Annal. Med. 
Psychol. 'VI, p. 152; Schutzenberger, ib. VIII, p. 261. 



118 DEMON-POSSESSION 

countries (in France particularly it is by no 
means rare) and of which recently in our own 
country, ignorance and the grossest superstition 
have used to the worst ends. 

"In this form this foreign evil power, by which 
the patient imagines himself to be governed, 
assumes different demoniacal shapes, according 
to the prevailing superstitions and beliefs of the 
epoch and country (devils, witches, etc. )to which, 
as he may probably at the same time experience 
some abnormal sensations in different parts of 
his body, a very limited seat is assigned by the 
patient, sometimes one half of his body, some- 
times his head, his back, or his chest, etc. It is 
not uncommon to see along with this, convul- 
sions of the voluntary muscles, contractions of 
the larynx which alter the voice in a striking 
manner, anaesthesia of different important or- 
gans, hallucinations of sight and hearing. This 
delirium is at times accompanied with intermit- 
tent paroxysms of violent convulsions, evidently 
analogous to epileptic, or still more frequently 
to hysterical attacks, which are separated by in- 
tervals of perfect lucidity." 

"Since the publication of the first edition of 
this work I have had the opportunity of studying 
several cases of demonomania in various stages, 
of which I shall here give two interesting ex- 
amples. * 

* The theory adopted by Prof. Griesinger. to account for the facts of 
the cases which be adduces, is consideied in a subsequent chapter. 



IN CHRISTI/iN COUNTRIES 119 

"Example XV. Attacks of mental disorder, 
occurring every two or three days, presenting 
particularly the character of ideas of opposition . 
M — S — , a peasant, at fifty-four, had, when 
twenty-two years of age every night for three 
months, an attack of violent nightmare and hal- 
lucinations of hearing When she was be- 
tween thirty and forty years of age there gradu- 
ally appeared a disease occurring in paroxysms, 
attacks occurred every two or three days, and 
in the interval the patient was perfectly well. 
They commenced with pains in the head, loins 
and neck; palpitation, anxiety, great exhaus- 
tion; occasionally symptoms of globus and hys- 
terical convulsions. She was obliged to lie in 
bed, became completely apathetic, could no 
longer connect her thoughts, and there was mani- 
fested as a mental anomaly, an internal contradic- 
tion against her own thoughts and conclusions 
— a constant immediate opposition against all 
which she thought and did. An inward voice 
which she, however, did not hear in her ear, op- 
posed everything which she herself would do 
(for example, even against the mere lying in 
bed, which her condition renders necessary), 
especially, however, against all elevation of the 
sentiments — praying, etc. The voice is always 
wicked when the patient would do good, and 
sometimes calls to her, but without being heard 
pj^terngilly: **Take a knife and kill yoiirself." 



120 DEMON-POSSESSION 



The patient, who is a clever woman, says on this 
subject, that she almost believes that a strange 
being, a demon, is within her, so certain is she 
that it is not herself who does this. I took the 
patient into the clinique at Tiibingen, and there 
had frequent opportunities of observing the at- 
tacks. During them she seemed much heated, 
congested, had an obscure and confused expres- 
sion, was not feverish (temperature normal). 
The attack lasted from twenty-four to forty-eight 
hours. On one occasion at the commencement, 
when the head was much congested, venesection 
to a small amount was performed, which only 
temporarily relieved her. 

''''Example XVI . Chronic demonomania. C. 
S — , an unmarried peasant, at forty-eight, vol- 
untarily presented herself at the clinique, be- 
cause she was possessed by spirits. Her father 
became a little strange as he advanced in years; 
her sister and sister's son are insane. The 
patient had a child at the age of nineteen; she 
nursed it for three years, and fell into a state 
anaemia, with extended pains of the limbs, and 
sometimes convulsions. For a long time she 
had convulsive movements of the mouth. Three 
years after the first appearance of the disease 
(about thirteen years ago) 'the speaking out of 
her' commenced. From that moment, all kinds 
of thoughts and words were expressed uninten- 
tionally by the patient, and sometimes with a 



IN CHRISTIAN COUNTRIES 121 

voice different from her usual. At first it seems 
to have been not so much opposing, as quite in- 
different and even reasonable remarks which ac- 
companied the thoughts and language of the 
patient: for example "it" said: 'Go to the 
doctor, ' 'Go to the priest, ' or 'Thus, thus you 
must do it, ' etc. Gradually these indifferent 
remarks were succeeded by others more nega- 
tive, and at one time the voice sometimes simply 
confirms what is said by the patient, at another 
it derides and mocks it: for example when the 
patient says anything which is right, the voice 
says after her, 'You, that is a lie; you, that you 
must keep to yourself. ' The tone of the voice 
in this speaking of 'the spirit, ' is always some- 
what, sometimes entirely, different from the 
ordinary voice of the patient, and she looks upon 
the fact of her having another voice as a leading 
proof of the reality of the spirit. 'The spirit' 
often commences to speak with a deep bass 
voice, then passes to a pitch lower or higher 
than the ordinary tone of the patient; occasion- 
ally it passes into a sharp shrill cry, which is 
followed by a short ironical laugh. I have my- 
self often observed this. Besides these words 
spoken by "the spirit" the patient heard inwardly 
and almost incessantly, a great number of spirits 
speaking. Sometimes she had actual halluci- 
nations of hearing, but never of sight. Praying 
rendered the state which we have described still 



123 DEMON-POSSESSION 

worse; it increased the restlesness. In church, 
however, she could, from awe of the congrega- 
tion and clergyman, restrain the voice of the 
spirit; she could also read aloud from the prayer- 
book without being disturbed. Sometimes her 
discourse had a slight taint of nymphomania; 
she said that the spirit caused her to have ob- 
scene thoughts, and to express them. The patient 
never knows until it is spoken what the spirit 
would say. Sometimes the power of speech is 
altogether denied her for a certain time. In all 
the phenomena which we have described, the 
greatest and invariable uniformity prevailed, and 
her condition, which for a long time had been 
fixed and stationary, continued the same during 
the short period during which she was under 
treatment. 

'■'■Example XV 11. Convulsive attacks with 
ideas of possession, and plurality of the person- 
ality, of short duration, in a child. Margaret B — 
at eleven, of lively disposition, but a godly, pious 
child was on the nineteenth of January, 1829, 
without having been previously ill, seized with 
convulsive attacks, which continued with few 
and short intermissions for two days. The child 
remained unconscious so long as the convulsive 
attacks continued. She rolled her eyes, made 
grimaces, and performed all kinds of curious 
movements with her arms. On Monday, the 
twenty-first of January she assumed a deep bass 



/N CHRISTIAN COUNTRIES 183 



voice, and kept repeating the words *I pray 
earnestly for you!' When the girl came to her 
senses she felt tired and exhausted. She was 
perfectly unconscious of what had passed, and 
merely said that she had been dreaming. On 
the evening of the twenty-second of January 
another commenced to speak in a tone distinctly 
different from the aforementioned bass voice. 
This voice spoke almost without intermission as 
long as the crisis lasted, that is, for half hours, 
hours, and even longer; and was only occasion- 
ally interrupted by the bass voice which still re- 
peated the aforementioned words. In a moment 
this voice would represent a person different 
from that of the patient, and perfectly distinct 
from her, speaking of her always objectively and 
in the third person. There was no confusion or 
incoherence in the words of the voice, but great 
consistency was shown in answering all the ques- 
tions logically, or in skilfully evading them. But 
that which principally distinguished these say- 
ings was their moral, or rather their immoral 
character. They expressed pride, arrogance, 
mockery, or hatred of truth, of God and of Christ. 
The voice would say, 'I am the Son of God, the 
Saviour of the world — you must adore me, ' and 
immediately afterwards rail against everything 
holy — blaspheme against God, against Christ, 
and against the Bible; express a violent dislike 
towards all who follow what is good; give vent 



134 DEMON-POSSESSION 



to the most violent maledictions a thousand 
times repeated, and furiously rage on perceiving 
, any one engaged in prayer, or merely folding 
i their hands. All this might be considered as 
symptoms of a foreign influence, even although 
the voice had not, as it did, betrayed the name 
of the speaker, calling it a devil. Whenever 
this demon wished to speak the countenance of 
' the girl immediately and very strikingly changed, 
I and each time presented a truly demoniacal ex- 
I pression, which called to mind the scene in the 
'Messiade, ' of the devil offering Jesus a stone. 
"On the forenoon of the twenty-sixth, January, 
at eleven o'clock, the very hour which, accord- 
ing to her testimony, she had been told by an 
angel several days before would be the hour of 
her deliverance, these attacks ceased. The last 
thing which was heard was a voice from the 
mouth of the patient, which said: 'Depart, 
thou unclean spirit, from this child — knowest 
thou not that this child is my well-beloved.'" 
Then she came to consciousness.* 

"On the thirty-first, January, the same condi- 
tions returned with the same symptoms. But 
gradually several new voices appeared until the 

* Some one suggests the following comment: 

Between this last voice and the bass voice that repeated the words 
"I pray earnestly for you," a moral resemblance may be noticed, not 
shared by the other voice. The patient was a godly child, Upon the hy- 
pothesis that the blasphemous voice, which was not properly that of her 
own spirit, proceeded from an evil spirit why in such an extraordinary 
providence, should not the bass voice, and that speaking these final 
words, be referred to the Holy Spirit? Which voice would be the more 
miraculous, and what, in such a case, may we suppose would the atti- 
tude of the Holy Spirit be? See Romans viii: 26; also Luke xxii: 31, 32; 
Hebrews vii: 25. i John IV. 4. 



IN CHRISTUM COUNTRIES 125 

number had increased to six, differing from each 
other partly in their tone, partly in their lan- 
guage and subject; therefore each seemed to be 
the voice of a special personality, and was con- 
sidered as such by the voice which had been al- 
ready so often heard. At this period the vio- 
lence of the fury, blasphemy and curses reached 
their highest degree; and the lucid intervals, 
during which the patient had no recollection of 
what had occurred in the paroxysm, but quietly 
and piously read and prayed, were less frequent 
and shorter in duration. 

"On the ninth of February, which, like the 
twenty-sixth of January, had been announced to 
her as a day of deliverance, this most lamentable 
trouble came to an end, and, as on the former 
date, after there had proceeded from the mouth 
of the patient the words: 'Depart, thou un- 
clean spirit!' 'This is a sign of the last time!' 
the girl awoke; and since then has continued 
well" {Ke7'nei\ Geschichten Besessener Neuerer 
Zeit.Karlsrtihe.iZ^^y p. 104.) 

Perhaps there are not in the whole range of 
literature more remarkable cases of phenomena 
similar in some respects to these given in pre- 
vious chapters than those which are found in 
the records of the Wesley Family in England,* 
and of the Reverend Eliakim Phelps, D. D. tof 

* See "MemoiiB of the Wesley Family" by Dr. Adam Clark. 4th Ed. 
vol. I, 245-291. Also the Life of Wesley, by Robert Southey, edited by 
]. A. Atkinson; pp. 14-18, 552-574. 

t See "Spiritual Manifestations" by Rev. Charles Beecher pp. 18-24. 



126 DEMON-POSSESSION 

Stratford, Connecticut. These cases are specially 
worthy of examination, because of the character 
of the individuals connected with them, the 
minuteness and circumstantiality of their details 
and the abundance and reliability of corrobor- 
ating testimony. 

Dr. Austin Phelps, referring to these "spirit- 
ual manifestations" in his father's house, says:* 
"It was after his retirement from public life 
that he became interested in spiritualism. It 
would be more truthful to say that it became 
interested in him; for it came upon him without 
his seeking, suddenly invading his household, 
and making a pandemonium of it for seven 
months, and then departing as suddenly as it 
came. The phenomena resembled those which 
for many years afflicted the Wesley family and, 
those which at one time attended the person of 
Oberlin. They were an almost literal repetition 
of some of the records left by Cotton Mather. 
Had my father lived in 1650, instead of 1850, 
he and his family would have lived in history 
with the victims on Tower Hill in Salem. That 
the facts were real, a thousand witnesses testi- 
fied. An eminent judge in the state of New 
York said that he had pronounced sentence of 
death on many a criminal on a tithe of the evi- 
dence which supported those facts. That they 
were inexplicable by any known principles of 

♦ "My Portfolio," p. 35. For the details our readers must be referred 
to these various sources of information. 



IN CHRISTIAN COUNTRIES 127 

science was equally clear to all who saw and 
heard them who were qualified to judge. Ex- 
perts in science went to Stratford in triumphant 
expectation, and came away in dogged silence, 
convinced of nothing, yet solving nothing. If 
modern science had nothing to show more worthy 
of respect than its solution of spiritualism, al- 
chemy would be its equal, and astrology infi- 
nitely its superior. It will never do to confine 
a delusion so seductive to the ignorant, and so 
welcome to the sceptic to the limbo of 'an if,' 
and leave it there."- 

Testimony of the Early Christian Fathers. 

The presentation of this subject of demon- 
possession would be incomplete without some 
reference to the Early Fathers of the Christian 
church. Their testimony is of special interest in 
this inquiry because it relates to a period when 
Christianity first came in conflict with the heath- 
enism of the Roman Empire, just as the facts 
collected from China in this volume, belong to 
the first period of evangelization in that empire. 

The testimony of the Early Fathers is minute 
and specific. They give us not only the beliefs 
and idolatrous practices of heathen Rome in 
their time, but also the views held and taught by 
the leaders in the early church respecting the 
character of demons; the sphere and limits of 
demon agency; and the manner in which they 

* See lectures by Joseph Cook oa "Spiritualism an If," in Tho Inde- 
pendent. N. York; Feb. and March, 1880. 



128 DEMON-POSSESSION 

deceive men, referring at the same time to the 
facts of demon-possession and demon expulsion 
as familiarly known and universally acknowl- 
edged both by heathen and Christians. 

Tertullian says in his Apology addressed to 
the Rulers of the Roman Empire:* 

"The skill with which these responses are 
shaped to meet events, your Croesi and Pyrshi 
know too well. On the one hand it was in that 
way we have explained, the Pythian was able to 
declare that they were cooking a tortoise with 
the flesh of a lamb — in a moment he had been to 
Lydia. From dwelling in the air, and their 
nearness to the stars, and their commerce with 
the clouds, they have means of knowing the 
preparatory processes going on in these upper 
regions, and thus can give promise of the rains 
which they already feel. Very kind, too, no 
doubt, they are in regard to the healing of dis- 
eases. For, first of all, they make you ill, then 
to get a miracle out of it, they command the 
application of remedies, either altogether new, 
or contrary to those in use, and straightway 
withdrawing hurtful influences, they are sup- 
posed to have wrought a cure. What need then 
to speak of their other artifices, or yet further 
of their deceptive power which they have as 
spirits — of these Castor apparitions, of water 
carried by a sieve, and a ship drawn along by a 

♦"The Antenicene Fathers." Th3 Christian Literature Publishing 
Co., Buffalo, 1885. 



IN CHRISTIAN COUNTRIES 129 



girdle, and a beard reddened by a touch, all done 
with the one object of showing that men should 
beUeve in the deity of stones, and not seek after 
the only true God, 

. . . "Moreover, if sorcerers call forth ghosts, 
and even make what seem the souls of the dead, 
to appear, if with these juggling illusions they 
make a pretense of doing various miracles; if 
they put dreams into people's minds by the 
power of the angels and demons whose aid they 
have invited, by whose influence, too, goats and 
tables are made to divine, how much more like- 
ly is this power of evil to be zealous in doing 
with all its might, of its own inclination, and 
for its own objects, what it does to serve the 
ends of others! Or if both angels and demons 
do just what your gods do, where in that case is 
the pre-eminence of deity, which we must surely 
think to be above all in might? 

. . . "But thus far we have been dealing only 
in words: we now proceed to a proof of facts in 
which we shall show that under different names 
we have real identity. Let a person be brought 
before your tribunals who is plainly under de- 
moniacal possession. The wicked spirit, bid- 
den to speak by a follower of Christ (*) will as 
readily make the truthful confession that he is a 
demon as elsewhere he has falsely asserted that 

♦This testimony must be noted as something of which Tertullian con- 
fidently challenges denial. For modern confirmation of it see "Primitive 
Christianity and Modern Spiritualism." By H. L. Hastings, pp. 246-250. 

Q Demon 



130 DEMON-POSSESSION 

he is a god. Or, if yon will, let there be pro- 
duced one of the god-possessed, as they are sup- 
posed: — if they do not confess, in their fear of 
lying to a Christian that they are demons, then 
and there shed the blood of that most impudent 
follower of Christ. 

"All the authority and power we have over 
them is from our naming the name of Christ, 
and recalling to their memory the woes with 
which God threatens them at the hand of Christ 
their judge, and which they expect one day to 
overtake them. Fearing Christ in God and God 
in Christ, they become subject to the servants 
of God and Christ. So at one touch and breath- 
ing, overwhelmed by the thought and realization 
of those judgment fires, they leave at our com- 
mand the bodies they have entered, unwilling 
and distressed and, before your very eyes, put to 
an open shame. You believe them when they 
lie, give credit to them when they speak the 
truth about themselves. No one plays the liar 
to bring disgrace upon his own head but for the 
sake of honor rather. You give a readier con- 
fidence to people making confessions against 
themselves than denials in their own behalf. It 
has not been an unusual thing accordingly for 
those testimonies of your deities to convert men 
to Christianity, for in giving full belief to them 
we are led to believe in Christ. Yes, your very 
gods kindle up faith in our Scriptures; they build 
up the confidence of our hope." 



IN CHRISTMN COUNTRIES 131 



Justin Martyr, in his second Apology addressed 
to the Roman Senate, says: (*) "Numberless 
demoniacs throughout the whole world and in 
your city, many of our Christian men — exorcis- 
ing them in the name of Jesus Christ who was 
crucified under Pontius Pilate— have healed and 
do heal, rendering helpless, and driving the pos- 
sessing demon out of the men though they 
could not be cured by all other exorcists, and 
those who use incantations and drugs." 

Cyprian (t) expressed himself with equal con- 
fidence. After having said that they are evil 
spirits that inspire the false prophets of the gen- 
tiles, that stir up the filth of the entrails of vic- 
tims, govern the flight of birds, dispose lots, 
and deliver oracles by always mixing truth with 
falsehood to prove what they say, he adds: 
"Nevertheless these evil spirits adjured by the 
living God immediately obey us, submit to us, 
own our power and are forced to come out of 
the bodies they possess." 

Athanasius asserts that the bare sign of the 
cross made the cheats and illusions of the devils 
to vanish; and then adds: (|) "Let him that 
would make trial of this come, and amidst all the 
delusions of devils, the impostures of oracles, 
and the prodigies of magic, let him use the sign 
of the cross, which the heathen laugh ^t, and 

♦Chapter 6, 

tScott on "Exist«Dce of EvjJ Spirits," 

tlhid. p, 29Q. 



132 DEMON-POSSESSION 

they shall see how the devils fly away affrighted 
how the oracles immediately cease, and all the 
enchantments of magic remain destitute of their 
usual force." 

Lactantius asserts that when the heathen 
sacrifice to their gods, if there be any one pres- 
ent whose forehead is marked with the sign of 
the cross the sacrifices do not succeed, nor the 
false prophets give answer. This has given fre- 
quent occasion to bad princes to persecute the 
Christians, etc., etc. 

The prevalence of demon-possession in the 
Roman Empire during the period of the Early 
Fathers is further evidenced by the use in the 
church of a special class of laborers called ex- 
orcists whose duty it was to heal, instruct, and 
prepare for admission to the church candidates 
for baptism who had been afflicted by evil 
spirits.* 

The testimony of the Fathers proves conclu- 
sively that cases of demon-possession were not 
confined to Judea in the times of our Saviour 
and the Apostles, but that they were met with 
in the Roman Empire centuries afterward. 
Their testimony like that of the Chinese and 
other nations shows that these cases were dis- 
tinct from mania, epilepsy, and other diseases, 
and characterized by a new personality quite 



*See Dr. Lyman Coleman's "Ancient Christianity Exemplified," p. 124, 
191-3- Also, Whately's "Good and Evil Angels." - 



IN CHRISTUN COUNTRIES 13S 

different and distinct from the subject "pos- 
sessed." * 

*The testimony of the Greek and Latin classical authors is collated and 
compared with modern phenomena in a most able manner in a book called 
T/ie Apocaiasiasis, or Progress Backwards. This was written by Leonard 
Marsh, M. D., for many years a professor in the University of Vermont, 
and published anonymously in Burlington, in 1854. It was prepared in 
view of the new tide of so-called spiritualism, then rising in the United 
States and Europe. It is at once a brilliant satire, and a serious, profound, 
unique discussion. Though perhaps too learned, and its style somewhat 
too involved, for popular reading, its intrinsic value is great. It is more 
needed now than when first issued, and ought to be republished. Se« 
Bibliographical Index. 

The testimony of the Christian Fathers upon this subject may be found 
at some length in a valuable series of pamphlets by Wm. Ramsey, D. D., 
.ind H. L. Hastings; especially in the three entitled The Mystery Solved: 
Ancient Heathenism and Modern Spiritualism ; Primitive Christianity and 
Moiiern Spiritualism. 



CHAPTER X. 

CHARACTER OF THE EVIDENCE PRESENTED, AND 
THE FACTS ESTABLISHED BY IT. 

As regards the trust-worthiness of the foreign 
missionaries whose testimony and opinions have 
been presented in the preceding chapters, nothing 
need be said. Something may be learned of 
their views from the communications which have 
already been given, but more is required to show 
the attitude of the missionary body as a whole. 

It is important to premise that most mission- 
aries come to China with a strong prejudgment 
of the matter, holding the opinion generally 
prevalent in Christian countries that demon- 
possessions were providentially permitted in 
Apostolic times, and made to subserve impor- 
tant ends in the establishment of the Christian 
church; but that they are events only of the 
past. This prejudgment is so strong in some 
persons that the possibility of such cases at 
present is not for a moment entertained. A 
young missionary recently arrived in China, on 
learning that this subject was being examined 
into, expressed with great warmth, and in very 
134 



THE nyiDENCB PRESENTED 135 

positive terms, his "surprise that missionaries 
should spend their time in such an enquiry or 
allow native Christians connected with them to 
talk about or believe in 'possessions' as an ex- 
isting fact." 

It is my impression from a large correspond- 
ence with missionaries in China, and from per- 
sonal acquaintance with many of them, that 
they do not, as a rule, hold the positive and ex- 
treme view above expressed. Some whose time 
is mostly spent in the open ports, and in literary 
work in the study, have not had their attention 
specially called to this subject, and have not 
come into possession of facts upon which to 
form a judgment. I have only known two who 
have expressed positive unbelief in the reality of 
these "possessions." 

On the other hand there are Protestant mis- 
sionaries who have no doubt that numerous cases 
may be found in China of "demon-possession," 
similar to those which were met with in the early 
history of the church. Missionaries who have 
personal and familiar intercourse with infant 
churches in the interior of China will I think 
agree in the statement that supposed cases of 
this kind are very numerous; and I believe also 
that it is the growing opinion that the natives 
are right in attributing them to demons. 

The attitude of missionaries generally may, I 
think, be correctly stated by saying that a few 



130 DEMON-POSSESSION 

believe that the so-called demon-possessions, 
are not really such, but only a delusion; a larger 
number believe them to be real; while a still 
larger proportion of the whole missionary body 
are in a state of uncertainty, unprepared to ex- 
press a positive opinion on one side or the 
other. 

The question is sometimes asked, if these 
cases are so numerous, why are they not seen 
by the foreigner; thus giving the public, so far 
as it is interested in this subject, the advantage 
of his personal examinations and testimony; in- 
stead of being left to depend almost exclusively 
on Chinese evidence? The reasons for this are 
not difficult to find. 

It should be borne in mind that the foreign 
missionary is only occasionally and temporarily 
at these country out-stations, perhaps on an 
average only two or three days in any one vil- 
lage in a year, and these phenomena occurring 
generally in his absence, are, when the aid of 
Christians is sought, naturally taken to the resi- 
dent native Christians or preachers. 

Again, race prejudices, and the customary re- 
strictions upon social intercourse, and especially 
the dread of malicious and scandalous reports 
which would almost certainly result from invit- 
ing a stranger of another race to visit a native 
family, act as a strong deterrent to prevent 
natives from bringing these cases to a foreigner. 



THE EVIDENCE PRESENTED 137 



In a foreign missionary's first visits to a new 
field of labor (the time during which, for reasons 
hereafter stated, most of these cases occur), not 
only the Chinese generally, but many Christian 
families would instinctively avoid if possible a 
personal visit from him- His coming to their 
houses would almost inevitably attract a rabble 
made up of street loungers, village roughs, and 
boisterous children, and it is more than prob- 
able that suspicious neighbors and curious 
strangers influenced by the excitement, and tak^ 
ing advantage of the general confusion, would 
disregard the ordinary rules of propriety and 
mingle with the crowd; altogether occasioning 
no little inconvenience for the time, and a 
great deal of offensive talk, and perhaps insults 
and annoyances afterwards. 

While the visit of a foreigner at the first stage 
of intercourse with the Chinese would be attended 
by the above mentioned inconveniences, a native 
Christian can enter a Chinese family almost un- 
observed. Considering all the circumstances it 
is but natural that these cases should in almost 
every instance be brought to the notice of the 
native Christian, rather than the foreign mis- 
sionary. 

There is another reason, perhaps still stronger 
than those given above, which tends to the same 
result. Most missionaries — all of them so far 
as is known to the writer — have an instinctive 



18S DEMON-POSSESSION 

shrinking from encountering, or even encourag- 
ing these manifestations. The feelings of the 
foreign missionary on this subject are understood 
by the natives, and consequently they naturally 
apply to their own people rather than to us. It 
is interesting to notice that in the instance given 
from the Romish church in a previous chapter, 
the case of supposed demon-posssesion was also 
brought to a native Christian, and not to the for- 
eign teacher. 

Missionaries are however sometimes applied to, 
as I was once myself when in company with Rev. 
C. P. Scott, now Bishop of the Church of Eng- 
land in North China. We were invited and urged 
by our muleteer, in whose village we were pass- 
ing a night, to visit his home and cast an evil- 
spirit out of his sister-in-law. Our ability to do 
this was not, however, put to the test; as the 
member of the family, when she was consulted 
about the matter, refused to have us enter the 
house. 

The fact of our hearing through native Chris- 
tians of many more of these cases now, than 
some years ago, is due to the following reasons: 
At first Christian teachers, natives as well as 
foreigners, were viewed with suspicion and dis- 
trust, and there was great difficulty in gaining 
free access to the people. You might be in a 
village where there were numbers of these "pos- 
sessed" persons, but the inhabitants would stout- 



THE EyiDENCE PRESENTED 139 

ly deny their existence. A variety of reasons 
combine to produce this reticence, the chief of 
which are the sense of disgrace on the part of a 
family so unfortunate as to have such a case; 
the fear shared by all the villagers of offending 
and incurring the revenge of the demon ; and also 
the fear of putting a stranger in possession of 
information which might lead to serious difficul- 
ties and complications. 

When, however, an individual or a family in 
an isolated village embraces Christianity, and 
reads the instances of demon-possession related 
in the New Testament, he naturally recommends 
his neighbors who are similarly afflicted to apply 
to Jesus for relief. M^hen relief has been ob- 
tained the fact is soon generally known, and 
others who are suffering from the same malady 
are led to apply to Christians for help. After 
converts have been made, and mutual sympathy 
and confidence are established among them, and 
between them and their foreign teachers, then 
these experiences are freely disclosed. 

The above considerations will explain why it is 
that we must for circumstantial facts in evidence, 
so far as China is concerned, depend princi- 
pally upon the native Christians. Their belief, 
in common with the great mass of their country- 
men in the reality of these manifestations is 
almost universal. It would be useless to argue 
with them on the subject. Yon might as well 



140 DEMON-POSSESSION 

try to raise doubts in their minds as to their 
own personal identity, or the trustworthiness of 
their senses. In many cases the only effect of 
a missionary's dogmatically denying the reality 
of demon-possessions would be to produce in 
them the impression that he had a limited ex- 
perience, narrow views, and was not wholly to 
be relied upon as a religious teacher. 

Now with regard to the testimony of the 
native Christians, which has been presented in 
the previous chapters, I would remark: 

1. I have endeavored to give no evidence ex- 
cept that of Christian men and women of intel- 
ligence and worth. 

2. They testify to facts of which they have 
been eye and ear witnesses; and which are for 
the most part of recent occurrence. 

3. The events to which they testify have not 
taken place in private, known to themselves 
only, or to a few others, but are of general no- 
toriety, the witnesses to which could be indefin- 
itely multiplied. 

4. No conceivable motive can be adduced for 
fabrication or misrepresentation. These "de- 
mon-possessions" are even in the view of the 
natives repulsive and disreputable, and they know 
that they are still more distasteful to their 
foreign teachers. 

5. This is not a hobby, or a subject which is to 
them of special interest or concern; as spiritual- 



THE EyiDENCE PRESENTED 141 

ism, for instance, is to its adherents. On the 
contrary it is associated with disagreeable expe- 
riences which they would gladly forget, and which 
under ordinary circumstances they seldom allude 
to. 

6. Belief in the reality of possessions by in- 
visible spirits is not necessarily connected with 
a superstitious habit of mind. Chinese Chris- 
tians generally are gradually disenthralled from 
their old heathenish superstitions such as "fung- 
shui," the worship of the dragon, of the kitchen 
god, and the earth god, and their almost in- 
numerable deities of the Buddhist and Taoist 
religions; but as a rule, they remain unshaken 
in their belief in the reality of demon-possessions. 

7. They do not regard this subject as be- 
longing to the domain of the marvelous. They 
do not consider man with his material body, 
the exclusive rational occupant of the earth. 
They believe in spirits, and in their view it is no 
more unnatural for an evil spirit to exist, and 
to act like an evil spirit, than for a man to be 
a man. 

8. The opinions held by them are not taught 
or suggested to them by their foreign teachers. 
On the contrary these beliefs have generally been 
discouraged. 

9. There could be no collusion between these 
witnesses. They belong to sections of country 
widely separated, which have little or no com- 



142 DEMON-POSSESSION 

munication with each other, and in which differ- 
ent dialects are spoken. 

lo. These cases are not associated together 
as the result of a general psychic epidemic, or 
craze, in which delusion or imposture is sympa- 
thetically communicated from one person to 
another. They are isolated and independent, 
both as regards time and locality, and are gener- 
ally attended with but little excitement. 
The question as to the explanation and the actual 
cause of the phenomena which we are considering 
is by no means to be determined by the opinions 
of the Chinese or of any other race. We have 
only appealed to the Chinese for facts which 
have come under their own observation, and of 
which they are competent witnesses.* The ques- 

*Prof. Langlev in an article entitled "Comets and Meteors" in 7V;^ 
Cfiitury, January, 18S7, thus treats of the assumptions of modern thought, 
and the summary way in which it sets aside credible evidence: — 

"Among the many superstitions of the early world, and credulous fan- 
cies of the middle ages, was the belief that great stones sometimes fell 
down out of heaven on to the earth. 

"Pliny has a story of such a black stone big enough to load a chariot; 
the Mussulman still adores one at Mecca; and a medijeval emperor of Ger- 
many had a sword which was said to have been forged from one of these 
bolts shot out of the blue. But. with the revival of learning, people came 
to know better! That stones should fall down from the sky was clearly, 
they thought, an absurdity; indeed, according to the learned opinion 
of that time, one would hardly ask a better instance of the difference be- 
tween the realities which science recognized and the absurdities which 
it condemned than the fancy that such a thing could be. So at least the 
matter looked to the philosophersof the last century, who treated it much 
as they might treat certain alleged mental phenomena, f^r instance, if 
they were alive to-day, and at first refused to take any notice of these 
stories, when from time to time they still came to hand. When induced 
to give the matter consideration they observed that all the conditions 
for scientific observation were violated by these bodies, since the won- 
der always happened at some far-off place, or at some past time, and (sus- 
picious circumstance) the stones only fell in the presence of ignorant 
and unscientific witnesses, and never when scientific men were at hand 
to examine the facts. That there were many worthy, if ignorant, men 
who asserted that they had seen such stones fall, seen them witli their 
own eyes, and held them in their own hands, was accounted for by the 
general love of the marvelous, and by the ignorance of the common mind, 
unlearned in the conditions of scientific observation, and unguided by 
the great principle of the uniformity of the laws of nature." 

S'-e also on The Dogmatism of Science, an able and admirable article 
by R. Ileber Newton, D. D., in The Arena (Mag.) May, 1890. 



THE Et^IDENCE PRESENTED 143 

tions, what are the facts established, and how 
are these facts to be accounted for, will be con- 
sidered hereafter. 

It is a confirmation of the truth of the evi- 
dence of these Chinese witnesses that it agrees 
in every important particular with that of other 
nations ancient and modern. The importance 
claimed for the evidence of these Chinese wit- 
nesses is, that it shows the persistence of these 
phenomena up to the present time, and furnishes 
details not to be expected when this subject is 
not specifically treated, but only referred to in- 
cidentally and fragmentarily. 

The facts established in the previous chapters 
may be summarized as follows: 

1 . Certain abnormal physical and mental phe- 
nomena such as have been witnessed in all ages, 
and among all nations and attributed to posses- 
sion by demons, are of frequent occurrence in 
China and other nations and have been gener- 
ally referred to the same cause. 

2. The supposed demoniac at the time of 
"possession" passes into an abnormal state, the 
character of which varies indefinitely, being 
marked by depression and melancholy; or vacan- 
cy and stupidity amounting sometimes almost to 
idiocy, or it may be that he becomes ecstatic, or 
ferocious and malignant. 

3. During transition from the normal to the 
abnormal state, the subject is often thrown into 



144 



DEMON-POSSESSION 



paroxysms, more or less violent, during which he 
sometimes falls on the ground senseless, or 
foams at the mouth presenting symptoms similar 
to those of epilepsy or hysteria. 

4. The intervals between these attacks vary 
indefinitely from hours to months, and during 
these intervals the physical and mental condition 
of the subject may be in every respect healthy 
and normal. The duration of the abnormal 
states varies from a few minutes to several days. 
The attacks are sometimes mild, and sometimes 
violent. If frequent and violent the physical 
health suffers. 

5. During the transition period the subject 
often retains more or less of his normal conscious- 
ness. The violence of the paroxysms is in- 
creased if the subject struggles against, and en- 
deavors to repress the abnormal symptoms. 
When he yields himself to them the violence of 
the paroxysms abates, or ceases altogether. 

6. When normal consciousness is restored 
after one of these attacks the subject is entirel}' 
ignorant of everything which has passed during 
that state. 

7. The most striking characteristic of these 
cases is that the subject evidences another per- 
sonality, and the normal personality for the time 
being is partially or wholly dormant. 

8. The new personality presents traits of 
character utterly different from those which really 



THE EVIDENCE PRESENTED 145 

belong to the subject in his normal state and 
this change of character is with rare exceptions 
in the direction of moral obliquity and impurity. 

9. Many persons while "demon-possessed" 
give evidence of knowledge which cannot be ac- 
counted for in ordinary ways They often ap- i 
pear to know of the Lord Jesus Christ as a 1 
Divine Person, and show an aversion to, and j 
fear of Him. They sometimes converse in 
foreign languages of which in their normal states 
they are entirely ignorant. 

10. There are often heard, in connection 
with "demon-possessions," rappings and noises 
in places where no physical cause for them can 
be found; and tables, chairs, crockery and the 
like are moved about without, so far as can be 
discovered, any application of physical force, 
exactly as we are told is the case among spirit- 
ualists. 

11. Many cases of "demon-possession" have , 
been cured by prayer to Christ, or in his name, ? 
some very readily, some with difficulty. So far 
as we have been able to discover, this method 
of cure has not failed in any case, however . 
stubborn and long continued, in which it has 1 
been tried. And in no instance, so far as ap- 
pears, has the malady returned, if the subject , 
has become a Christian, and continued to lead a 
Christian life. 

10 Demon 



CHAPTER XI. 

explanations: evolution and other 
theories. 

The phenomena accompanying supposed "de- 
mon-possession" are accounted for by different 
hypotheses in accordance with the views and pro- 
clivities of different individuals, 

1. Many will doubtless refer them to de- 
lusion and imposture, and regard the subjects 
of these manifestations as either deceivers or 
deceived. 

2. Others will regard them as the result of 
some occult force, physical or odic, not yet 
clearly understood. 

3. The Development or Evolution school 
will refer them to a law inherent in man's nature, 
by which certain beliefs and accompanying phe- 
nomena manifest themselves in progressive 
stages of the development of the race, 

4. The great majority of thinkers of the pres- 
ent day will no doubt prefer the pathological 
theory, and regard these manifestations as the 
natural results of diseased states of the nervous 
system. 

146 



EVOLUTION AND OTHER THEORIES 147 

5. Psychological Theoiies. 

6. Others will refer them, as most nations 
of the past have done, to the agency of spirits 
or demons. 

We shall consider these different hypotheses 
in this and the following chapters, in the above 
order. 

I. Explanation by Imposture. 

There can be no doubt that, in connection 
with the phenomena we have been consider- 
ing, there is much deception, both wilful and 
unintentional. Still this fact should not be re- 
garded as disproving the reality of the phenom- 
ena in all cases. To whatever cause they may 
be attributed, even if referable to, or accom- 
panied by well-known symptoms of disease, simu- 
lated manifestations, as well as automatic, may 
naturally be expected. 

Dr. Hecker speaking of cases of hysteria re- 
marks: "This numerous class of patients cer- 
tainly contributed not a little to the maintenance 
of the evil, for these fantastic sufferings in which 
dissimulation and reality could scarcely be dis- 
tinguished by themselves, much less by their 
physicians, were imitated in the same way as 
the distortions of St. Vitus dancers by the im- 
postors of that period." (*) 

The same author remarks further in the same 
connection that "the dancing mania arising as 

*See "Hecker's Epidemics of the Middle Ages," London Edition, 1844, 
p. laS. 



148 DEMON-POSSESSION 

was supposed from the bite of the tarantula, 
continued with all these additions of self-decep- 
tion, and of the dissimulation which is such a 
constant attendant on nervous disorders of this 
kind, through the whole course of the seventh 
century." 

So in China, in the case of persons subject to 
these abnormal conditions, voluntary symptoms 
are often mixed with involuntary, and doubtless 
many cases of alleged possession are to be re- 
ferred wholly to imposture. Some persons from 
love of notoriety, and more often from love of 
gain, simulate the symptoms of the "possessed", 
and assume the character of fortune tellers, or 
healers of diseases, professing to do so by com- 
munication with spirits. Missionaries have met 
with some of this latter class who have acknow- 
ledge that they feigned "possession", and thus 
carried on a deliberate course of deception. It 
would be unreasonable, however, to infer from 
such individual cases of simulation that all the 
phenomena we have been considering are the 
result of deception and imposture. Simulation 
generally presupposes a reality simulated. 

On the other hand converts to Christianity 
have declared that they were formerly mediums 
of demons, during which time these abnormal 
manifestations were not the result of deception, 
but of influences operating on them which they 
could not control. Dr. Tylor gives us the fol- 



EyOLUTION AND OTHER THEORIES 140 

lowing case of this kind in his "Primitive Cul- 
ture". When Dr. Mason was preaching near 
a village of heathen Pwo a man fell down in an 
epileptic fit, his familiar spirit having come over 
him to forbid the people to listen to the mission- 
ary, and he sang out denunciations like one 
frantic. This man was afterwards converted, 
and told the missionary that "he could not ac- 
count for his former exercises, but that it cer- 
tainly appeared to him as though a spirit spoke, 
and he must tell what was communicated."* 

Strikingly similar testimony is given by one of 
Brainerd's Indian converts who was before his 
conversion a " diviner. "t 

Two cases similar to the above have occurred 
in connection with our mission station in Chi- 
mi, Shan-tung, China. They were described to 
me in detail by a theological student whose home 
was in that neighborhood, and who was familiar- 
ly acquainted with the subjects of both cases, 
one being a near relative. Both of them were 
well-known as sincere and consistent Christians 
until their deaths. They declared that for many 
years, before they became Christians, they sub- 
mitted to, and obeyed the behests of the possess- 
ing demons from necessity, being constrained 
and intimidated by severe physical and mental 
inflictions and torments; that they believed that 

* Primitive Culture: Researches into the Development of Mythology, 
Philosophy, Religion, Language, Art and Custom. By Edward B. Tylor, 
L.L. D., F. R. S., Vol. 2, p, 131. 

t Memoir of David Brainerd, p. 562. Also p.p. 348-351. 



150 DEMON-POSSESSION 

the actions purporting to be perfomed by the 
demons through them as their agents or instru- 
ments were in fact so performed; that they had 
no means to rid themselves of the dominion of 
the demons until they heard of Christianity. One 
of these persons, an aunt of the theological stu- 
dent, is said to have had, when in the abnormal 
state, remarkable clairvoyant powers. 

The question is not, are any of these phenom- 
ena to be referred to imposture, but are they 
all to be so referred. I believe that the facts 
proved render this hypothesis entirely unten- 
able. The subjects of these manifestations are, 
while in the abnormal state, apparently without 
their normal consciousness, and incapable either 
of deceiving or being deceived. If it be assumed 
that this supposed absence of normal conscious- 
ness is itself only deception and imposture, this 
assumption presupposes a degree of suscepti- 
bility to imposture in all nations and ages which 
passes credence, to say nothing of the evidence, 
which is, in a large number of cases, full and 
conclusive that the subject so far from trying to 
deceive others by inducing them to believe that 
, he is "possessed," is using all his powers of body 
and mind to free himself from an infliction which 
he bemoans and abhors. 

2. Explanation by Odic Force. 

There is a class of writers who admit the exis- 
tence of the alleged facts connected with mesmer- 



EyOLUTION AND OTHER THEORIES 15i 

ism, spiritualism, etc., similar in man}' respects 
to these attributed to demon-possession, but be- 
lieve these facts are not explainable by any natur- 
al laws or forces yet discovered; and refer them 
to some subtle force connected with our phys- 
ical organization, similar to magnetism, which, 
though as yet not well understood, is an integral 
part of our constitution, and under the control 
of fixed laws. This theory is ably advocated by 
Rev. G. W. Samson, D.D., formerly president 
of Columbia University (D. C), in a book en- 
titled "Physical Media in Spiritual Manifesta- 
tions". Without attempting an analysis of the 
arguments upon which Dr. Samson bases his 
theory, I would merely say that, admitting its 
probability, it does not necessarily affect the 
subject of demon-possession. It may perhaps 
give some hint or suggestion of the mode by 
which spiritual beings act upon human organ- 
izations. It certainly cannot prove the non-ex- 
istence of supermundane beings, or that they do 
not at times influence men. In fact the two 
theories do not conflict; but Dr. Samson's the- 
ory does not explain the facts which principally 
require explanation, to which special reference 
will be made in this and the following chapters. 
3. Explanation by Evolution. 
The Development, or Evolution, theory of 
"possessions" is clearly presented by Rushton 
M. Dorman in his work entitled "Origin of Primi- 



152 DEMON-POSSESSION 



tive Superstitions," and also by Dr. Tylor in his 
"Primitive Culture." The former writer says: 
"Too much effort has hitherto been directed to 
tracing a derivation of one mythological belief 
from another by contact or migrations of myths; 
the growth of mythologies among all peoples has 
taken place according to the laws of men's 
spiritual being. There is therefore a great simi- 
larity of religious belief among all peoples in the 
same progressive stages." He says again, "The 
laws of evolution in the spiritual world may be 
traced with as much precision as in the natural."* 
Dr. Tylor in the introduction to his work 
deprecates the unwillingness of modern investi- 
gators to apply the laws of evolution to the 
'higher processes of human feeling and action, 
of thought and language, etc." He says, "The 
world at large is scarcely prepared to accept the 
general study of human life as a branch of nat- 
ural science nor to carry out in a large sense the 
poet's injunction to 'account for moral as for 
natural things. ' To many educated minds there 
seems something presumptuous and repulsive in 
the view that the history of mankind is part and 
parcel of the history of nature, that our thoughts, 
wills, and actions accord with laws as definite 
as those which govern the motion of waves, 
the combination of acids and bases, and the 
growth of plants and animals, "t 

* Origin of Primitive Superstitions, Introduction, p. 13. 
t "Primitive Culture." vol. 2, p. 132. 



EyOLUTION /iND OTHER THEORIES 153 

A few quotations from Dr. Tylor's elaborate 
and interesting work will show the remarkable 
correspondence between facts which he has col- 
lected from different sources, and those presented 
in the previous chapters of this work, and will 
also give us some idea of his way of accounting 
for these facts. We cannot do justice to this 
author without giving these quotations at some 
length. 

Dr. Tylor sa3's: "Morbid oracular manifesta 
tions are habitually excited on purpose, and 
moreover the professional sorcerer commonly 
exaggerates or wholly feigns them. In the more 
genuine manifestations the medium may be so 
intensely wrought upon by the idea that a pos- 
sessing spirit is speaking from within him, that 
he may not only give this spirit's name, and 
speak in its character, but possibly may in good 
faith alter his voice to suit the spiritual utter- 
ance. The gift of spirit utterance which belongs 
to 'ventriloquism' in the ancient and proper 
sense of the term, of course lapses into sheer 
trickery. But that the phenomena should be 
thus artificially excited or dishonestly counter- 
feited, rather confirms than alters the present 
argument. Real or simulated, the details of 
oracle possession alike illustrate popular belief. 
The Patagonian wizard begins his performance 
with drumming and rattling till the real or pre- 
tended epileptic fit comes on by the demon en- 



154 DEMON-POSSESSION 

tering him, who then answers questions within 
him with a faint and mournful voice."* 

Among the wild Veddas of Ceylon, the 
"devil-dancers" have to work themselves into 
paroxysms, to gain the inspiration whereby they 
profess to cure their patients, t So with furious 
dancing to the music and chanting of the attend- 
ants, the Bodo priest brings on the fit of mani- 
acal inspiration in which the deity fills him and 
gives oracles through him4 In Kamtchatka 

the female shamans, when Billukai came down 
into them in a thunder-storm would prophesy; 
or, receiving spirits with a cry of "hush;" their 
teeth chattered as in fever, and they were ready 
to divine. Among the Singpho of Southeast 
Asia, when the "natzo" or conjuror is sent 
flOT to see a sick patient, he calls on his "nat" 
or demon, the soul of a deceased foreign prince, 
who descends into him and gives the required 
answers!!. In the Pacific Islands spirits of 
the dead would enter for a time the body of a 
living man, inspiring him to declare future events 
or to execute some commission from the higher 
deities. The symptoms of oracular possession 
among savages have been especially well de- 
scribed in this region of the world. The Fijian 
priest sits looking steadfastly at a whale's tooth 

* "Priroitive Culture," vol. 2, p. 133. 
t Ibid, vol 2, p. 133. 
t Ibid, p. 133. 
II Ibid, p. J33. 



Ei^OLUTION AND OTHER THEORIES 155 

ornament amid dead silence. In a few minutes 
he trembles, slight twitchings of face and limbs 
come on which increase to strong convulsions 
with swelling of the veins, murmurs and sobs. 
Now the god has entered him; with eyes rolling 
and protruding, unnatural voice, pale face and 
livid lips, sv/eat streaming from every pore, and 
the whole aspect of a furious madman, he gives 
the divine answer, and then the symptoms sub- 
siding, he looks round with a vacant stare, and 
the deity returns to the land of spirits. In the 
Sandwich Islands where the God Oro thus gave 
his oracles, his priest ceased to act or speak as 
a voluntary agent, but with his limbs convulsed, 
his features distorted and terrific, his eyes wild 
and strained he would roll on the ground foaming 
at the mouth, and reveal the will of the possess- 
ing god in shrill cries and sounds violent and 
indistinct, which the attending priest duly in- 
terpreted to the people. In Tahiti it was often 
noticed that men who in the natural state showed 
neither ability nor eloquence, would in such con- 
vulsive delirium burst forth into earnest lofty 
declamation, declaring the will and answers of 
the god, and prophesying future events in well- 
knit harangues full of the poetic figure and 
metaphor of the professional orator. But when 
the fit was over, and sober reason returned, the 
prophet's gifts were gone.* 

* Tylor's '•Primitive Culture," p. 133, 



156 DEMON-POSSESSION 

"Lastly the accounts of oracular possession 
in Africa show the primitive ventriloquist in per- 
fect types of morbid knavery. In Sofola, after a 
king's funeral, his soul would enter into a sorcer- 
er, and speaking in the familiar tones that all 
the bystanders recognized, would give counsel to 
the new monarch how to govern his people." 

"About a century ago a negro fetish woman 
of Guinea is thus described in the act of answer- 
ing an enquirer who has come to consult her. 
She is crouching on the earth, with her head 
between her knees, and her hands up to her 
face, till becoming inspired by the fetish, she 
snorts and foams and gasps. Then the suppli- 
ant may put his question, 'Will my friend or 
brother get well of this sickness.-" 'What shall 
I give thee to set him free from his sickness.^' 
and so forth. Then the fetish woman answers 
in a thin whistling voice, and with the old-fash- 
ioned idioms of generations past; and thus the 
suppliant receives his command, perhaps to kill 
a white cock, and put him at a four-cross-way, 
or tie him up for the fetish to come and fetch 
him, or perhaps merely to drive a dozen wooden 
pegs into the ground, so to bury his friend's dis- 
ease with them."* 

"The details of demoniacal possession among 
barbaric and civilized nations need no elab- 
orate description, so simply do they continue 

* Tylor's '•Primitive Culture," Vol 3, 135. 



tt^OLUriON AND OTHER YHBOKIES Id? 

the savage cases. But the state of things we 
notice here agrees with the conclusion that the 
possession theory belongs originally to the 
lower culture, and is gradually superseded by 
higher medical knowledge. Surveying its course 
through the middle and higher civilization we 
shall notice first a tendency to limit it to certain 
peculiar and severe affections, especially con- 
nected with mental disorder, such as epilepsy, 
hysteria, delirium, idiocy, madness; and after 
this a tendency to abandon it altogether in 
consequence of the persistent opposition of the 
medical faculty, 

"Among the natives of South East Asia, ob- 
session and possession by demons is strong at 
least in popular belief.* 

"In Birma the fever-demon of the jungle seizes 
trespassers on his domain, and shakes them in 
ague till he is exorcised ; while falls and apoplectic 
fits are the work of other spirits. The dancing 
of women in demoniacal possession is treated by 
the doctor covering their heads with a garment, 
and thrashing them soundly with a stick, the 
demon and not the patient being considered to 
feel the blows; the possessing spirit may be pre- 
vented from escaping by a knotted and charmed 
cord hung around the bewitched person's neck, 
and when a sufficient beating has induced it to 
speak by the patient's voice and declares its 

* "Primitive Culture," vol. 2, pp. 135, 136. 



158 DEMON-POSSESSION 

name and business, it may either be allowed to 
depart, or the doctor, tramples on the patient's 
stomach till the demon is stamped to death. 
For an example of invocations and offerings one 
characteristic story, told by Dr. Bastien, will 
suffice. A Bengali cook was seized with an 
apoplectic fit, which his Birmese wife declared 
was but a just retribution, for the godless fellow 
had gone day after day to market to buy pounds, 
and pounds of meat, yet in spite of her remon- 
strances would never give a morsel to the patron- 
spirit of the town; as a good wife, however, she 
now did her best for her suffering husband, 
placing near him little heaps of colored rice for 
the "nat!" "Ah, let him go!" "Grip not so hard!" 
"Oh, ride him not!" "Thou shalt have rice!" 
"Ah, how good that tastes!" How explicitly 
Buddhism recognizes such ideas, may be judged 
from one of the questions officially put to candi- 
dates for admission as monks or talapoins "Art 
thou afflicted by madness, or the the ills caused 
by giants, witches, or evil-demons of the forest 
and mountain?"* 

"Within our own domain of British India, the 
possession-theory and the rite of exorcism belong- 
ing to it may be perfectly studied to this day. 
There the doctrine of sudden ailment or nervous 
disease being due to a blast or possession of a 
"buht" or being, that is, a demon, is recognized 

* '"Primitive Culture," vol. s, p, 136. 



EI^OLUTION AND OTHER THEORIES 159 

as of old; there the old witch who has possessed 
a man and made him sick or deranged will an- 
swer spiritually out of his body and say who she 
is and where she lives; then the frenzied de- 
moniac may be seen raving, writhing, tearing, 
bursting his bonds, till subdued by the exorcist; 
his fury subsides, he stares and sighs, falls help- 
less to the ground, and comes to himself; and 
then the deities caused by excitement, singing, 
and incense to enter into men's bodies, mani- 
fest their presence with the usual hysterical or 
epileptic symptoms, or speaking in their own 
divine name and personality deliver oracles by 
the vocal organs of the inspired medium."* 

After tracing the history of the doctrine 
of demon-possession as held by the philosophers 
of Greece, and Rome; by the Jews at the open- 
ing of the Christian era, by the early Fathers 
of the Christian church, and subsequently by the 
existing nations of Europe, Dr. Tylor adds: 
"It is not too much to assert that the doctrine of 
demoniacal possession is kept up, substantially 
the same theory to account for substantially the 
same facts, by half the human race who thus 
stand as consistent representatives of their fore- 
fathers back into primitive antiquity. It is in 
the civilized world under the influence of the 
medical doctrines which have been developing 
since classic times that the early animistic theory 

* "PrimitiveCulture," Vol 2. pp. 136, 137. 



160 DEMON-POSSESS/ON 



of these morbid phenomena has been gradually 
superseded by views more in accordance with 
modern science, to the great gain of our health 
and happiness."* 

It appears from these quotations, and other 
portions of the books of the two authors above 
referred to, that in their opinion the remark- 
able correspondence between the religous be- 
liefs and superstitions of nations in different 
parts of the world, and in different periods 
of the world's history, are not due to ad 
extra causes, but are merely the natural out- 
come of inherent principles or tendencies in 
man's spiritual nature, always producing, in the 
same stage of development, the same outward 
manifestations, and the same theories respecting 
these manifestations; the causes of which they 
regard as subjective rather than objective. 

In Dr. Tylor's thorough and exhaustive trea- 
tise it is but natural to expect that the doctrine 
of demon-possession which forms such a strik- 
ing feature of "Primitive Culture" would be 
specially considered. In this expectation we are 
not disappointed. His conclusions may be 
summarized as follows: 

I. The facts of which the^*" possession)^ theory 
is the interpretation aud explanation are the 
same in kind now that they were in the early 
times. Says Dr. Tylor, "It has to be thoroughly 

, "Primitive Culture." vol 2, pp. 142, 14.^ 



Bl^OLUTlON AND OTHER THBORIES 161 



understood that the changed aspect of the sub- 
ject in modern opinion is not due to disappear- 
ance of the actual manifestations which early 
philosophy attributed to demoniacal influence." 
To repeat a statement of Dr. Tylor's already 
quoted: "It is not too much to assert that the 
doctrine of demoniacal possession is kept up, 
substantially the same theory to account for sub- 
stantially the same facts, by half the human 
race, who thus stand as consistent representa- 
tives of their forefathers back into primitve an- 
tiquity."* 

II. The ''''possession^'' theory has been the 
dominant one in all ages, and accorditig to Dr. 
Tylor, is rational and philosophical in its place 
in fnan's history. He says: "This is the savage 
theory of demoniacal possession and obsession, 
which has been for ages, and still remains, the 
dominant theory of disease and inspiration 
among the lower races. It is obviously based 
on an animistic interpretation, most genuine and 
rational in its proper place in man's intellec- 
tual history of the actual symptoms of the cases." 
Again: "As belonging to the lower culture it is a 
perfectly rational philosophical theory to account 
for certain pathological facts. The general doc- 
trine of disease-spirits and oracle-spirits appears 
to have its earliest, broadest, and most consist- 
ent position within the limits of savagery. When 

* "Primitive Culture" Vol. 2, p, 142. 
io Demon 



163 DEMON-POSSESSION 

we have gained a clear idea of it in this, its 
original home, we shall be able to trace it along 
from grade to grade of civilization, breaking 
away piecemeal under the influence of new 
medical theories, yet sometimes expanding in 
revival, and, at least in lingering survival, hold- 
ing its place into the midst of our modern life."* 
III. Dr. Tylor traces demon possession to 
its supposed cause and presents his view of the 
philosophy zuhich underlies it. He says: "As in 
normal conditions the man's soul inhabitating 
his body, is held to give it life, to think, speak 
and act through it, so an adaptation of the self- 
same principle explains abnormal conditions of 
body or mind, by considering the new symptoms 
as due to the operation of a second soul-like be- 
ing, a strange spirit. The possessed man, toss- 
ed and shaken in fever, pained and wrenched as 
though some live creature were tearing or twist- 
ing him within, pining as though it were devour- 
ing his vitals day by day, rationally finds a per- 
sonal spiritual cause for his sufferings. In hid- 
eous dreams he may even sometimes see the 
very ghost or nightmare fiend that plagues him. 
Especially when the mysterious unseen power 
throws him helpless on the ground, jerks and 
writhes him in convulsions, makes him leap 
upon the by-standers with a giant's strength and 
wild beast's ferocity; impels him with distorted 

* "Primitive Culture," vol. 2, pp, 124, 125. 



EVOLUTION AND OTHER THEORIES 163 



face and frantic gesture, and voice not his own, 
nor seemingly even human, to pour forth wild 
incoherent raving, or with thought and eloquence 
beyond his sober faculties to command, to fore- 
tell — such an one seems to those who watch him, 
and even to himself, to have become the mere 
instrument of a spirit which has seized him or 
entered into him, a possessing demon in whose 
personality the patient believes so implicitly that 
he often imagines a personal name for it which it 
can declare when it speaks in its own voice and 
character through his organs of speech; at last 
quitting the medium's spent and jaded body the 
intruding spirit departs as it came. This is 
the savage theory of demonical possession."* 
Again: "The soul's place in modern thought is in 
the metaphysics of religion, audits especial office 
there is that of furnishing an intellectual side to 
the religious doctrine of the future life. Such are 
the alternations which have differenced the fun- 
damental animistic belief in its course through 
successive periods of the world's culture. Yet 
it is evident that, notwithstanding all this pro- 
found change, the conception of the human soul 
is, as to its most essential nature, continuous 
from the philosophy of the savage thinker, to 
that of the modern professor of theology. Its 
definition has remained from the first that of an 
animating, separable, surviving entity, ihe 

* "Primitive Culture," Vol. 2, p. 124. 



164 DEMON POSSESSION 



vehicle of individual personal existence. The 
theory of the soul is one principal part of a sys- 
tem of religious philosophy which unites in an 
unbroken line of mental connection, the savage 
fetish worshiper and the civilized Christian. 
The divisions which have separated the great 
religions of the world into intolerant and hostile 
sects are for the most part superficial in compari- 
son with the deepest of all religious schisms, 
that which divides animism from materialism."""' 
Many questions are here suggested of the deep- 
est interest and the highest importance upon the 
consideration of which we may not now enter. 
In our present inquiries we are specially inter- 
ested in knowing how Dr. Tylor accounts for 
the origin of this theory of possession, and why 
he regards it as rational and philosophical in its 
place. 

About 450 pages, (or nearly one half of Dr. 
Tylor's two large volumes) are taken up with 
the classification of a wide array of facts under 
the general head of Animism. Demon-posses- 
sion is a subordinate head, including a certain 
class of these facts which are supposed by Dr. 
Tylor to be accounted for by the same theory. 

Dr. Tylor regards the theory of demon-posses- 
sion in the same light as the generally received 
theory of the human soul. As the outward nor- 
mal manifestations of human life, such asthink- 

♦ "Primitive Culture." Vol. 1, pp. 501, 502. 



El^OLUTlON ^ND OTHER THEORIES 165 



ing, speaking, acting, are accounted for by the 
supposition of a soul — a distinct, separate, surviv- 
ing entity, in which man's personality inheres, so 
the abnormal states which we have been con- 
sidering are explained by the supposition that 
during these states the body is possessed by an- 
other soul, which also has a distinct entity — a 
new personality. 

We suppose Dr. Tylor accepts this theory as 
rational, genuine, and philosophical, because it 
covers the whole field which we are investigat- 
ing, and clearly explains all the facts; not only 
the central fact of a new personality, but also 
those relating to the acquisition of new powers, 
physical and intellectual, such as superhuman 
strength, gifts of oratory, prophecy, and ven- 
triloquism, and the ability to speak languages 
before unknown, etc. 

IV. After thus fully presenting and account- 
ing for the doctrine of demon-possession as a 
hyphothcsis genuine, rational attd philosophical 
in its proper place in mans intellectual history. 
Dr. Tylor summarily repudiates and rejects it, 
on grounds both vague and inconclusive. 

The principal reason which he gives for re- 
jecting the theory of demon-possession is that it 
belongs to a state of savagery. He says: "Now 
in dealing with hurtful superstitions the proof 
that they are things which it is the tendency of 
savagery to produce, and of higher culture to 



166 DEMON-POSSESSION 



destroy is accepted as a lair controversial argu- 
ment. The mere historical position of a belief 
or custom may raise a presumption as to its 
origin which becomes a presumption as to its 
authenticity." This is certainly an easy way of 
disposing of the question. It is not to be sup- 
posed, however, that this assumption that the 
doctrine of demon-possession belongs character- 
istically to savages, will command unquestioned 
assent. On the other hand its general accept- 
ance in all ages and by all races, including those 
ages and races which have had most to do in 
moulding the thought and civilization of the 
world for twenty centuries, establishes a strong 
presumption of its authenticity. The supposition 
that the Greeks, and Romans, and Jews were 
less qualified to form a correct judgment on mat- 
ters of this kind than we are is gratifying to our 
self-conceit, but it is still quite possible that 
they may have been better qualified to weigh 
the evidence and determine the causes of these 
phenomena than men who approach the subject 
with the prejudgment that physical laws are 
competent to account for all the facts of psychol- 
ogy, as well as physics. 

There can be no doubt that there were in 
former ages many "hurtful superstitions" con- 
nected not only with demonology but also with 
the sciences of astronomy, chemistry, geography, 
and medicine, which "it is the tendency of sav- 



EVOLUTION AND OTHER THEORIES 1(57 

agery to produce, and of higher culture to des- 
troy," but these sciences, modified by higher 
culture, still survive, and will probably continue 
to do so until the end of time. It is possible 
that the same may be true of the long surviving 
doctrine of demon-posssesion. 

V. What hypothesis does Dr. Tylor adopt 
in the place of that of '''' possession^'' which he 
rejects? The answer to this he has not given 
clearly and categorically, but it may be inferred 
from incidental statements such as the following: 
"It has to be thoroughly understood that the 
changed aspect of the subject in modern opinion 
is not due to disappearance of the actual mani- 
festations which early philosophy attributed to 
demoniacal influence. Hysteria and epilepsy, 
delirium and mania, and such like bodily and 
mental derangements still exist." . . . "It 
is in the civilized world under the influence of 
the medical doctrines which have been develop- 
ing since classic times, that the early animistic 
theory of these morbid phenomena has been 
gradually superseded by views more in accord- 
ance with modern science, to the great gain of 
our health and happiness." . . "Yet whenever 
in times old or new, we find demoniacal influ- 
ences brought forward to account for affections 
which scientific physicians now explain on a 
different principle, we must be careful not to 
misjudge the ancient doctrine and its place in 



168 DEMON-POSSESSION 

history. Just as mechanical astronomy gradually 
superseded the animistic astronomy of the lower 
races, so biological pathology gradually super- 
seded animistic pathology, the immediate oper- 
ation of personal spiritual beings in both cases 
giving place to the operation of natural pro- 
cesses."* "Jews and Christians at that time 
held the doctrine which had prevailed for ages 
before, and continued to prevail for ages after, 
referring to possession and obsession by spirits 
the symptoms of mania, epilepsy, dumbness, 
delirious and oracular utterances, and other 
morbid conditions mental and bodily, "t 

There can be no doubt that modern medical 
science has modified the "possession" theory as 
held by savages; rendered the belief in many su- 
perstitions impossible, and very much circum- 
scribed the sphere of its beliefs. The same is 
true, as has been noted above, of other sciences, 
and so that argument, if it proves anything, 
proves too much, unless we are prepared to rel- 
egate all these sciences to the domain of savages 
and superstition. 

Dr. Tylor intimates that all cases of supposed 
demon-possession are identical with "hysteria, 
epilepsy, delirium, and mania, and such like 
bodily and mental derangements;" but this is a 
pure assumption which is disproved by facts, 

* "Primitive Culture," Vol. 2, pp. 142, 143. 
t Ibid, Vol. 2. d. 138 



EVOLUTION AND OTHER THEORIES 169 

as will be shown in the following chapter. He 
says that the old theory of "possession" "has 
been gradually superseded by views more in ac- 
cordance with modern science;" but does not 
tell us what these views are. He states that 
"scientiiic physicians now explain on a different 
principle" the facts formerly explained by de- 
mon-possession, but we search in vain to find 
what this explanation is. The phenomena in 
question are referred to "natural processes" rather 
than "personal spiritual beings," but we are 
not told how "natural processes" produce or 
account for these phenomena. 

Dr. Tylor seems to think that he has little 
to do in accounting for the phenomena under 
consideration, but to assign them their "proper 
place" in the process of "evolution in the spirit- 
ual world." This, however — even if the place as- 
signed be the correct one — could not reasonably 
be regarded as a full and satisfactory treatment 
of the subject. Merely assigning a place ex- 
plains nothing, accounts for nothing. What 
would we say of a medical work which dis- 
posed of such diseases as whooping-cough, mea- 
sles, gout, and paralysis, by saying that the 
"proper place" for the former is in childhood, 
and for the latter in old age.'' 

But we may further inquire, what is meant 
in Dr. Tylor's treatise, by the "proper place" 
of the theory of demon-possession.? It is simply 



170 DEMON-POSSESSION 

the place which Dr. Tylor assigns to it in his 
hypothesis of evolution in the spiritual world. 
This evolution is supposed to be from the lower 
forms of fetishism through polytheism and 
pantheism up to monotheism, the process of 
evolution to culminate (if we understand Dr. 
Tylor) in the negation of a personal God, 
and also of a personal soul as a separate 
existing entity. This theory which is the 
basis of Dr. Tylor' s whole treatise is disproved 
by the concurrent testimony of the prominent 
nations of antiquity. The history and litera- 
ture of India show us in the earliest period 
a close approximation to monotheism, followed 
by pantheism and polytheism. The Chinese 
race invariably characterize the earliest period of 
their history as pre-eminent above all others 
for its theoretical and practical ethics and re- 
ligion. The ancient classics of China, like those 
of India, point to a monotheistic period antece- 
dent to pantheism and polytheism. The elabor- 
ate languages of some of the tribes of interior 
Africa suggest, if they do not prove, that the 
races speaking these languages have degenerated 
from a higher type. In opposition then to the 
theory adopted by Dr. Tylor, the testimony of 
antiquity goes to confirm the general teachings 
of Scripture, concisely stated in the first chap- 
ter of the Epistle to the Romans, that "evolution 
in the spiritual world," when it has not been 



EI/OLUTION AND OTHER THEORIES 171 



counteracted by the influences of the truth as re- 
vealed in the Old and New Testaments has been 
downward from primeval monotheism, tending 
to polytheism and fetishism. 

Speaking of this theory of evolution, Rev, W, 
A. P. Martin, L.L. D. President of the Peking 
University, says:* 

"A wide survey of civilized nations (and the 
history of others is beyond reach) shows that 
the actual process undergone by the human mind 
in its religious development is precisely opposite 
to that which this theory supposes; in a word 
that man was not left to construct his own creed, 
but that his blundering logic has always been 
active in its attempts to corrupt and obscure a 
divine original. The connections subsisting be- 
tween the religious systems of ancient and dis- 
tant countries presents many a problem dif^cult 
of solution. Indeed their mythologies and re- 
ligious rites are generally so distinct as to admit 
the hypothesis of an independent origin; but the 
simplicity of their earliest beliefs exhibits an un- 
mistakable resemblance suggestive of a com- 
mon source. 

"China, India, Egypt, and Greece all agree 
in the montheistic type of their early religion. 
The Orphic hymns long before the advent of 
the popular divinities celebrated the Pantheos, 
the Universal God. The odes compiled by Con- 

♦ "The Chinese," pp. 163, 164. 



173 DEMON-POSSESSION 

fucius testify to the early worship of Shangte, 
the Supreme Ruler. The Vedas speak of 'one 
unknown true Being, all-present, all-powerful; 
the Creator, Preserver and Destroyer of the 
universe. ' And in Egypt as late as the time of 
Plutarch, there were still vestiges of a monothe- 
istic worship. 'The other Egyptians, ' he says, 
'all made offerings at the tomb of the sacred 
beasts; but the inhabitants of the Thebaid stood 
alone in making no such offerings, not regarding 
as a God anything that can die, and acknowl- 
edge no God but one that they call Kneph, who 
had no birth and can have no death. ' Abra- 
ham in his wanderings found the God of his 
fathers known and honored in Salem, in Gerar, 
and in Memphis; while at a latter day, Jethro 
in Midian, and Balaam in Mesopotamia, vvere 
witnesses that the knowledge of Jehovah was not 
yet extinct in those countries."* 

It is too often assumed that we may justly 
infer a low stage of religious development from 
a low state of development in the arts and 
sciences. We may, however, freely admit that 
civilization was evolved by a slow and gradual 
progress from the rudest beginnings, without at 
all invalidating the teachings of Scripture and of 
history, that, in the knowledge and worship of 
God, man's progress, when left alone, has been 

* Similar testimony is given at length from various sources by Rev. F. 
F. EUenwood, D. D. in his "Oriental Religions and Christianity," p. 222; 
also by Chas. Loring Brace in "The Unknown God." 



B SOLUTION AND OTHER THEORIES 173 

downwards instead of upwards. Men may dwell 
in caves, use stone implements and be clothed 
in skins, and still be pious monotheists, free 
from fetishism or polytheism; and men may be 
advanced to the highest stage of civilization, with 
their religious instincts almost obliterated, and 
worshipers of no God. 

Dr. Tylor not only fails to give us a new 
theory in the place of the "Animistic Theory" 
which he discards, but in the course of his 
investigations presents many a fact of which he 
gives no explanation, and raises new questions to 
which he gives no satisfactory answers. Hav- 
ing in the introduction to his book quoted 
with approbation the axiom of Leibnitz that 
"nothing happens without its sufficient reason" 
it is but natural to suppose that he would have 
considered and solved questions constantly aris- 
ing in connection with the cases which he ad- 
duces, such as the following: What is the 
reason why persons in these abnormal states 
invariably assume a new personality, and act 
out that personality with uniform consistency.? 
How do they suddenly acquire the "gift of ven- 
triloquism," "the ability to command, to counsel, 
and to foretell.?" How is it that men who in the 
natural state show neither ability nor eloquence, 
in such "convulsive deliverances burst forth in- 
to earnest, lofty declamation, prophesying future 
events in well-knit harangues full of the poetic 



174 DEMON-POSSESSION 

figure and metaphor of the professional orator?" 
How is it that they are able to speak accurately 
and fluently languages which they have never 
learned? These questions call for answers, 
but I have not been able to find answers to 
them in the two interesting and valuable volumes 
for which I gladly acknowledge my indebtedness. 
Yet as it is hinted or implied that the desired 
answers have been already furnished by the med- 
ical profession, a further consideration of this 
subject must be reserved for the following chap- 
ter in which the Pathological Theory is examined. 



CHAPTER XII. 

THE PATHOLOGICAL THEORY. 

In accounting for the phenomena of so-called 
"demon-possession" the Medical or Pathological 
Theory is no doubt the one most generally 
adopted. 

A book entitled "Nervous Derangement"* 
by William A. Hammond, M. D., Surgeon 
General U. S. Army ; Professor of Diseases of the 
Mind and Nervous system in the Medical De- 
partment of the University of the City of New 
York, etc., contains the fullest presentation of 
the Pathological Theory which I have been able 
to find, and embodies views which so far as my 
observation goes, are largely adopted by the 
medical profession. 

Dr. Hammond claims to have adopted the 
purely philosophical or inductive method; and 
in defining his principles and modes of procedure, 
excites high expectations that he will be able to 
throw a flood of scientific and philosophical light 
on the subject before us. He says: "There is an 

» "Nervous Derangement, Somnambulism, Hypnotism, Hysteria, Hys- 
teroid Affections," etc.. New York, G. P. Putnam & Sons, 1881. 

1 1^ 



176 DBMON.POSSESSION 

inherent tendency in the mind of man to ascribe 
to supernatural agencies those events the causes 
of which are beyond his knowledge; and this is 
especially the case with the abnormal and mor- 
bid phenomena which are manifested in his own 
person. But as his intellect becomes more 
thoroughly trained, and as science advances in 
its developments, the range of his credulity be- 
comes more and more circumscribed, his doubts 
are multiplied, and he at length reaches that 
condition of healthy skepticism which allows of 
no belief without the proof". . . "He has learned 
to doubt, and, therefore, to reason better; he 
makes experiments, collects facts, does not be- 
gin to theorize until his data are sufficient, and 
then is careful that his theories do not extend 
beyond the foundation of certainty, or at least 
|of probability, upon which he builds."* 

"But there have always been, and probably 
always will be, individuals whose love for the 
marvelous is so great, and whose logical powers 
are so small, as to render them susceptible of 
entertaining any belief, no matter how prepos- 
terous it may be; others more numerous, who, 
staggered by facts which they cannot understand, 
accept any hypothesis which may be offered as 
an explanation, rather than confess their ignor- 
ance; and others again — and these the most dan- 
gerous to the community — whose education, full 

* Page 229. i.io. 



THE PATHOLOGICAL THEORY 177 



though it may have been in certain directions, 
is yet narrow, and of such a character as to 
warp their judgments in all matters affecting the 
preconceived ideas by which their whole lives are 
ostensibly governed. 

"The real and fraudulent phenomena of what 
is called spiritualism, and of miraculous cases, 
are of a character to make a profound impression 
upon the credulous and the ignorant; and both 
these classes have accordingly been active in 
spreading the most exaggerated ideas relative to 
matters which are either absurdly false, or not 
so very astonishing, when viewed by the cold 
light of science."* 

As Dr. Hammond proceeds in his investiga- 
tions he seems much less confident of reaching "' 
clear and definite results, and his language as- 
sumes a different tone. 

"Now after this survey of some of the princi- 
pal phenomena of natural and artificial somnam- 
bulism, are we able to determine in what their 
condition essentially consists .-' I am afraid we 
shall be obliged to answer this question in the 
negative, and mainly for the reason, that with 
all the study that has been given to the subject, 
we are not yet sufficiently well acquainted with 
the normal functions of the nervous system to 
be in a position to pronounce with definiteness 
on their aberrations. Nevertheless, the mat- 

* Page 30. 
/_7 Demon 



178 DEMON-POSSESSION 

ter is not one of which we are wholly ignorant. 
We have some important data upon which to 
base our investigations into the philosophy of 
the conditions in question, and inquiry, even if 
leading to erroneous results, at least promotes 
reflection and discussion, and may in time carry 
us to absolute truth."* These remarks are 
most just and reasonable. They are, however, 
by no means reassuring as to the adequacy of 
the Pathological Theory to account for the facts 
in question, and hardly consistent with the 
authoritative tone, and dogmatic statements 
which appear in other extracts from his work. 

Avowed beliefs and theories on the subject of 
psychology incapacitate Dr. Hammond for con- 
sidering this subject without a strong bias almost 
amounting to prejudgment. 

He says: "Science has for ages been fettered 
by theological and metaphysical dogmas, which 
give the mind an existence independent of the 
nervous system, and which teach that it is an 
entity which sets all the functions of the body in 
action, and of which the brain is the seat. There 
can be no scientific enquiry relative to matters 
of faith, facts alone admit of investigation; and 
hence so long as psychology was expounded by 
teachers who had never even seen a human brain, 
much less a spinal cord, or sympathetic nerve, 
who knew absolutely nothing of nervous physi- 

* Page 30 



THE PATHOLOGICAL THEORY 179 



ology, and who, therefore, taught from a stand- 
point which had not a single fact to rest upon, 
it was not to be expected that the true science 
of mind could make much progress." 

The author defines "mind" * to be "the force 
developed by nervous action." Again t "The 
mind may be regarded as a force, the result of 
nervous action, and the elements of which are 
percepton, intellect, the emotions, and the will." 

When Dr. Hammond comes to consider di- 
rectly the subject of demon-possession his state- 
ments are characterized by great inaccuracy and 
misapprehension. Indeed he abandons his pure- 
ly philosophical method, and assumption and > 
dogmatism take the place of evidence. He as- 
cribes to believers in demon-possession views 
and theories which they do not hold; points 
out grounds or reasons on which they base 
their beliefs which are not so regarded by them, 
and disregards altogether the real evidence on 
which their belief rests. 

In speaking of the modern scientist he says: 
"Thus he does not now believe the bodies of 
lunatics, epileptics, and hysterical women, are 
inhabited by devils and demons, for he has as- ' 
certained by observation that the abnormal con- 
ditions present in such persons can be accounted 
for by material derangments of the organs or 
functions of the system." 

* Page 30. 
t Pagea43' 



180 DEMON-POSSESSION 

The argument here is, or rather the inference 
suggested to the reader is, that nations who 
hold the theory of demon-possession beheve that 
the bodies of lunatics, epileptics, and hysterical 
women are inhabited by devils and demons, 
and that cases of lunacy, epilepsy, and hysteria, 
are regarded by these nations as cases of pos- 
session. These intimations, however, are not 
justified by facts and are very misleading. That 
there may have been individuals in some nations 
and ages who have held such views is quite 
probable. "What is insisted on is that such are 
by no means general or typical. Nations who 
hold the doctrine of demon-possession, distin- 
guish between it and nervous diseases. The 
Chinese of the present day have separate and 
distinct names for idiocy, insanity, epilepsy and 
hysteria, which they ascribe to physical derang- 
ment as their immediate cause, regarding them 
as quite distinct from demon-possession. They 
not unfrequently ascribe diseases of various 
kinds to evil spirits, as their originating causes, 
considering them, however, as differing from the 
same diseases originating without the agency of 
spirits, only in origin and not in nature, and, as 
quite distinct from the abnormal conditions 
of "possession." 

The assertion that instances of so-called "pos- 
session" are only cases of physical disease orig- 
inating in abnormal conditions of the nervous 



THE PATHOLOGICAL THEORY 181 

system is of such general acceptance that it is | 
met with in our current periodical and book lit- j 
erature; in our standard encylopedias, and some- 
times, (by implication at least) in Christain 
treatises. The instances given in Scripture are 
accounted for in the same way. I believe how- 
ever, that this assertion must be rejected. 
It is not true, as we have seen in the cases 
from China, and a little consideration will show 
that it is not true with regard to the cases 
in the New Testament. 

First. The Scriptures do not confound de- \ 
mon-possession with diseases, but uniformly 
make a clear distinction between them. We 
read: "He cast out spirits with a word, and 
healed all that were sick" Matt. viii. i6. "They 
brought unto him all that were sick, holden with 
divers diseases and torments, possessed with 
demons; and epileptic and palsied, and he heal- 
ed them." Matt. iv:24. "They brought unto him 
all that were sick, and those that were possessed 
of demons." Mark i. 32. In the above passages 
demon-possession is differentiated from all sick- 
ness or disease; also from diverse diseases and 
torments and specifically from epilepsy and pa- 
ralysis. This is the uniform testimony of the 
New Testament. * 

Second . But it may be said that, though it 
be true that the Scripture writers make a dis- 

* Compare Matt, ix: 32, 33; Matt, x: i; Luke vi: 17, 18 and ix: i;Mrk.iii: 
15. vii. 12. 



182 DEMON-POSSESSION 

tinction between demon-possession and disease, 
there is really no such distinction; cases of 
"possession" being in fact only cases of physi- 
cal disease. * In opposition to this view it will 
be shown in the latter part of this chapter, and 
the following chapter, that there is now a tend- 
ency among prominent scientific writers to rele- 
gate these cases of "possession" to the domain of 
Psychology rather than Pathology, and to refer 
these phenomena to causes not yet understood. 
The presumption seems to be very strong that 
the unscientific Chinese, and Jews, (to say 
nothing of other nations) were, so far as this 
subject is concerned more careful observers of 
facts, and more correct in their deductions and 
conclusions than many who have been leaders 
of public opinion in our times. 

Dr. Hammond depreciates the doctrine of 
"possession" by representing it as belonging to 
races of a low type of culture, incapable by rea- 
son of ignorance and superstition of forming an 
intelligent opinion on this subject. In this re- 
spect his position is similar to that taken by Dr. 
Tylor. He says of "persons who ascribe oc- 
currences which do not accord with their ex- 
periences to the agency of disembodied individ- 

* In recent times "Epilepsy" has with some medical writers acquired 
a wider range of meaning than it formerly had. Having assumed that 
"possession" is a form of "epileps;;" the distinguishing characteristics 
of "possession" ate atfributed to it. By this process "possession" « 
"epilepsy" because "epilepsy" is made the same as "possession." The 
diflBcuUv, however of accounting for the pbenonaena in question on th« 
hypdfiif'y.i^ of tb»>' D'Jnt tb» result cf di5Pas«; still remains. 



THE PATHOLOGICAL THEORY 183 

uals whom they imagine to be circulating through 
the world:" "in this respect they resemble those 
savages who regard the burning lens, the mirror, 
and other things which produce unfamiliar 
effects, as animated by deities. Their minds are 
decidedly fetish worshiping in character, and 
are scarcely in this respect of a more elevated 
type than the Congo negro who endows the 
rocks and trees with higher attributes than he 
claims for himself."* It would be more in 
accordance with fact to say that the doctrine of 
demon-possession has been held by almost all 
the nations of the world, including those most 
highly cultivated, such as Egypt, Greece, Rome 
and India, nations to whom we owe a large por- 
tion of what is highest and noblest in the civil- 
ization of this 19th century. It is quite true 
that they were ignorant respecting the "human 
brain," "the spinal cord," "the sympathetic 
nerves," and "nervous physiology" generally, but 
they were favored with the teachings of men who 
were close observers of nature, who were accus- 
tomed to weigh evidence accurately and imparti- 
ally, who were philosophers and men of genius of 
the highest type, and who came to the considera- 
tion of this subject free from bias and preconcep- 
tion. Is it not quite possible that it was an advan- 
tage rather than a disadvantage that they had not 
formed the prejudgment that possession is im- 

* Page 230. 



184 DEMON-POSSESSION 

possible and absurd, and that mind is not a 
separate entity, but only the force developed by 
nervous action? So far as the historical argu- 
ment is worth anything it goes to establish a pre- 
sumption that the possession theory is the true 
one. This question is to be decided, however, 
not by individual authority, but by well ascer- 
tained facts, in gaining a knowledge of which it 
is our privilege to avail ourselves of all the light 
which modern science can give us. 

After Dr. Hammond's confident assurance 
that modern medical science is able to account 
for all the abnormal conditions connected with 
"demon-possession," we had certainly every 
reason to expect that he would show us clearly 
and specifically how medical science explains 
these facts. It is not too much to say that he 
has hardly even attempted to do this. 

He illustrates what he supposes have always 
been regarded as symptoms of "possession," by 
reference to a case of "hystero-epilepsy" which 
he met with in his practice. He says in speak- 
ing of it: "Such a case as this would, undoubt- 
edly, at a not very remote anterior period have 
been regarded almost without a dissentient voice, 
as one of diabolical or demoniacal possession, 
and even now there are not wanting learned and 
pious theologians, Catholic and Protestant, who 
would certainly thus designate it, for it fulfills 
jn all respects the description given of such 



THB PATHOLOGICAL THEORY 185 

cases, both in ancient and modern times."* The 
fact is, this case only presents pathological 
symptoms that belong alike to cases of "posses- 
sion," and diseases or derangements of the nerv- 
ous system, and is almost entirely wanting in 
the special symptoms of "possession." 

Dr. Hammond goes on to say: "Thus if we 
go back to the writers of the New Testament 
we find the phenomena well described. There 
are convulsive movements, the body is contorted, 
the patient cries out, he foams at the mouth, 
falls down and then reposes. The patient is 
torn, gnashes his teeth. He falls on the ground 
and wallows foaming. He is contorted (vexed;) 
falls sometimes into the fire and sometimes into 
the water."t Here again Dr. Hammond cites only 
pathological symptoms which are common to 
cases of "demon-possession" and to ordinary de- 
rangements of the nervous system, and strangely 
fails to notice symptoms which specially charac- 
terize cases of "possession" which are not path- 
ological, and do not harmonize with his purely 
pathological theory. It is readily admitted that 
Mania, Idiocy, Epilepsy, and Hysteria have 
symptoms similar to those of "possession." 
This by no means proves, however, that so- 
called cases of "possession" are only varied forms 
of these diseases. The same symptoms may 

* Hammond; p. 150. 
t Hammond; 150 151, 



186 DEMON-POSSESSION 

be due to very different causes, and belong to 
very different diseases. This familiar fact is the 
well-known cause of the difficulty which physi- 
cians constantly meet with in the diagnosis of 
diseases, being often obliged to wait until the 
disease in hand developes some new and pro- 
nounced symptoms which at once reveal its true 
character, and differentiate it from all other dis- 
eases with which it has symptoms in common. 
It is important then to inquire what the symp- 
toms which peculiarly characterize and differenti- 
ate demon-possession are, and we will here partic- 
ularly mention threeof them. (Compare pp. 143-5) 

First Mark. T/ie chief differentiating mark of 
so-called demon-possession is the antomatic pre- 
sentation and the persistent and cotisistent act- 
ing out of a new personality. 

(i) This is shown in categorical assertions of 
the person speaking declaring that he is a demon, 
and often giving his name and dwelling place; 

(2) Also in the use of pronouns. The first 
personal pronoun always represents the demon 
while by-standers are addressed in the second 
person, and the subject "possessed" is generally 
spoken of in the 3d person and regarded for 
the time being as in an unconscious state, and 
practically non-existent. 

(3) The same distinction of individuality ap- 
pears in the use of names or titles. In China 
the professed demon generally applies to himself 



THE PATHOLOGICAL THEORY 187 

or herself the title shien "genius," and speaks 
of the possessed subject as my hiang to, "in- 
cense burner," or "medium." 

(4) This new personality also manifests itself 
in sentiments, declarations, facial expressions 
and physical manifestations, harmonizing with 
the above assumption. 

The appropriate and consistent use of these 
pronouns, epithets, and sentiments in rapid con- 
versations with numerous by-standers, would, 
on the supposition of deception or imposture, 
be exceedingly difficult, if not quite impossible, 
even in the case of adepts in the art of simula- 
tion; to say nothing of the same phenomena 
(occurring apparently with perfect spontaneity) 
in the case of children, who pass into this state 
suddenly and unexpectedly, and have no recol- 
lection or consciousness of what happens while 
in it. 

This matter of the assumption of a new per- 
sonality throws an important light on the origin 
of the theory of demon-possession. Most writers 
regard it as having been devised by the observ- 
ers of these phenomena, and it is, as we have 
seen, ascribed to savages. In point of fact, 
however, it probably should be referred rather 
to the "demoniac." It is he who asserts this 
theory, and the minds of observers are simply 
exercised in determining whether this declaration 
is true or false. 



188 DEMON-POSSESSION 

This new personality may seem at first anal- 
ogous to or identical with the assumption and 
apparent belief in a different personality not un- 
commonly met with in insane persons, A man 
imagines himself to be the Duke of Wellington, 
or Bonaparte, or George Washington, or some 
other distinguished personage. A closer com- 
parison of these cases, however, will show that 
they are quite different, (i). In cases of demon- 
omania there is a clear and constant recognition 
by the new personality of the continued and dis- 
tinct existence and individuality of the subject 
"possessed", the new personality speaking of 
the possessed subject in the third person, which 
peculiarity, so far as my knowledge goes, is en- 
tirely wanting in insane persons. (2). The de- 
moniac when in the abnormal state characterized 
by the new personality really seems and acts in 
all respects like an entirely different person, while 
the insane person is his diseased self, and the 
assumed personality is a transparent unreality. 
Frederick W. H. Myers, in a paper which 
appeared in the Nineteenth Century, Nov. 1886, 
gives a very interesting account of what he 
designates "Multiplex Personality." A patient 
in consequence of an injury received by the brain 
in childhood had different stages of his life dis- 
severed, so that he lived in only one stage at a 
time, without any consciousness or memory of 
any other stage. Mr. Myers gives a full ac- 



THE PATHOLOGICAL THEORY 189 

count of these different states of consciousness, 
and the means by which they might be artificially 
induced. It is evident that the various exhi- 
bitions of personality in this case all belong dis- 
tinctly to the same subject. 

Mr. Myers says further in this article: "In- 
stances of self severance profound as Louis V's 
are naturally to be sought mainly in the lunatic 
asylum. There indeed v^^e find duplicated individ- 
uality in its grotesque forms. We have the man 
w^ho has always lost himself, and insists on look- 
ing for himself under the bed. We have the man 
who maintains that there are two of him, and 
sends his plate the second time, saying: * I have 
had plenty but the other fellow has not.' We 
have the man who maintains that he is himself 
and his brother too; and when asked how he 
can possibly be both at once he replied; 'Oh, 
by a different rnother. '" 

In all cases of this kind the personality pre- 
sented is that of the diseased subject. The pro- 
noun "I" always refers to the diseased subject; 
in cases of demonomania never. 

This topic of changes in personality is elabor- 
ately treated in a recent work entitled: "The 
Diseases of Personality" by M. Ribot. The il- 
lustrative cases which this author presents are 
simply, to use an expression borrowed by him 
from another author, "successive attitudes of 
the Me." Many of them appear to be cases of 



190 DEMON-POSSESSION 

mania, and some of them show symptoms similar 
to those we have been considering; but in no 
case is the original normal personality lost sight 
of, and referred to by the new personality in 
the third person. Nor do we ever find in this 
ably written book any hypothesis which accounts 
for the facts in question. 

A further consideration of the changes of per- 
sonality will be found in the following chapter. 

Second Mark, A iiother differentiating mark 
of demon-possessio7i is the evidence it gives of 
knowledge and intellectual power not possessed 
by the subject ; or explainable on the pathologi- 
cal hypothesis. We have had proof in the pre- 
vious chapter in extracts from Dr. Tylor's 
"Primitive Culture" of the sudden acquisition of 
powers of oratory and poetic expression, and the 
gift of ventriloquism. In the cases which have- 
come before us, from whatever source they have 
been derived, the possession of knowledge and 
information which could not be acquired in any 
ordinary way, is a constantly occurring character- 
istic. Perhaps the most palpable and striking 
evidence of this kind is the ability to speak lan- 
guages unknown by the subject. This ability is 
frequently referred to by Chinese witnesses. 

In one of the cases from Germany given in our 
9th, chapter, we are told: "The demons spoke 
in all the European languages, and in some 



THE PATHOLOGICAL THEORY 191 

which Blumhardt and others did not recognize." 

Andrew Dickson White L. L. D, in an article 
in the "Popular Science Monthly" on Diabolism 
and Hysteria, June 1889, gives an account of 
alleged cases of diabolical possession in a French 
village on the borders of Switzerland, which 
occurred in 1853. He says: "The afflicted were 
said to have climbed trees like squirrels, to have 
shown superhuman strength, and to have expe- 
rienced the gift of tongues, speaking in German 
and Latin, and even in Arabic." 

Not long after this, Prof. Tissot an eminent 
member of the medical faculty at Dijon visited 
the spot, and began a series of researches of 
which he afterwards published a full account. 

Dr. White further states: "Dr. Tissot also 
examined into the gift of tongues exercised by 
the possessed. As to German and Latin no 
great difficulty was presented; it was by no 
means hard to suppose that some of the girls 
might have learned some words of the former 
language in the neighboring Swiss Canton, 
where German was spoken, or even in Ger- 
many itself; and as to Latin, considering that 
they had heard it from childhood in the church, 
there seemed nothing very wonderful in their ut- 
tering some words in that language also." 

The following is from "Ten years with Spirit- 
ual Mediums." "In certain abnormal and highly 
excited states of the nervous system, as is proved 



192 DEMON-POSSESSION 

by abundant facts, matters impressed deep on 
the memory of a father present themselves to 
the consciousness of his posterity. I have no 
doubt, for instance that the daughter of Judge 
Edmonds derives her capacity to speak, in the 
trance state, in languages unfamiliar to her in 
the ordinary moods of consciousness, from her 
father's studies in that direction, or rather, 
from the nervous habit engendered by those 
studies." 

The above quotations are given as furnishing 
other instances of the "gift of tongues," What 
is worthy of notice is — First, that the fact is ac- 
knowledged; Second, the extreme improbability, 
not to say absurdity, of the hypotheses proposed 
to account for it. 

Further references to this subject may be in 
the writings of the early Fathers of the Chris- 
tian church. Clemens Alexandrinus says: "Plato 
attributes a peculiar dialect to the gods, in- 
fering this from dreams and oracles, and espec- 
ially from demoniacs, who do not speak their 
own language or dialect, but that of the demons 
who are entered into them." * 

Lucian, who died about A. D. i8i, speaks 
of some in his day who "delivered the demoniacs 
from their tortures." He then alludes to our 
Lord as "that Syrian of Palestine who cured 
the sick man," saying "The man is silent but the 

* Miscellanies, Bk I, p. 443. 



THE P/ITHOLOGICAL THEORY 193 

demon answers either in the language of the 
Greek, or Barbarians, or whatever country he 
be."* 

Dr. Hammond in his book, repeatedly refers 
to the fact that his bromide prescriptions form 
the best formulas for exorcising spirits, as con- 
clusive evidence that these symptoms are only 
pathological. The proof is not, however, so 
conclusive as might at first appear. If brom- 
ides have the effect of giving tone to the nerv- 
ous system and strengthening the will so as to 
emancipate it from "ab extra" control, the use 
would be just as appropriate and consistent on 
the supposition of the possession theory as of 
the pathological. 

In a manner somewhat similar, it is inferred 
by some writers that, as patients in India sup- 
posed to be possessed by spirits are cured by a 
good flaggelation, it is evident that the supposed 
"possessed" persons are pretenders and impos- 
tors. Whatever we may think about it, it should 
be remembered, that flaggelation, and other 
modes of inflicting pain, are common means of 
exorcising spirits by those who are believers in 
spirit-posssesion and they regard this method as 
perfectly consistent with their belief, and most 
rational. Their theory is this: Spirits seek to 
inhabit the bodies of men and animals for the 
sake of finding a resting place, and, in some way 

* Lucian, in Philopsand, p. 833 Quoted by Wjn. Ramsey, 
13 Demon 



194 DEMON POSSESSION 



not understood by us, getting physical gratifi- 
cation. It is supposed that while the person 
"possessed" is in a state of unconsciousness, 
physical pain and pleasure are transferred to 
the possessing spirit, and he may be driven out 
by making him so uncomfortable in his new 
abode that he is glad to leave and go elsewhere. 
The crying out from pain with the strange ab- 
normal voice, the promising to leave, and the 
immediate fulfillment of the promise, are regard- 
ed as obvious confirmations of the truth of this 
theory. (Compare p. 103, in this vol.) 

Third Mark. Another differentiating mark 
of demonomania, intimately connected with the 
assumption of the new personality is, that with 
the change of personality there is a complete 
change of moral character. 

The character presented is debased and mali- 
cious, having an extreme aversion and hatred 
to God, and especially to the Lord Jesus 
Christ and the Christian religion. Prayer, 
or even the reading of the Bible or some 
Christian book, throws the patient into a parox- 
ysm of opposition and rage; and persistence in 
these exercises is almost invariably followed 
by the return of the subject to the normal 
state. These peculiarities, appear frequently 
in the previous chapters. 

It is needless for us to extend our inquiries 



THE PATHOLOGICAL THEORY 195 



respecting Dr. Hammond's treatment of demon- 
possession. We have already presented all the 
light which his book affords on the subject. The 
result is certainly meagre, superficial, and disap- 
pointing. The author of a quasi medical work,* 
who holds to the theory that the abnormal con- 
ditions, and the psychological phenomena of 
spiritualism are referable to, and demonstrably 
produced by diseased states of the nervous system, 
endeavors to furnish a more philosophical basis 
for the theory. He treats specifically of the 
phenomena of spiritualism some of which are, 
as will be shown in a subsequent chapter, very 
similar to, if not identical with, those of demon- 
possession. 

He says, "I was reluctantly forced to dismiss 
one scientific explanation after another, as in- 
adequate to the facts, and either to suspend 
opinion, or to cast about for explanation, both 
adequate to the phenomena and rigidly scientific 
in its terms." 

The phenomena, which he regards as actual 
objective realities, and not hallucinations or il- 
lusions, he describes as follows: "The phenom- 
ena appear to me to present two very distinct 
series, seldom present in the same person, which I 
shall style respectively nervo-psychic and nervo- 
dynamic — meaning, under the former, to include 

♦ "Ten years with Spiritual Mediums," by Francis Gerry Fairfield. 
p. Appleton & Co. N. Y. 1875. 



196 DEMON-POSSESSION 

clairvoyance in its ordinary aspects, trancs pre- 
vision, presentiment, and the like; under the 
latter, table-tipping, rappings, elevation of 
bodies, writing with phantom-hands, production 
of visible phantoms from luminous clouds, and 
other feats involving the presumption of an in- 
visible dynamic agency." 

His theory for accounting for this may be 
briefly stated as follows: 

Mediums, or those capable of producing these 
phenomena, are persons whose nervous con- 
dition is diseased or abnormal, who have some 
"nervous or cerebral lesion. " Mediums of "ceph- 
alic" temperament are clairvoyants; and those 
of vital temperaments produce the "nervo-dy- 
namic" feats of table-tipping, rapping and the 
like. These phenomena of both kinds, he be- 
lieved to be effected through the means of a 
"peripheral nervous aura," which is emitted by 
the medium and surrounds him as a kind of halo, 
which is even visible to persons of a highly sensi- 
tive constitution. The mediums through and 
within the range of this" peripheral nervous aura," 
which is more or less extended in different indi- 
viduals, produce the phenomena of spiritualism 
both dynamic and psychical, which are merely 
the natural result of the working of the nervous 
system, in accordance with laws of our being 
not yet fully understood. The supposition of 
spirit agency he regards as unnecessary and un- 
scientific. 



THE PATHOLOGICAL THEORY 197 

In support of this theory, the author refers to 
the fact that mediums are characteristically 
persons of abnormal or sensitive nervous consti- 
tutions; and that their performances are at- 
tended with unnatural and intense nervous or 
cerebral action , which taxes to a higher degree 
the vital powers, and produces premature physi- 
cal exhaustion and death. 

These well known facts are quite as consist- 
ent with the old hypothesis that the soul of 
man in his normal condition is the efficient cause 
of all his actions dynamic and psychic, and that 
in cases of "possession" the efficient cause is 
the demon. 

This book is referred to as furnishing another 
instance of an earnest attempt to formulate and 
reduce to order and consistency, the hypothesis 
which would account for abnormal psychical 
conditions of men by the action of a diseased 
nervous system. The theory propounded seems 
to have been as unsatisfactory to the scientific 
world, as the existing scientific theories at the 
time it was written were to the author. 

We are fortunate in having a further presen- 
tation of the Pathological Theory of "demono- 
mania" by no less an authority than Dr.Griesin- 
ger of Berlin. He approaches the subject from 
the standpoint of mental pathology rather than 
physical. Three illustrative cases from his val- 
uable work on Mental Pathology and Therapeu- 



198 DEMON.POSSESSION 

tics have already been given in the ninth chapter 
of this book. 

These cases are represented as having symp- 
toms "evidently analogous to epileptic, or still 
more frequently to hysterical attacks," but dis- 
tinguished from these and other abnormal states 
by the one differentiating mark which has been 
insisted on in the previous part of this chapter, 
viz; the persistent assertion of a new and dis- 
tinct personality. The cases given by this author 
differ somewhat from those which have been 
presented to the reader in the previous chapters 
of this book, in the fact of the consciousness of 
the subject or patient not being wholly sup- 
pressed, the new personality manifesting itself 
in connection with that of the subject, and ad- 
dressing the subject in the second person. In 
one case presented there are six distinct person- 
alities present. This author has the great merit 
of distinguishing clearly between these cases 
and others which have symptoms in common 
with them; of seizing upon the characteristic 
marks of these cases and endeavoring to account 
for them. How far he succeeds in doing this 
the reader must judge for himself. We will 
give Dr. Griesinger's views in his own words. 
"That form of melancholia in which the predomi- 
nant delusion is that the subject of it is pos- 
sessed by some demon, appears chiefly in females 
(almost always hysterical women)and in children. 



THE PATHOLOGICAL THEORY 199 

The most easy explanation of this physiological 
phenomenon is found in those by no means rare 
cases where the trains of thought are always ac- 
companied by a feeling of inward contradiction, 
which quite involuntarily attaches itself to 
them, the result of which is a fatal division or 
separation in the personality. In the more de- 
veloped cases, this circle of ideas, which con- 
stantly accompanies and arrays itself in oppo- 
sition to the actual thought, asserts a perfectly 
independent existence; it sets in motion the 
mechanism of speech, exhibits and clothes itself 
in words, and appears to have no connection 
with the (ordinary) ego of the individual. Of this 
train of ideas which acts independently on the 
organs of speech, the individual giving utterance 
to them has no consciousness before he hears 
them ; the ego does not perceive them ; they spring 
from a region of the soul which is in obscurity 
so far as the ego is concerned ; they appear to 
the individual to be utterly foreign, and are felt 
as intruders exercising a constraint upon his 
thoughts. Hence uneducated persons see in 
these thoughts the presence of a strange being. 
In some cases we find in the extravagant dis- 
course of these women or children a vein of 
poetry or irony utterly at variance with the 
opinions which they formerly most dearly prized ; 
but usually the demon is a very dull and trivial 
fellow."* 

* Ori«siiiger; pp. 169. 



200 DEMON-POSSESSION 



Dr. Griesinger regards the above as the "most 
easy explanation" of these physiological phe- 
nomena, but does not say whether he considers 
it as quite satisfactory or not. Its effect on most 
minds will probably be to raise new questions 
and difficulties. Whence arise this "involuntary 
inward contradiction.?" this fatal division or 
separation of the personality.? How is it that 
this "circle of ideas" or in other words "this train 
of ideas," supposed to "spring from a region of 
the soul which is in obscurity so far as the eg-o 
is concerned," at the same time "appears to have 
no connecton with the ordinary eg-o of the indi- 
vidual.?" 

By what process does "this train of ideas," 
arraying itself against the actual thought, "assert 
a perfectly independent existence.?" becoming 
in fact an "intruder," an a/Ur ego} How is it 
that this alter ego, "acts independently on the 
organs of speech," and "sets in motion the 
mechanism of speech," so that the "ordinary 
ego*^ "has no consciousness of the ideas uttered 
before he hears them.?" As this "train of thought 
appears to have no connection with the ordinary 
ego of the individual" whence does it proceed.? 
Why does it happen that out of an indefinite 
number and variety of "trains of thought", only 
this one "train of thought" or "circle of ideas," 
and that such an unusual and extraordinary one, 
should take possession of and "set in motion the 



THE PATHOLOGICAL THEORY 201 

mechanism of speech, exhibit and clothe itself 
in words, etc?" What is the one cause for this 
unique class of phenomena, occurring with such 
remarkable similarity and large degree of uni- 
formity in France, Germany, China, India, Af- 
rica, in all ages, and all nations? The phenom- 
ena in question cannot be regarded as explained 
until such obvious questions as the above are 
satisfactorily answered. 

We have still another medical theory for ac- 
counting for the facts connected with so-called 
demonomania, given by Dr. Baelz, of the Imper- 
ial University of Japan. A case selected from sev- 
eral others, as occurring in his medical practice in 
Japan, is given in chapter nine. We will give Dr. 
Baelz'theory in his own words. He says : "The ex- 
planation of the disorder is not so far to seek as 
might be supposed. Possession is evidently relat- 
ed to hysteria, and to the hypnotic phenomena 
which physiologists have recently studied with 
so much care, the cause of all alike being the fact 
that, whereas in healthy persons one half of 
the brain alone is actually engaged — in right- 
handed persons the left half of the brain, and 
in left-handed persons the right — leaving the 
other half to contribute only in a general man- 
ner to the function of thought, nervous excite- 
ment arouses this other half, and the two, one 
the organ of the usual self, the other the organ 
of- the new pathologically affected self, are set 



203 DEMON-POSSESSION 



over against each other. The rationale of pos- 
session is an auto-suggestion, an idea arising 
either with apparent spontaneity, or else from 
the subject matter of it being talked about in the 
patient's presence, and then over-mastering her 
weak mind exactly as happens in hypnosis. In 
the same manner the idea of the possibili- 
ty of the cure will often actually effect the 
cure. The cure-worker must be a person of 
strong mind and power of will, and must 
enjoy the patient's full confidence. For this rea- 
son the priests of the Nichiren sect, which is the 
most superstitious and bigoted of the Japanese 
Buddhist sects, are the most successful expellers 
of foxes, occasionally fits and screams accompa- 
nying the exit of the fox. In all cases, even 
when the fox leaves quietly, great prostration 
remains for a day or two, and sometimes the 
patient is unconcious of what has happened." 

This theory is certainly interesting and plausi- 
ble. Being in the main identical with that of 
Dr. Griesinger, representing the machinery of 
the mind, or at least one-half of it, as set in 
motion by an "idea," it is liable to the same ob- 
jections. In its distinguishing feature, that of 
two halves of the brain acting separately and 
independently, it is not in harmony with the 
facts which he himself adduces. According to 
this theory "the two halves of the brain are set 
over against each other." Again we are told:* 

* p. 105 in this volume. 



THE PATHOLOGICAL THEORY 203 

"there thus results a double entity or double con- 
sciousness. The person possessed hears and un- 
derstands everything that the fox inside says or 
thinks, and the two often engage in a loud and vio- 
lent dispute," etc. From this we would naturally 
infer that the cases of possession in Japan differ 
from those met with elsewhere, in the co-exis- 
tence of, and mutual communication between, 
the original normal personality, and the new or 
acquired personality connected with the other 
half of the brain. When we turn, however, to 
the case given in detail by Dr. Back, and to the 
other case from Japan,* we find no trace of this 
"double entity" or "double consciousness," and 
the facts presented correspond throughout with 
those connected with other cases which have 
come before us. For instance. Dr. Baelz in 
giving the details of the case he presents says: 
"The priest upbraided the fox sternly. The fox, 
always of course speaking through the girl's 
mouth, argued on the other side. At last he said, 
'I am tired of her. I ask no better than to leave 
her. What will you give me for doing so.-*'" 

Here no personality appears in connection 
with the subject, but the new one. There is no 
conversation between the two sides of the brain, 
but solely between the priest and the new perso- 
nality. The normal personality of the subject, as 
in the other cases which have come to our notice, 

» p. io5 in this volume. 



204 DEMON-POSSESSION 

is dormant. The new personality uses the first 
personal pronoun / in speaking of himself, and 
speaks of the subject in the third person as hei\ 
The theory of Dr. Baelz then finds no support 
in the facts which he adduces, nor in any other 
facts which have come to our knowledge from 
other sources; neither does it attempt to account 
for the many phenomena connected with cases 
of "possession" to which the attention of the 
reader has been called. 

As to Dr. Baelz' special theory for account- 
ing for Changed Personality, or Alternating Per- 
sonality, it does not appear to have borne the 
test of further investigation, or to be generally 
adopted by advanced scientists of the present 
day. Dr. William James, Professor of Psychology 
in Harvard College, in speaking of Dr. F. W. H. 
Myers' reference to the two hemispheres of the 
brain in connection with Automatic Writing, etc. 
says: * "The crude explanation of two selves 
by two hemispheres is of course far from Mr. 
Myers* thought. The selves may be more than 
two; and the brain systems severally used for 
each must be conceived as interpenetrating each 
other in very minute ways." 

M. Ribot, in his "Diseases of Personality," in 
speaking of this theory that duplication of per- 
sonality is accounted for by the two hemispheres 
of the brain, says: "Griesinger on encountering 

* "The Principles of Psychology, Henry Holt & Co., N.Y. 1890, P. 400. 



THE PATHOLOGICAL THEORY 305 

this theory, for it was put forth timidly in his 
day,* having cited the facts supposed to make in 
its favor, concludes in these words: 'As for me 
1 am not in the least disposed to accord any 
great weight to these facts. ' Have they gained 
in cogency since? It is very doubtful. 
The ultimate ground of the theory in question 
is the perfectly gratuitous hypothesis that the 
contest is always between two states only. This 
is flatly contradicted by experience." Further 
reasons are also given by M. Ribot for discredit- 
ing this hypothesis. 

So far then as we can discern, medical science 
and medical theories fail to account for the facts 
which we are considering. Some theories pre- 
sent a possible explanation of some of the facts, 
but none of them covers the whole ground, or 
even attempts to explain all the phenomena. 

As the "possession" theory is, in the words of 
Dr. Tylor, "genuine, rational and philosophical 
in its proper place," we may well retain it in its 
place, until some other theory is found which ex- 
plains the facts equally well. 

The investigations relating to Multiplex Per- 
onality, Trance States, etc, are gradually being 
transferred from the domain of pathology to that 
of experimental psychology The many results 
which have been published by recent explorers 

* This theory was elaborated by an English Physican, Dr. Wigan in 
a book entitled "The Duality of Mind" pub'd in London in 1844. It was 
dedicated to Sir Henry Holland, a high authority in medical psychology, 
in whose "Recollections," (Ch. XH. p. 307-8 D. Appleton & Co. 1875,) may 
be found Dr. Holland's comments. 



206 DEMON-POSSESSION 

in this new field of research, and the new theo- 
ries propounded for the explanation of mental or 
physical phenomena, naturally lead to the en- 
quiry how far these new theories account for the 
facts we are considering, which enquiry will form 
the subject of the next chapter. 

It may, however, be said here that not all 
physicians make light of the possession theory. 
Few, if any, British alienists have won a better 
right to be heard in the field of medical psychol- 
ogy than the late Dr. Forbes Benignus Wins- 
low, (1810 — 1874.)* 

G. H. Fember (London)states that Dr. Wins- 
low expressed to him the "conviction that a 
large proportion of the patients in our asylums 
are cases of possession, and not of madness. 
He distinguished the demoniac by a strange 
duality, and by the fact that, when temporarily 
relieved from the oppression of the demon, he 
is often able to describe the force which seizes 
upon his limbs, and compels him to acts or words 
of shame against his will."t 

* On whom consult Encyc. Brit, and other Cyclopaedias. 

f See "Earth's Earliest Ages, and their Connection with 
Modern 'Spiritualism,'" etc. By G. H. Pember, M. A. Am 
Ed. F. H. Revell Co., N. Y. Page 2C1— 2. 



CHAPTER XIII. 

THE PSYCHOLOGICAL THEORY. 

It is the object of this chapter to find what 
Hght is thrown on the questions we are consider- 
ing by the results of recent psychical investiga- 
tion. In this enquiry we shall review briefly 
the opinions and theories of well-known and rep- 
resentative writers on Psychology, Hypnotism, 
Diseases of Personality, and Psychical Research. 

The effect of modern materialism on the sci- 
ence of Psychology is obvious. Psychology was 
originally (as its etymology shows) the science 
which treated of the soul. At present, many so- 
called psychological treatises teach or assume 
that there is no soul as an absolute entity, 
separable from a material organism. We have 
been accustomed to regard heathen nations, or 
rather some of the most uncultured and de- 
graded of them, as objects of commiseration, be- 
cause they do not know that they have souls. 
Now we find advanced "scientists" not knowing 
that they have souls, while they regard with 
compassion or contempt those who believe or 
imagine that they have. Are we to regard this 

207 



308 DEMON-POSSESSION 

change in the view of writers on psychology as 
in the direction of truth, and indicating a fixed 
and permanent conclusion, or is it only an eddy 
in the stream of thought which is destined, after 
a temporary diversion, to flow on in the old 
channel ? 

This prevailing tendency of the age, so far as 
"scientists" are concerned, together with a strong 
opposing undercurrent, is seen in an interesting 
and instructive work entitled: "The Principles of 
Psychology" by Dr. William James, Professor of 
Psychology in Harvard college. After treating 
with great minuteness in fifty octavo pages, 
of the "Automaton" and "Mind-Stuff," theories of 
"brain activity," he introduces the "Soul Theory" 
of brain activity as follows: 

"But is this my last word.^ By no means. 
Many readers have certainly been saying to 
themselves for the last few pages:, 'Why on 
earth doesn't the poor man say tke soul and 
have done with it } ' Other readers of anti-spir- 
itualistic training and prepossessions, advanced 
thinkers or popular evolutionists, will perhaps 
be a little surprised to find this much-despised 
word now sprung upon them at the end of so 
physiological a train of thought. But the plain 
fact is that all the arguments for a 'pontifical 
cell' or an 'arch monad* are also arguments for 
that well-known spiritual agent in which schol- 
astic psychology, and common sense have 



THE PSYCHOLOGICAL THEORY 209 

always believed. And my only reason for beat- 
ing the bush so, and not bringing it in earlier, 
as a possible solution of our difficulties, has been 
that by this procedure I might force some of 
these materialistic minds to feel the more strong- 
ly the logical respectability of the spiritualistic 
position. The fact is that one cannot afford to 
despise any of these great traditional objects of 
belief. Whether we realize it or not, there is 
always a great drift of reasons positive and nega- 
tive towing us in their direction. If there be 
such entities as souls in the universe they may 
possibly be affected by the manifold occurrences 
that go on in the nervous centers. 

"I confess, therefore, that to posit a soul in- 
fluenced in some mysterious way by the brain- 
states and responding to them by conscious af- 
fections of its own, seems to me the line of least 
logical resistance so far as we yet have attained. 
If it does not strictly explain anything, it is at 
any rate less positively objectionable than either 
mind-stuff or a material monad creed."* 

"One great use of the soul has always been to 
account for, and at the same time, to guarantee 
the closed individuality of each personal con- 
sciousness. The thoughts of one soul must unite 
into one self, it was supposed, and must be eter- 
nally insulated from those of every other soul. 
But we have already begun to see that, although 

* Vol. I, pp i8o, 182. 
t4 Demon 



210 DEMON-POSSESSION 



unity is the rule of each man's consciousness, yet 
in some individuals, at least, thoughts may split 
away from the others and form separate selves. 
As for insulation, it would be rash in view of the 
phenomena of thought-transference, mesmeric 
influence, and spirit-control, which are being al- 
leged now-a-days on better authority than ever 
before, to be too sure about that point either. 
The definitely closed nature of our personal con- 
sciousness is probably an average statistical re- 
sultant of many conditions, but not an elemen- 
tary force or fact; so that, if one wishes to pre- 
serve the soul, the less he draws his arguments 
from that quarter the better. So long as our 
self, on the whole, makes itself good, and practi- 
cally maintains itself as a closed individual, why, 
as Lotze says, is not that enough .'' And why is 
the <5r/«^-an-individual in some inaccessible 
metaphysical way so much prouder an achieve- 
ment. 

"My final conclusion, then, about the substan- 
tial soul is that it explains nothing and guaran- 
tees nothing. Its successive thoughts are the 
only intelligible and verifiable things about it, 
and definitely to ascertain the correlations of 
these with brain processes is as much as psychol- 
ogy can empirically do. From the metaphysi- 
cal point of view, it is true that one may claim 
that the correlations have a rational ground; 
and if the word soul could be taken to mean 



THE PSYCHOLOGICAL THEORY 211 

merely some such vague problematical ground, 
it would be unobjectionable. But the trouble 
is that it professes to give the ground in positive 
terms of a very dubiously credible sort. I 
therefore feel entirely free to discard the word 
soul from the rest of this book. If I ever use it, 
it will be in the vaguest and most popular way. 
The reader who finds any comfort in the idea of 
the soul, is however, perfectly free to continue to 
believe in it; for our reasonings have not estab- 
lished the non-existence of the soul ; they have on- 
ly proved its superfluity for scientific purposes."* 

"With this, all possible rival formulations have 
been discussed. The literature of the Self is 
large, but all its authors may be classed as radical 
or mitigated representatives of the three schools 
we have named, substantialism, associationism 
or transcendentalism. Our own opinion must 
be classed apart, although it incorporates essen- 
tial elements from all three schools. There need 
never have been a quarrel between association- 
ism and its rivals if the former had admitted the 
indecomposable unity of every pulse of thought, 
and the latter been wilHng to allow that 'perish- 
ing'pulses of thought might recollect and know. 

"We may sum up by saying that personality 
implies the incessant presence of two elements, 
an objective person, known by a passing subjec- 
tive Thought, a nd recognised as continuing in time. 

* Vp). |. PP 349. 350. 



212 DEMON-POSSESSION 

Hereafter''' (the italics are Prof. James') "/^/ us 
use the words Me and I for the empirical person 
and the judging Thought.''^* 

This technical distinction between the I and the 
Me is not Prof. James' alone, but is made use of 
by other writers, and is worthy of special notice. 
Prof. James uses Thought as nearly synonymous 
with soul. The "Thought" then may be regarded 
as a conscious soul viewing itself objectively, and 
the Me represents the soul as thus objectively 
considered. There is an obvious ground for this 
distinction in every man's conscious experience. 
We often pass judgment upon ourselves as doing 
things which we disapprove, and which it is our 
earnest purpose and effort to avoid doing. The 
Apostle Paul refers to this internal schism and 
opposition as "another law in my members, war- 
ring against the law of my mind;"t and declares 
"it is no more I that do it, but sin that dwel- 
leth in me. "| Here then we have no severance in 
the personality, but the ordinary condition of it. 
A different "Me" is perfectly consistent with our 
normal personality but not a different "I." 

That part of Prof. James' book which has 
special reference to phases of changed personal- 
ity, and his distinctions and classifications, is of 
special interest to us. He says: "When we pass 
beyond alternations of memory to abnormal al- 

* Vol. I, PP370, 371. 
t Rom. vii. S3. 
X Rom. vii, vj. 



THE PSYCHOLOGICAL THEORY 313 

ternations in the present self'VfQ have still graver 
disturbances. The alternations are of three main 
types from the descriptive point of view. But 
certain cases unite features of two or more types; 
and our knowledge of the elements and causes 
of these changes of personality is so slight that 
the division into types must not be regarded as 
having any profound significance." The types 
are: 

(I.) Insane delusions. 

(2.) Alternating selves. 

(3.) Mediumship or Possessions.* 

After giving an illustrative example from 
"Krishaber's book, La Nervopathie Ceribro-car- 
diaque, i8yf which he says "is full of similar 
observations," Prof. James says: "Incases simi- 
lar to this, it is as certain that the I is unal- 
tered, as that the "Me" is changed. That is, the 
present Thought of the patient is cognitive oi 
both the old Me and the new so long as its 
memory holds good." 

It is important to notice that in the type of 
change of personality called "Insane delusions," 
the cognitive Thought, or I of the patient, repre- 
sents not a new personality, but the normal per- 
sonality of the patient. 

Under the second head "Alternating personal- 
ity," Prof. James gives several interesting cases 
of persons who virtually lived two distinct lives, 

* Vol. I p. 375. 



214 DEMON.POSSESSION 

in each of which they had no memory or knowl- 
edge of the other. Among the most remarkable 
of these is the case of Mary Reynolds, which 
is fully described by Dr. Weir Mitchell.* The 
account of this is here necessarily condensed. 
In 1811, when she was still a young woman, she 
woke up one morning without any recollection 
of her past life. "To all intents and purposes 
she was as a being for the first time ushered into 
the world." . . . "She had not the slightest 
consciousness that she had ever existed previous 
to the moment when she awoke from that mys- 
terious slumber. In a word, she was an infant 
just born, yet born in a state of maturity with a 
capacity for relishing the rich, sublime, luxuriant 
wonders of created nature." 

From this starting point in her new existence 
she acquired knowledge as children do, though 
more rapidly. 

"Thus it continued for five weeks when one 
morning after a protracted sleep she woke and 
was herself again, and immediately went about 
the performance of duties incumbent upon her, 
and which she had planned five weeks previously. 

"After the lapse of a few weeks she fell into a 
profound sleep and awoke in her second state, 
taking up her new life again precisely where she 
had left it when she before passed from that 
state." 

* Transactions of the College of Physicians of Philadelphia. April 

1888. 



THE PYSCHOLOGICAL THEORY 215 

These alternations from one state to another 
continued at intervals of varying length for fif- 
teen or sixteen years, but finally ceased when 
she attained the age of thirty-five or thirty-six, 
leaving her permanently in her second state. In 
this she remained without change for the last 
quarter of a century of her life.* 

Prof. James says: t "Of course it is mere 
guess work to speculate on what may be the 
cause of the amnesias which lie at the bottom 
of changes in the self. Changes of blood-supply 
have naturally been invoked. Alternate action 
of the two hemispheres was long ago proposed 
by Dr. Wigan in his book on the "Duality of the 
Mind. "I I shall revert to this explanation after 
considering the third class of alternations of the 
self, those namely, which I have called "posses- 
sions. ' 

"I have myself become quite recently acquaint- 
ed with the subject of a case of alternate person- 
ality of the 'ambulatory' sort, who has given 
me permission to name him in these pages." The 
case is too long to give here in detail, and may 
be summarized as follows: The Rev. Ansel 
Bourne of Green, R. I., on Jan. 17th, 1887, 
suddenly disappeared from his home, and foul 

* Miss Reynolds lived in Meadville, Penn. The above facts given 
with many interesting details, are vouched for by Miss Reynolds' nephew 
Rev. Dr. John V. Reynolds with whom she lived during a part of the 
last twenty-five years of her life. 

t Page 390. 

$ See note on page 205. 



216 DEMON-POSSESSION 

play was suspected. He was advertized for and 
sought for by the police in vain. "On the morn- 
ing of March 14th, at Norristown, Penn., a man 
calling himself A. J. Brown, who had rented a 
shop six weeks previously, stocked it, and car- 
ried on his quiet trade without seeming to any 
one unnatural or eccentric, woke up in a fright 
and called on the people of the house to tell him 
where he was. He said that his name was An- 
sel Bourne, that he was entirely ignorant of 
Norristown, that he knew nothing of shop-keep- 
ing, and that the last thing he remembered — it 
seemed only yesterday — was drawing money from 
the bank, etc, in Providence, R. I. He would 
not believe that two months had elapsed." 

He returned to his home and resumed his old 
life again. 

In June, 1890 Mr. Bourne was induced to sub- 
mit to hypnotism, and in his hypnotic trance 
his Brown memory came back. When asked if 
he knew Ansel Bourne he said he had heard of 
him, but "didn't know as he had ever met the 
man." "When confronted with Mrs. Bourne he 
said he had never seen the woman before," etc. 
On the other hand he gave all the details of his 
history between leaving Providence and settling 
in business in Norristown. 

After giving the above and similar cases of "Al- 
ternating personality" Dr. James proceeds to the 
consideration of "possession" as follows: 



THE PYSCHOLOGICAL THEORY 217 



* "In 'mediumships' or 'possessions' the in- 
vasion and the passing away of the secondary 
state are both relatively abrupt, and the dura- 
tion of the state is usually short— i. e. from 
minutes to a few hours. Whenever the secon- 
dary state is well developed no memory for 
aught that happened during it remains after the 
primary consciousness comes back. The sub- 
ject during the secondary consciousness speaks, 
writes, or acts as if animated by a foreign per- 
son, and often names this foreign person or gives 
his history. In old times the foreign 'control' 
was usually a demon, and is so now in commun- 
ities which favor that belief." 

t "Whether all sub-conscious selves are pe- 
culiarly susceptible to a certain stratum of the 
Zeitgeist (spirit of the times) and get their inspi- 
riation from it I know not; but it is obviously 
the case with the secondary selves which become 
developed in spiritualistic circles. There the 
beginnings of the medium trance "are indistin- 
guishable from effects of hypnotic suggestion. 
The subject assumes the role of a medium sim- 
ply because opinion expects it of him under the 
conditions which are present; and carries it out 
with a feebleness or a vivacity proportionate to 
his histrionic gifts. But the odd thing is that 
persons unexposed to spiritualist traditions will 
so often act in the same way when they become 



» Ibid. p. 393. 
t Ibid. p. 394. 



218 DEMON-POSSESSION 

entranced, speak in the name of the departed, go 
through the motions of their several death-ago- 
nies, send messages about their happy home in 
the summer-land, and describe the ailments of 
those present. I have no theory to publish of these 
cases, several of which I have personally seen." 

"As an example of the automatic writing per- 
formances I will quote from an account of his 
own case kindly furnished me by Mr. Sidney 
Dean of Warren, R. I., Member of Congress 
from Connecticut from 1855 to 1859, who has 
been all his life a robust and active journalist, 
author, and man of affairs. He has for many 
years been a writing subject, and has a large 
collection of manuscript automatically produced: 

'Some of it, ' he writes, 'is in hieroglyph or 
strange compounded arbitrary character, each se- 
ries possessing a seeming unity in general design or 
character followed by what purports to be a 
translation or rendering into mother English. 
I never attempted the seemingly impossible feat 
of copying the characters. They were cut with 
the precision of a graver's tool, and generally 
with a single rapid stroke of the pencil. Many 
languages, some obsolete and passed from his- 
tory, are professedly given. To see these would 
satisfy you that no one could copy them except 
by tracing.' 

" 'It is an intelligent e^o who writes, or else the 
influence assumes individuality, which practically 



THE PYSCHOLOGICAL THEORY 219 

makes of the influence a personality. It is not 
myself; of that I am conscious at every step of 
the process, I have also traversed the whole 
field of the claims of unconscious cerebration,* 
so-called, so far as I am competent to critically 
examine it, and it fails as a theory in number- 
less points, when applied to this strange work 
through me. The easiest and most natural so- 
lution to me is to admit the claims made, i. e., 
that it is a decarnated intelligence who writes. 
But who} that is the question. The names of 
scholars and thinkers who once lived are affixed 
to the most ungrammatical and weakest of 
bosh.''' 

After further extracts Prof. James proceeds as 
follows : 

t "I am myself persuaded by abundant ac- 
quaintance with the trances of one medium that 
the 'control' may be altogether different from 
any possible waking self of the person. In the 
case I have in mind it professes to be a certain 
departed French doctor; and is, I am convinced, 
acquainted with facts about the circumstances 
and the living and dead relatives and acquain- 
tances, of numberless sitters whom the medium 
never met before, and of whom she has never 
heard the names. I record my bare opinion 
here unsupported by the evidence, not, of course, 
to convert any one to my view, but because I am 

* See "Mechanism in Thought and Morals," By Oliver Wendell 
Holmes. Also W. B. Carpenter's "Mjiital Pliysiology." 

t Ibid, p, 396. 



220 DEMON-POSSESSION 



persuaded that a serious study of these trance- 
phenomena is one of the greatest needs of psy- 
chology, and think that my personal confession 
may possibly draw a reader or two into a field 
which the soidisant 'scientist' usually refuses to 
explore. 

"Many persons have found evidence conclu- 
sive to their minds that in some cases the control 
is really the departed spirit whom it pretends to 
be. The phenomena shade off so gradually into 
cases when this is obviously absurd, that the 
presumption (quite apart from a priori 'scien- 
tific' prejudice) is great against its being true. 
The case of Lurancy Vennum is perhaps as ex- 
treme a case of 'possession' of the modern sort 
as one can find. * Lurancy was a young girl 
of fourteen living with her parents at Watseka, 
111., who (after various distressing hysterical dis- 
orders and spontaneous trances, during which 
she was possessed by departed spirits of a more 
or less grotesque sort), finally declared herself to 
be animated by the spirit of Mary Roff, a neigh- 
bor's daughter who had died in an insane asylum 
twelve years before, and insisted on being sent 
'home' toMr. Roff' shouse. Afteraweekof 'home- 
sickness' and importunity on her part, her parents 

* The "Watseka Wonder" by E, W. Stevens, Chicago 1887. We only 
give Prof. James' summary of the case. He says in a foot note: "My 
friend, Mr. R. Hodgson informs me that he visited Watseka in April 1889, 
and cross-examined the principal witnesses in the case. His confidence 
in the original narrative was strengthened by what he learned, and vari- 
ous unpublished facts were ascertained, which increased the plausibility 
of the spiritualistic interpretation of the phenomena." 



THE PYSCHOLOGICAL THEORY 221 

agreed, and the Roffs, who pitied her, and were 
spiritualists in the bargain, took her in. Once 
there she seems to have convinced the family 
that their dead Mary had exchanged habitations 
with Lurancy. Lurancy was said to be tempo- 
rarily in heaven, and Mary's spirit now controlled 
her organism, and lived again in her former 
earthly home. The so-called Mary while at the 
Roffs' would sometimes 'go back to heaven* and 
leave the body in a 'quiet trance,' i. e. without 
the original personality of Lurancy returning. 
After eight or nine weeks, however, the memory 
and manner of Lurancy would sometimes par- 
tially, but not entirely, return for a few minutes. 
Once Lurancy seems to have taken full posses- 
sion for a short time. At last after some four- 
teen weeks comformably to the prophecy which 
'Mary 'had made when she first assumed 'control, ' 
she departed definitively, and the Lurancy-con- 
sciousness came back for good." 

Perhaps there is no source from which such 
abundant material can be obtained relating to 
mysterious psychical phenomena, as the reports 
and Journals of the Society for Psychical Re- 
search. This society originated in London. It in- 
cludes amongitsmembersmany European names 
of world-wide reputation as literary men and 
scientists. It has an American branch, of which 
Dr. Richard Hodgson, 5 Boylston Place. Boston, 
is secretary and treasurer. Its origin, character. 



223 DEMON-POSSESSION 

and objects are stated in its own publications, as 
follows: 

"The Society for Psychical Research was 
formed at the beginning of 1882, for the purpose 
of making an organized and systematic attempt 
to investigate various sorts of debatable phe- 
nomena which are prima facie inexplicable on 
any generally recognized hypothesis. From the 
recorded testimony of many competent witnesses, 
past and present, including observations recently 
made by scientific men of eminence in various 
countries, there appears to be, amidst much illu- 
sion and deception, an important body of facts 
to which this description would apply, and which 
therefore, if incontestably established, would be 
of the very highest interest. The task of exam- 
ning such residual phenomena has often been 
undertaken by individual effort, but never hith- 
erto by a scientific society organized on a suffi- 
ciently broad basis. The following are the prin- 
cipal departments of work which it is proposed 
to undertake: 

1. An examination of the nature and extent 
of any influence which may be exerted by one 
mind upon another, otherwise than through the 
recognized sensory channels. 

2. The study of hypnotism and mesmerism; 
and an inquiry into the alleged phenomena of 
clairvoyance. 

3. An inquiry as to the existence of relations, 



THE PYSCHOLOGICj4L THEORY 223 

hitherto unrecognized by science, between living 
organisms and magnetic and electric forces, and 
also between living and inanimate bodies. 

4. A careful investigation of any reports, rest- 
ing on strong testimony, of apparitions occurring 
at the moment of death or otherwise, and of dis- 
turbances in houses reputed to be haunted. 

5. An inquiry into various alleged physical 
phenomena commonly called 'spiritualistic' 

6. The collection and collation of existing ma- 
terials bearing on the history of these subjects. 

"The aim of the society is to approach these 
various problems without prejudice or preposses- 
sion of any kind, and in the same spirit of exact 
and unimpassioned inquiry, which has enabled 
science to solve so many problems, once not less 
obscure nor less hotly debated. The founders 
of the society have always fully recognized the 
exceptional difficulties which surround this 
branch of research; but they nevertheless believe 
that by patient and systematic 'effort some re- 
sults of permanent value may be attained." 

A few extracts from the reports of this society 
will show the present drift of opinion with re- 
gard to changes in personality. 

In a long article in the Report, May 1885, by 
Fredrick W. H. Myers, on Automatic Writing, 
the author says: 

*. *M secondary self — if I may coin the phrase 

♦ Page a;. 



224 DEMON-POSSESSION 

— is thus gradually postulated, a latent capac- 
ity, at any rate, in an appreciable fraction of 
mankind of developing or manifesting a second 
focus of cerebral energy which is apparently 
neither fugitive, nor incidental merely — a delir- 
ium or a dream, but may possess, for a time at 
least, a kind of continuous individuality, a pur- 
posive activity of its own." 

The explanation which Mr. Myers offers to 
account for what he designates as "certain wide- 
spread phenomena, which, while ignored or ne- 
glected by the main body of men of science, 
have been for the most part ascribed by those 
who have witnessed them to the operation of 
some external or invading power" is that they 
are * "partly dependent on telepathic influence, 
and partly on unconscious cerebration alone, 
though unconscious cerebration raised, if I may 
so say, to a higher power than had previously 
been suspected." 

A few extracts from an article by Mr. Myers 
on Subliminal Consciousness, published in the 
Report of the society for February, 1892, will 
show the conclusions, both actual and probable, 
which he regards as having been reached, and 
his way of accounting for cases of "Alternating 
Personality" by different phases of consciousness 
which are united in one general personality. 
He says: 

♦ Page 61. 



THE PYSCHOLOGICAL THEORY 225 

"I hold that both that group of facts which the 
scientific world has never learned to accept, (as 
the hypnotic trance, automatic writing, alterna- 
tions of personality, and the like) ; and that 
group of facts for which in these proceedings we 
are still endeavoring to win scientific acceptance 
(as telepathy and clairvoyance) ought to be con- 
sidered in close alliance and correlation, and 
must be explained, if explicable at all by some 
hypothesis which does not need constant stretch- 
ing to meet the emergencies of each fresh case. 

"I will ask the reader then to bear in mind 
that in what follows I am not attacking any re- 
cognized, coherent body of scientific doctrine. 
Rather I am making a first immature attempt to 
bring some kind of order out of a chaotic collec- 
tion of strange and apparently disparate obser- 
vations. My hypothesis — developed here from 
briefer indications in earlier papers — cannot 
possibly, considering the novelty of the inquiry, 
be true in all details. But it may be of use at 
least in pointing out the nature and the complex- 
ity of the problems which any valid hypothesis 
must recognize and solve. 

"I suggest then that the stream of conscious- 
ness in which we habitually live, is not the only 
consciousness which exists in connection with our 
organism. Our habitual or empirical conscious- 
ness may consist of a mere selection of a multi- 
tude of thoughts and sensations, of which some 
/ 5 Demon 



226 DEMON-POSSESSION 



at least are equally conscious with those that we 
empirically know. I accord no primacy to my 
ordinary waking self except that, among my po- 
tential selves, this one has shown itself the fittest 
to meet the needs of common life. I hold that 
it has established no further claim, and that it 
is perfectly possible that other thoughts, feelings, 
and memories, either isolated or in continuous 
connection, may now be actively conscious, as 
we say, "within me" in some kind of co-ordina- 
tion with my organism, and forming some part 
of my total individuality. I conceive it possible 
that at some future time, and under changed 
conditions, I may recollect all: I may assume 
these various personalities under one single con- 
sciousness, in which ultimate and complete con- 
sciousness the empirical consciousnses which at 
this moment directs my hand, may be only one 

element out of many." 

"Yet it will be well to avoid the use of terms 
which, like the words soul and spirit carry with 
them associations which cannot fairly be im- 
ported into the argument. 

"Some word, however, we must have for that 
underlying psychical unity which I postulate as 
existing beneath all our phenomenal manifesta- 
tions. Let the word individuality serve this 
purpose ; and let us apply the word personality. 
as its etymology suggests, to something more 
external and transitory, to each of those apparent 



THE PYSCHOLOGICylL THEORY 23'? 

characters, or chains of memory and desire which 
may at any time mask at once, and manifest a 
psychical existence deeper and more perdurable 
than their own " 

"The self manifests itself through the organ- 
ism; but there is always some part of the self 
unmanifested; and always, as it seems, some 
power of organic expression in abeyance or re- 
serve. Neither can the player express all his 
thoughts on the instrument, nor is the instru- 
ment so arranged that all its keys can be sounded 
at once. One melody after another may be 
played upon it; nay, — as with the messages of du- 
plex or multiplex telegraphy, simultaneously or 
with imperceptible intermissions, several melodies 
can be played together; but there are still unex- 
hausted reserves of instrumental capacity, as well 
as unexpressed treasures of informing thought." 

These extracts are important as treating alleged 
changes in personality as established facts; and 
presenting Mr. Myers' labored attempt to explain 
these facts, the difficulties in doing so being much 
increased by the necessity he has placed himself 
under of "avoiding the use of the word soul, 
which," he says, "from the associations connected 
with it, cannot fairly be imported into the argu- 
ment." 

M. Ribot, like other materialistic evolution- 
ists, regards personality as a development of 
man's material organism. A few quotations 



228 DEMON-POSSESSION 

from his "Diseases of Personality" will show 
what ideas are intended to be conveyed by the 
word "personality." He says: * "If one is fully 
imbued with the idea that personality is a con- 
sensus, one will easily see how the mass of con- 
scious, sub-conscious and unconscious states 
which make it up may at a given moment be 
summed up in a tendency or a predominant state, 
which for the person himself, and for others, is its 
expression at that moment. Straightway this 
same mass of constituent elements is summed 
up in an opposite state which has become pre- 
dominant. Such is our dipsomaniac who drinks 
and who condemns himself. The state of con- 
sciousness predominant at a given moment is for 
the individual himself, and for others, his person- 
ality." Again; t "If in the normal state person- 
ality is a psycho-physiological co-ordination of 
the highest degree possible which endures amid 
perpetual changes and partial and transitory in- 
co-ordinations,such as sudden impluses, eccentric 
ideas, etc., then dementia, which is a progressive 
movement towards physical and mental dissolu- 
tion, must manifest itself by an ever-increasing 
incoordination till at last the Me disappears in 
absolute incoherence, and there remain in the 
individual only the purely vital co-ordinations — 
those best organized, the lowest, the simplest, 

• Page 37. 
f Page 4i. 



THE PYSCHOLOGICAL THEORY 229 

and consequently the most stable, but these in 
turn disappear also." 

Albert Moll, in his treatise on Hypnotism, is 
disposed to account for changed personality and 
many of the symptoms connected with it by 
"auto-hypnotism," and not a few others adopt 
the same theory. His account of auto-hypno- 
tism, however, shows that it is quite different 
from "possession." He says: "In auto-hypno- 
sis the idea of the hypnosis is not aroused by 
another person, but the subject generates the 
image himself. This can only happen by an act 
of will. Just as the will is otherwise able to 
produce particular thoughts, so it can allow the 
idea of hypnosis to become so powerful that 
finally hypnosis is introduced; this is, however, 
rare. Auto-hypnosis generally takes place in con- 
sequence of some incident by means of which 
the idea of hypnosis is produced. This often 
happens when the subject has been frequently 
hypnotized." * 

In speaking of the effect of hypnotism in quick- 
ening and intensifying the power of memory this 
author, after giving a case in which a subject 
remembered distinctly what had taken place 
thirteen years before, says: "Events in the nor- 
mal life can also be remembered in hypnosis even 
when they have apparently been long forgotten. 
An English officer was hypnotized by 

* Page 28. 



230 DEMON-POSSESSION 

Hansen, and suddenly began to speak a strange 
language. This turned out to be Welsh, which 
he had learned as a child but had forgotten." 

"Such cases as these recall others which are 
mentioned in the history of hypnotism, for ex- 
ample the famous one of the servant who sud- 
denly spoke Hebrew." . . . "Many appar- 
ently supernatural facts may be explained in the 
same way. Among these I may mention the 
carefully constructed religious addresses, some- 
times supposed to be inspired, which are deliv- 
ered by pious but uneducated fanatics in a pecu- 
liar physical state of ecstasy; and the eloquence 
occasionally displayed by some spiritualistic 
mediums belongs to the same category."* 

We can hardly hope, by the use of this hypo- 
thesis, to whatever extent it may be pushed, to 
account for the actual phenomena of so-called 
demon-possession. Mr. Moll says that auto- 
hypnotism "can only happen by an act of the 
will," when the subject "allows the idea of hyp- 
nosis to become so powerful that finally hypno- 
sis is introduced;" and that "this is rare." Now 
it is probably safe to say that in most cases of 
"possession" the subject has never had the idea 
of hypnosis, and so far from indicating the ab- 
normal state by an act of his will, he has used 
the utmost efforts of his will to prevent it. Fur- 
thermore, this hypothesis has no way of account- 

♦ Page 126. 



THE PSYCHOLOGICAL THEORY 231 

ing for this uniformity in the assumption of a 
personality from another world. 

Having endeavored fairly to present the theo- 
ries, and the conclusions (so far as conclusions 
have been reached) of prominent representatives 
of different departments of psychological study, 
it remains to inquire what help they give in ac- 
counting for the phenomena in question. In 
this inquiry we cannot do better than examine 
the estimates which these writers put upon their 
own work. 

Prof. James says, "The special natural science 
of psychology must stop with the mere func- 
tional formula. If the passing thought be the 
directly verifiable existent which no school has 
hitherto doubted it to be, then that thought is 
itself the thinker, and psychology need not look 
beyond. The only pathway that I can discern 
for bringing in a more transcendental thinker 
would be to deny that we have any direct knowl- 
edge of the thought as such. The latter's exis- 
tence would be reduced to a postulate, an asser- 
tion that there must be a knozuer correlative to 
all this ktiown, and the problem who that knower 
is would have become a metaphysical problem. 
With the question once stated in these terms, 
the spiritualist and transcendentalist solutions 
must be considered as prima facie on a par with 
our own psychological one, and discussed im- 
partially. But that carries us beyond the psy- 



232 DEMON-POSSESSION 

chological or naturalistic point of view."* 
The following additional quotations from Prof. 
James will present the acknowledged difficulties 
connected with the materialistic theory, which, 
in common with so many modern scientists, he 
seems to have adopted. 

"If we speculate on the brain condition during all 
these different perversions of personality we see it 
must be supposed capable of successively chang- 
ing all its modes of action, and abandoning the use 
for the time being of whole sets of well organized 
association paths. In no other way can we ex- 
plain the loss of memory in passing from one 
alternating condition to another. And not only 
this, but we must admit that organized systems 
of paths can be thrown out of gear with others, 
so that the processes in one system give rise to 
one consciousness, and those of another system 
to another simultaneously existing consciousness. 
Thus only can we understand the facts of auto- 
matic writing, etc., whilst the patient is out of 
trance and the false anaesthesias and amnesias 
of the hysteric type. But just what sort of 
disassociation the phrase 'thrown out of gear' 
may start from we cannot even conjecture; only 
I think we ought not to talk of the doubling of 
the self as if it consisted in the failure to com- 
bine on the part of certain systems of ideas which 
usually do so. It is better to talk of objects 

* Page 401. 



THE PSYCHOLOGICAL THEORY 233 

usually combined, and which are now divided 
between the two 'selves' in the hysteric and auto- 
matic cases in question. Each of the selves is 
due to a system of cerebral paths acting by 
itself."* 

Mr. Myers says: (t) '■^Hypotheses non jingo is 
an absolutely necessary rule for psychical in- 
quirers at the present time. Our work is to 
mass facts for some master mind of a future gen- 
eration to piece together. Most assuredly I shall 
offer no theory to explain this curious appear- 
ance of what looks like the presence of a 'third 
center of intelligence,* distinct from the con- 
scious intelligence and character of either of the 
two parties engaged in the experiments." 

Mr. Myers, in speaking of Automatic Writ- 
ing, further says: "The phenomena, however, 
which I have described by no means exhaust 
those which are alleged to occur in the course of 
graphic automatism. It is said that the hand- 
writing of dead persons is sometimes repro- 
duced; that sentences are written in languages 
of which the writer knows nothing; that facts 
unknown to any one present are contained in 
the replies, and that these facts are sometimes 
such as to point to some special person departed 
this life, as their only conceivable source. If 
these things be so, they are obviously facts of 

* Page 399. 

t Proceedings of the Society for Psychical Research. May 1885, p. 22. 



234 DEMON-POSSESSION 

the very highest importance. Nor are we en- 
titled to say that they are impossible a priori. 
The spiritualistic hypothesis, though frequently 
presented in an unacceptable shape, is capable, 
I believe, of being so formulated as to contra- 
dict none of the legitimate assumptions of sci- 
ence. And furthermore, I readily admit that 
should the agency of departed spirits be estab- 
lished as a vera causa , then the explanations 
here suggested will need revision in a new light."* 

In speaking of the various results of Psychical 
Research thus far, Mr. Myers says:t "There has 
been evidence which points prima facie to the 
agency of departed personalities, although this 
evidence has also been interpreted in different 
ways." 

M. Ribot, in referring to hallucinations says: 
"Certainly these voices and visions emanated from 
the patient. Why then does he not regard them 
as his own.-* It is a difficult question, but I will 
endeavor to answer it. There must exist anatom- 
ical and physiological causes which would solve 
the problem, but unfortunately they are hidden 
from us. Being ignorant of these causes, we 
can view only the surface of the symptoms, the 
states of the consciousness, with the signs which 
interpret them." 

With regard to the hidden causes which lead 

* Proceedingsof the Society for Psychical Research, May 1885, p. 62. 
t Proceedings of the Society for Psychical Research, April i8gi, p. 11, 



THE PYSCHOLOGICAL THEORY 335 

to these "diseases of personality" M. Ribot says: 
"We can add nothing more without repeating 
what we have already said, or without heaping 
up hypotheses. Our ignorance of the causes stops 
us short. The psychologist is here like the phy- 
sician who has to deal with a disease in which 
he can make out only the symptoms. What 
ph3^siological influences are they which thus alter 
the general tone of the organism, consequently 
of the coenaesthesis, consequently too of the 
memory? Is it some condition of the vascular 
system ? Or some inhibitory action, some arrest 
of function? We cannot say. So long as this 
question remains undecided, we are still only at 
the surface of the matter. Our purpose has sim- 
ply been to show that memory, though in some 
respects it may be confounded with personality, 
is not its ultimate basis." 

The researches of the authors above quoted 
and many others of like spirit and aims cannot 
be too highly commended. They are collecting 
facts of universal interest, in a field of inquiry 
too much neglected. The true interpretations, 
the relations, and bearings of these facts are not 
yet disclosed. Our attention must be confined, 
in the present treatise, to a few points where 
these investigations touch the subject of so-called 
demon-possession. The conclusions from what 
we have learned in this chapter maybe summar- 
ized as follows: 



236 DEMON- POSSESSION 

1. The authorities we have consulted are not 
in full accord in their theories, and the theories 
introduced by them are not regarded even by 
their authors as final and authoritative but only 
as tentative and provisional. 

2. The tendency of recent psychical research 
is to strengthen the presumption of the existence 
of spiritual intelligences capable of producing 
effects on material objects and on man's physical 
and psychical constitution. 

3. It is admitted that if the agency of spirits 
be established as a vera catisa, then certain pro- 
posed theories will need revision in a new light. 

4. Recent psychical researches, so far from 
conflicting with this possession theory, present 
mysterious facts which are only readily explained 
by that theory. In treating of changes in per- 
sonality, the efforts of writers of different schools 
to account for these changes as the natural out- 
come of our physical organism are beset with 
grave difficulties. This change is treated of as 
"thoughts split from the others, and forming sep- 
arate selves;" as the "breaking away" of man's 
consciousness; as "failure to combine on the part 
of certain systems of ideas;" as "organized sys- 
tems and paths thrown out of gear so that the pro- 
cessess of one system gives rise to one conscious- 
ness, and those of another to another conscious- 
ness." Mr. Myers' solution of the difficulty is 
the theory of a "subliminal consciousne$s." 



THE PSYCHOLOGICAL THEORY 237 



Now if we consider the changes of personaHty 
met within pronounced cases of "demon-posses- 
sion," in the Hght of the "possession" theory all 
these difficulties disappear. The splitting way 
of oneself from another is a matter of course; 
because there are in fact two (or more) selves, 
actual, distinct entities, which have no connec- 
tion except through the physical organization of 
the subject. Each personality, separate, per- 
sistent, and unchanging, has in the nature 
of the case its own, and only its own mem 
ory and consciousness. In a word, the 
phenomena which present themselves are only 
what might be naturally expected. The difficul- 
ties encountered are not to be attributed to the 
phenomena but to the theories adopted to ac- 
count for them. 

5. The results of psychic studies harmonize 
with the "possession" theory, and tend to explain 
and confirm it. We have had frequent occa- 
sions in the previous pages of this treatise to no- 
tice the remarkable resemblance between cases 
of "possesssion," and the hypnotic trance. 
While, so far as we can discern, hypnotism does 
not furnish any substitute for the theory of "de- 
mon-possession," it seems to throw important 
light on the means and process of "possession." 

Here again we may refer to the book of Dr. 
Hammond to which frequent reference was made 
in the previous chapter. In the former part of 



238 DEMON-POSSESSION 

his book Dr. Hammond adheres to the inductive 
method, and gives us information and suggestions 
well worthy of consideration. 

In pointing out the stages and degrees of the 
abnormal action of the nervous system he refers 
first to Somnambulism, where the subject in 
sleep passes into an abnormal state, during which 
some of the functions of the mind are suspended, 
while other functions of the mind and body are 
performed with remarkable facility and precision. 
The results of experiments by Dr. Belden on a 
patient under his care are given as follows, 
"Though it was found that her sense of sight was- 
greatly increased in acutenesss, she had no clair- 
voyance, properly so-called. It was ascertained, 
too, that while she had no recollection when 
awake of what she had done during a paroxysm, 
she remembered in one paroxysm the events of 
a previous one." 

Next in order Dr. Hammond treats of Artifi- 
cial Somnambulism, which may be induced in the 
somnambulistic patient by himself or by another 
person ^^ad cxtra^ Here we have the familiar 
phenomena of Mesmerism, or Hypnotism. "Now 
somnambulism" says the author, "natural or ar- 
tificial, appears to be a condition in which con- 
sciousness is subordinated to automatism. The 
subject performs actions of which there is no com- 
plete consciousness, and often none at all. Con- 
sequently there is little or no subsecjueut recol- 



THE PYSCHOLOGICAL THEORY 239 

lection." * We learn from these quotations 
that the outward symptoms of the mesmeric state 
are similar to those of somnambulism, but have 
certain peculiarities superadded, the transition 
from the normal to the abnormal state being 
characterized by symptoms more pronounced 
-than those which are witnessed in passing from 
ordinary sleep to somnambulism. The special 
mark of differentiation is that the subject has to 
a greater or less degree lost the power of volun- 
tariness, and his acts are determined by the will 
of the mesmerizing agent. In describing this state 
as exhibited in a patient under his care, Dr. Ham- 
mond says: "It will be readily perceived, there- 
fore, that certain parts of her nervous system 
were in a state of inaction, were in fact dormant, 
while others remained capable of receiving sensa- 
tions and originating nervous influence. Hersleep 
was therefore incomplete. Images were formed, 
hallucinations entertained, and she was accord- 
ingly in these respects in a condition similar to 
that of a dreaming person; for the images aryi 
hallucinations were either directly connected 
with thoughts she had previously had, or were 
immediately suggested to her through her sense 
of hearing. Some mental faculties were exer- 
cised, while others were quiescent. There was 
no correct judgment and no volition. Imagina- 
tion, memory, the emotions, and the ability to 

* P- P- 32-33- 



240 DEMON-POSSESSION 

be impressed by suggestions, (the italics are Dr. 
Hammond's) were present in a high degree." * 
/ Now the resemblance between the symptoms 
of Hypnotism and "demon-possession" are ap- 
parent, viz: The "inaction" or dormant condition 
of the normal consciousness; susceptibility to 
impressions from without; marked symptoms of 
nervous disturbance in passing from the normal 
' to the abnormal state; and an entire want of 
recollection on the part of the subject of what 
i occurred in the abnormal state. The differen- 
/ tiating marks between natural and artificial 
) somnambulism are both pathological and psy- 
Ichological, and are referable to the ab extra in- 
'fluence of the hypnotizing agent as the cause. 

Now may not demon-possession be only a dif- 
ferent, a more advanced form of hypnotism ? On 
the supposition of the more complete possession 
and control of man's nervous system by demons, 
we might, on Dr. Hammond's theory, expect 
still more violent paroxysms in the transition 
state, and further new conditions, pathological 
and psychological, in addition to those common 
to hypnotism and demon-possession. On the sup- 
position of the existence of spirits and their hav- 
ing access to human beings it is, to say the least, 
possible that they are familiar with the organism 
of the nervous system, and are capable of acting 
upon and influencing mankind in accordance with 

» p. 15- 



THE PYSCHOLOGICAL THEORY 241 



physical and psychological laws. How then can 
it be regarded as unreasonable or necessarily 
unscientific to suppose that demons, with per- 
haps in some respects superior powers, and long- 
er experience, may have penetrated still deeper 
into the mysteries of man's being, and made 
further advances than man has in the use of the 
mechanism of the nervous system? 

It may be objected that to infer from the fact 
that one man can hypnotize another man, there- 
fore spirits can hypnotize men, is unwarranted, 
inasmuch as the hypnotizing of a man is an act 
implying a phsyical agent. This objection is 
answered by reference to the fact that though 
the hypnotic trance is induced by a physical 
agent, and sometimes by the use of physical 
contact and human speech, it may also be effect- 
ed without any use of physical organs, by the 
mere force of will-povver, spirit acting upon 
spirit. Again, it is now confidently asserted 
that Telepathy, or Thought Transference, inde- 
pendent of bodily organs is an established fact. 
Mr. Myers, in an article on "Human Personality" 
written above five years, ago, says: 

* "I cannot here enter into the reasons which, 
as already stated, convince me that this method 
of experimental psychology, when carried further, 
v/ill conduct us not to negative but to positive 
results of the most hopeful kind. .... 

* Fortnightly Review, Nov, 1885. 
f6 Dtnion 



243 DEMON-POSSESSION 

One such discovery, that of telepathy, or the 
transference of thought and sensation from mind 
to mind without the agency of the recognized 
organs of sense, has, as I hold, been already 
achieved." The evidence in support of Telepa- 
thy has during the past five years increased ten- 
fold, and has gained for it very general credence. 
Now if we accept the postulate that spirit can 
act upon spirit without the intervention of phys- 
ical organs, then, assuming the existence of de- 
mons "demon-possession" may perhaps be ac- 
counted for by telepathy and hypnotism, and 
may be in accord with the most recent deduc- 
tions of science. 

Once more we are brought to the conclusion 
that modern science furnishes no substitute for 
the theory of "demon-possession "which still 
stands as the only "genuine," "rational," "phil- 
osophical," and consistent theory for accounting 
for a certain class of established facts. 



CHAPTER XIV 

THE BIBLICAL THEORY. 

Hitherto, in considering the different theories 
which have been propounded to account for the 
facts we are considering, no reference has been 
made to the Scriptures as having any higher au- 
thority than other authentic records. It is evi- 
dent that the connection of the Scriptures with 
this subject is close and vital. Actual commun- 
ication with unseen spirits; their influence on 
the acts aiid destinies of individuals and nations; 
and demon-possession, are taught clearly and 
unmistakably in both the Old and New Testa- 
ments. These teachings are not occasional and 
incidental, but underlie all Biblical history and 
Biblical doctrine. The Bible recognizes not only [ 
the material world, but a spiritual world inti- ll 
mately connected with it, and spiritual beings '' 
both good and bad, who have access to, and in- - 
fluence for good and ill, the world's inhabitants. 
If the claim of the Bible to be of divine origin is 
well founded, it is the very guide we need, and 
the only authoritative guide to answer the ques- 
tions which have been raised in this inquiry. If 

343 



344 DEMON-POSSESSION 

the teachings of the Bible on this subject are 
unreliable and inconclusive, the authority of the 
Scriptures is shaken to its very foundations, and 
a wide door is open to doubt and unbelief. The 
assaults of infidelity against the Bible are often 
made at this, which is supposed to be, its weak- 
est point. Not a few who have given unreason- 
ing assent to the oft repeated and very generally 
believed assertion that there is, and in the nature 
of things can be, no evidence of unseen exis- 
tences, and that possession by demons is a su- 
perstitious delusion of an unscientific age, have in 
consequence had their confidence in the Scrip 
tures shaken or permanently destroyed. 

The testimony of the Scriptures on this sub- 
ject, and that which we derive from sources out- 
side the Scriptures, are mutually confirmatory. 
To one in whose mind doubts have risen as to the 
possibility of occurrences which are declared in 
the Scriptures to have takenplace, the appearance 
) in the present age, and in ordinary life, of facts 
' similar to or identical with those to which the 
i Bible bears witness tends to solve his doubts. 
The very statements which were the means of 
shaking his confidence in the Bible become to 
him convincing evidence of its truth. On the 
other hand, the testimony of the Bible on this 
subject confirms and authenticates similar tes- 
timony from other sources; and above all gives 
us authoritative instruction respecting the char- 



TEACHINGS OF THE SACRED SCRIPTURES 245 

acter and origin of this class of phenomena. 
The importance then of a careful and unpreju- 
diced consideration of what the Bible teaches 
on this subject is apparent. Before proceeding 
however, to a comparison between the testimony 
of Scripture and facts of observation and experi- 
ence, it is important to consider first some the- 
ories of Scripture interpretation which are closely 
related to the subject before us. 

First, we have the theory that our Saviour and 
his disciples, living in a primitive and unscientific 
age, simply represented, at least so far as regards 
this subject, the thought and intellectual ad- 
vancement of that age; and like their contempo- 
raries, accepted and believed in the doctrine of 
the existence of demons and demon-possession, 
though in fact, through ignorance and supersti- 
tion, they were entirely mistaken. It is evident 
that this theory is utterly at variance with the 
claim which our blessed Lord made to a knowl- 
edge of the unseen world from which he came; 
and to the views which have been held by the 
church in all ages respecting the authenticity 
and divine origin of the Scriptures. As it is far 
from the purpose of this treatise to enter upon 
the subject of the authenticity and inspiration 
of Scripture, both of which are assumed, this 
theory may be dismissed without further notice. 

Second, there is another theory, which. has 
been adopted by not a few who are regarded as 



246 DEMON-POSSESSION 

most intelligent and orthodox Christians, which 
may be represented as a compromise between 
theological and scientific orthodoxy. It asserts 
that our Saviour was free from the ignorance and 
superstitions of the age in which he lived, but 
in accordance with the prevailing ideas of his 
time, and the ordinary use of language, spoke 
of cases of demon-possession, as his contempo- 
raries did. His mission on earth was not to 
teach science, or to start curious discussions or 
controversies on indifferent and unimportant 
subjects. He came to teach spiritual truths, 
and did so as he necessarily must, in the language 
of the people, speaking of phenomena as tAejy 
did, and in language with which t/iej/ were fa- 
miliar. He recognized in men and women 
brought to him as possessed by demons only 
different forms of bodily disease, but as the peo- 
ple spoke of these diseases as demon-posses- 
sions, he so spoke of them; as they represented 
the curing of the diseases as casting out demons, 
he so represented it; and when he gave power 
to his disciples to heal these diseases miraculous- 
ly, he, accommodating his language to the pop- 
ular belief, called it the power to cast out de- 
mons. 

This theory is very intelligible and plausible, 
but, as we believe, open to serious and fatal ob- 
jections, and scarcely less derogatory to the 
character of our Saviour than the former. 



TEACHINGS OF THE SACRED SCRIPTURES 247. 

(I.) It represents him not as instructing but 
deceiving his disciples, as encouraging supersti- 
tion rather than inculcating truth. 

(2.) The above objection acquires additional 
force when we consider its intimate relations 
with other teachings of our Saviour recorded in 
Scripture. 

Our Lord represented demons as connected 
with, and as the agents and representatives of 
Satan ; and casting out of demons as open war upon 
his dominion. When the seventy returned saying 
"Lord even the demons are subject to us in thy 
name," our Lord replied: "I beheld Satan as 
lightning falling from heaven."* Can we for a 
moment regard our Saviour as sanctioning and 
encouraging the belief that demon-possession 
was to be referred to Santanic agency when in 
fact he knew that there was no such thing as 
demon-possession ? 

(3.) This theory when applied in detail presents 
our Saviour in a light entirely inconsistent with 
his character as a divine teacher. It represents 
him not only as speaking of diseases as posses- 
sion by demons, but as personifying diseases, 
and actually addressing them as demons, holding 
formal conversation with them asking them ques- 
tions, and receiving answers from them, and per- 
mitting them to enter into the swine, etc. Force 
is added to this objection by the fact that this 

• Luke. X. 17-18. 



248 DEMON-POSSESSION 

theory obliges us to regard our Saviour as volun- 
tarily introducing this subject when not suggested 
by his disciples, as in the instance when he speaks 
of an evil spirit as going out of a man, and wander- 
ing in dry places, etc.* On the supposition that 
demon-possession was only a Jewish superstition 
how can we regard our Saviour as voluntarily 
adopting a course which could only tend to 
mislead his disciples and confirm them in gross 
misapprehension, when he might so easily have 
corrected this mistake, as he did so many others, 
by simply saying that these were not cases of 
possession but only of disease. 

(4. ) This theory represents our Saviour as mak- 
ing use of an unfounded superstition to substan- 
tiate his claim of divine authority. When he 
sent forth his disciples to preach "The kingdom 
of Heaven is at hand," the power to cast out 
demons was given them as a divine attestation 
to his mission, t That which the disciples and 
those to whom they were sent regarded as one 
of the principal reasons for accepting their tes- 
timony, was the fact that "even the demons 
were subject unto them through Christ's name," 
which according to this theory was not a fact 
but a delusion.^ 

We regard the above reasons as quite suffi- 
cient to warrant us in discarding the theory in 

* Matt. zii. 43. Luke xi, 24. 

t Matt. X, I. t See note on page 262. 



TEACHINGS OF THE SACRED SCRIPTURES 249 

question as in the highest degree unreasonable 
and untenable. 

Third. There is another view held by prominent 
teachers in the Christian church who, while they 
insist on the reality of demon-posesssions in 
Apostolic times, and the possibility or even pro- 
bability of them now, teach that we have little 
practical interest in the matter at present, as 
divine knowledge or inspiration is necessary to 
determine what are real cases of demon-posses- 
sion, and what are not. 

This view is inconsistent with the facts stated 
in the Scripture. Nearly every case which the 
Bible presents to us, is brought to our Saviour as \ 
a case of "possession," the fact of its being such ( 
having been decided not by our Saviour or his ^ 
disciples, but by the people. We read of no 
instance of our Saviour's informing the people 
that they were mistaken in their diagnosis of the 
case; no intimation that they were incompetent 
to decide upon these cases; or that there was 
any serious difficulty in so doing. There may 
have been many cases in Judea in which the 
symptoms were not sufficiently marked to indi- 
cate their character unmistakably, but those 
brought to Christ seem to have been clearly de- 
veloped and pronounced. 

Fourth. Another theory is thus presented in 
the "Encyclopedia Britannica."*"Some theologi- 

* Ninth edition, article "Demonology." 



250 DEMON-POSSESSION 

ans, while in deference to advanced medical 
knowledge they abandon the primitive theory of 
demons causing such diseases in our times, place 
themselves in an embarrassing position by main- 
taining, on the supposed sanction of Scripture, 
that the symptoms were really caused by demon- 
iacal possessions in the first century. A full 
statement of the arguments on both sides of 
this once important controversy will be found 
in earlier editons of the Encyclopedia Britann- 
ica, but for our times it seems too like a discus- 
sion whether the earth was really flat in the ages 
when it was believed to be so, but became round 
since astronomers provided for a different expla- 
nation of the same phenomena. It is more profi- 
table to notice how gradual the change of opinion 
has been from the doctrine of demon-possession 
to the scientific theory of disease, and how 
largely the older view still survives in the world." 
This theory is without foundation. The the- 
ologians represented as occupingthe "embarrass- 
ing position" have been brought into it, not by 
the teachings of Scripture, nor by established con- 
clusions of science, but by giving too ready cred- 
ence to the unverified hypothesis that so-called 
"possessions" are only certain forms of physical 
disease. It is not improbable that the Encyclo- 
pedia Britannica may find itself obliged again to 
revise its utterance, in accordance with more re- 
cent and reliable scientific knowledge. 



TEACHINGS OF THE SACRED SCRIPTURES 251 



Fifth. There is another theory of interpretation 
still more specious, and probably more generally 
accepted than the previous ones; viz; that the re- 
cords of the evangelists are colored and distorted 
so as not to present facts as they actually oc- 
curred; that our Saviour, simply cured diseases, 
never himself speaking of them as "possessions," 
or regarding them as such, but his disciples 
wrote the narratives of these events in a form in 
accordance with their own and the prevailing 
popular beliefs. This theory is thus presented 
in "Chamber's Encyclopedia of Religious Knowl- 
edge" in the article on Demons. "When the con- 
temporaries of Christ beheld the miraculous 
effects of his power on the bodies and spirits of 
the so-called demoniacs, it was natural that they 
should speak of it in language intelligible to 
their age and in harmony with its general no- 
tions.". . . . "Under the conditions of the 
popular belief it is difficult to see that there was 
any other course open to the evangelical histo- 
rians, even if they did not share the common be- 
lief of their countrymen, than to adopt the cur- 
rent representation." 

The same theory is thus presented by Dr. A. D. 
White, formerly of Cornell University. In speak- 
ingof the prevalence of the false idea of diabolic 
agency in mental diseases, he says: "In the 
New Testament the various accounts of the 
casting out of devils, through which is refracted 



252 DEMON-POSSESSION 

the beautiful and simple story of that power by 
which Jesus of Nazareth soothed perturbed minds 
by his presence, or quelled outbursts of madness 
by his word, give abundant examples of this."* 

This theory will be at once rejected by those 
who hold even the lowest views of the inspira- 
tion and authenticity of the Scriptures. Dr. 
White, while seemingly disposed to save the 
reputation of Jesus by sacrificing that of the 
evangelists, still represents our Saviour as select- 
ing and using as the transmitters of his teachings 
and the founders of his church, men incapable of 
writing an authentic account of the simplest 
facts, who have given to the world, instead of 
an actual history of their Master's life, a "re- 
fracted" perversion of it. Aside, however, from 
any special considerations of Scripture authority, 
the fallacy of this theory may be shown by the 
following considerations. 

(i.) It proceeds on the assumption that the 
Jews regarded mental diseases as possession by 
demons, which assumption has been shown to 
be gratuitous and inconsistent with facts. 

(2.) This theory is utterly inconsistent with the 
minute and circumstantial details of the Gospel 
narratives. If our Saviour only "soothed per- 
turbed minds by his presence, or quelled out- 
bursts of madness by his word" how could the 
disciples without an overwhelming sense of false- 

* Oa Demoniacal Possessions and Insanity. Pop.Sci.Mo. Fett. 1889. 



TEACHINGS OF THE SACRED SCRIPTURES 253 

ness and dishonesty, give details of imaginary 
conversations with demons, recording the very 
words used by both parties, and also controver- 
sies with the Jews growing out of these cases of 
casting out demons, and further, the Jews' recog- 
nition of the fact of casting out demons, their 
manner of accounting for it, and our Saviour's 
reply.* Have any other professed writers of his- 
tory in any age ever been accused of such wan- 
ton substitution of fiction for fact? 

(3.) This theory is utterly inconsistent with the 
minute and verbal correspondences of the Gospel 
narratives. If the authors of the Gospels re- 
corded facts as they saw them, and words which 
they heard, the correspondence is natural. If 
each man gave an account of the events "re- 
fracted" by his individual preconceptions and 
fancies this minute and verbal correspondence 
is inexplicable. 

(4.) If Christ never spoke of demon-possessions, 
but only of disease, how could such a marked 
departure from what this theory supposes to have 
been the current belief of that age have failed 
to be noticed by his disciples, and to lead to ques- 
tions on their part, and special teachings on the 
part of our Lord ? 

(5.) Supposing this theory to be true, how are 
we to account for the fact that such misrepre- 
sentation of the records and perversion of truth 

* Maitt. xii. Z2-29, Mark iii. 22. Luke xi. 15. 



354 DEMON-POSSESSION 

met with no challenge or rebuke from any of the 
contemporary eye-witnessess of the events, either 
Christians or Jews? 

(6.) The accounts given of this same class of 
phenomena by writers of different nationalities 
and ages, and notably the accounts given from 
China in this treatise, show an undesigned and 
complete correspondence even in details, thus 
proving that the records of the evangelists, pre- 
sent facts as they actually occurred. If we are 
correct in this conclusion, then not the evange- 
lists but Dr. White and others who hold with 
him, have given a view of events in our Saviour's 
life not as they actually occurred, but as they 
are refracted by their own prejudices. The fact 
that a theory so gratuitous,and so beset with diffi- 
culties and inconsistencies, can find its way into 
a scientific magazine, and meet with some de- 
gree of acceptance, furnishes the clearest evi- 
dence that in the interpretation of psychological 
phenomena, the present age, no less than those 
which preceded jt, is dominated by its own pre- 
vailing ideas and prejudices. 

We believe then that the language of the 
Bible with reference to demon-possession is to 
be interpreted in its ordinary literal sense; that 
it represents actual occurrences; that there were 
unseen spirits in Judea; that they sought oppor- 
tunities to possess themselves of the bodies of 
men; that they did so, and while in possession 



TEACH IhIGS OF THE SACRED SCRIPTURES 255 

of those bodies, gave evidence of that possession 
which was palpable and unmistakable. They 
conversed through the organs of speech of the 
persons possessed, and gave evidence of person- 
ality, of desires, and fears; and acknowledged 
God's authority over them. Our Saviour cast 
them out by his word, and gave the same au- 
thority to his disciples, though it does not clearly 
appear in the Scriptures how long that power 
was to continue. 

In a word we believe that our Saviour said just 
what he meant; and that he was perfectly ac- 
quainted with this whole subject in all its facts 
and bearings. 

It thus appears that the hypothesis of demon- 
possession may claim a divine sanction, as well 
as the common consent of all nations and ages. 
The question of such events being repeated in 
the world's history is simply a matter of evidence. 
Let us determine then by comparison how far 
the manifestations or symptoms of demon-pos- 
session as they appeared in the previous chap- 
ters of this treatise, correspond with those pre- 
sented to us in the New Testament. 

(i.) In China persons afflicted are of both 
sexes, and of all ages. The same is true of the 
cases presented in Scripture. 

(2.) A marked characteristic of the cases 
which have been met with in China is that the 
attacks are occasional, and commence with some 



256 DEMON-POSSESSION 

physical disturbance or bodily convulsion. This 
corresponds with the cases given in Scripture: 
"Lo a spirit taketh him and he suddenly crieth 
out; and it teareth him that he foameth again, 
and bruising him hardly departeth from him." 
Luke ix. 39, Compare Mark ix. 1 8 and Luke viii. 29. 

(3.) In many of the cases which have come 
before us the demon declares that he will never 
cease to torment his victim unless he submits to 
his will. The subject bemoans his deplorable 
and hopeless condition; and sympathizing friends 
intercede for him. Frequently the victim pines 
away and dies. The correspondence of these 
characteristics to the cases given in Scripture is 
too obvious and striking to require pointing out. 

(4.) We have had presented in some of the 
cases before us instances in which the subject has 
received bodily injuries or scars as if from an 
unseen hand. So we read of the cases in Scrip- 
ture, that they were thrown down, torn and 
bruised, and that one cut himself with stones. 

(5.) Some cases before us are easily cast out, 
and others with great difficulty. The Scripture 
narrative presents the same difference. 

(6.) We see a correspondence also in the indi- 
vidual pecularities of the spirits, more or less 
wicked, more or less violent, and more or less 
daring, the cases bearing a general resemblance, 
while each one has its own special peculiarities. 

(7.) Another point of resemblance in some of 



TEACHINGS OF THE SACRED SCRIPTURES 257 



J 



the persons possessed is the shameless tearing 
off of clothes, and an utter disregard of propriety 
and decency in language and behavior. 

(8.) Nothing has excited more surprise in 
connection with these manifestations in China, 
than the fact that the subjects of these manifes- 
tations have in some cases evinced a knowledge 
of God, and especially of our Saviour; and ac- ^ 
knowledged our Saviour's authority and power. 
The correspondence of this fact with the state- 
ments of Scripture is apparent. 

(9.) We notice in cases of possession in China 
and in those given in Scripture, in some instances, 
a kind of double consciousness, or actions and 
impulses directly opposite and contrary. The 
woman in Fuchow, whose case is given in Chapter 
vii, though under the influence of a demon whose 
instinct it was to shun the presence of Christ, was 
moved by an opposite influence to leave her 
home and come to Fuchow to seek help from 
Jesus. So the demoniac who dwelt among 
the tombs "When he saw Jesus afar ofl, 
he ran, and worshiped him", although the 
spirit still manifested a feeling of antagonism 
and dread, saying: "What have I to do with 
thee, Jesus, thou Son of the Most High 
God.!* I adjure Thee by God that Thou torment 
me not." (Mark v. 6, 7. Compare Matt, viii, 
28-29; Luke viii. 27-28.) 

(10.) We have had cases before us in which 

ly Demon 



J 



25« DEMON-POSSESSION 

the same human body was possessed by several 
demons, three, six and more. So in Scripture 
we have cases of possession by seven demons 
and by a legion. (Lk. viii, 2. Mrk. v, 9.) 

(II.) One of the most common characteris- 
tics of the cases met with in China is the instinct 
or longing of the spirit for a body to possess, 
and their possessing the bodies of inferior animals 
as well as men. So in Scripture we have spirits 
represented as wandering about to seek rest in 
bodies, and asking permission to enter into 
swine. (Matt, xii, 43; viii, 31). 

(12.) In the cases before us, as well as those 
given in Scripture, we have the spirit cast out 
seeking to return again. (Matt, xii, 44.) 

(13.) We have exact correspondence also in 
the assertion of a new personality, and the in- 
stinctive recognition of this new personality by 
all present, long conversations being carried on 
with this new personality, precisely as between 
two human beings, the possessed subject being 
in most cases entirely ignored. In this distin- 
guishing feature of possession the correspondence 
between cases of demon-possession generally and 
those found in Scripture is very striking. 

(14.) We have another correspondence in the 
fact that in attempts to cast out demons in the 
name of Christ there has been no failure. 

(15.) Demons are cast out by others than 
Christians and by different methods, so in the 



TEACHINGS OF THE SACRED SCRIPTURES 259 

Scriptures. Witness the existence of exorcists ^ 
in Judea, and our Saviour's, words "by whom do 
you cast them out?" (Matt, xii, 27. Lk. xi. 19 ) 

(16.) We have cases of casting out demons by 
those who have afterwards been guilty of gross 
immorahty, and have been cast out of the church. 
So our Saviour declares "many shall say unto 
me in that day, have we not cast out demons in s/ 
thy name," etc., to whom He will declare "I 
never knew you." (Matt vii. 22, 23.) 

(17.) There is a correspondence in the effects 
produced by casting out demons in the name of 
Christ. When the gospel was first preached in 
Judea, and now when it is first preached in 
heathen lands the effect produced by casting out 
demons has been to arrest public attention, and ^ 
give evidence readily appreciated and understood 
by the masses, of the presence and power of 
Christ, thus convincing men of the divine origin 
and truth of Christianity, and preparing the way 
for its acceptance. 

(18.) In the case related by Mr. Innocent in 
Chapter vi, we have specific testimony given to 
the character of the missionary, similar to that 
given by the damsel in Philippi to the character 
of the Apostle Paul and his associates in the 
words: "These men are the servants of the 
most high God which show unto us the way of 
salvation." (Acts, xvi, 17.) 

(19.) The cases in China and in the Scriptures 



260 DEMON-POSSESSION 

are recognizable by the people who speak of 
them as if there could be no reasonable doubt 
concerning -them. 

(20.) There is an exact correspondence in the 
representations given of the condition of these 
spirits as free, and for the present, roaming about 
at will, though still under limitations and con- 
trol, such as are by these spirits clearly under- 
stood and fully acknowledged. 

(21.) The evil spirits spoken of in Scripture 
are represented as belonging to the kingdom of 
Satan, and in direct and acknowledged opposi- 
tion to the kingdom of our Lord. In China, as 
a rule, the cases which we have been consider- 
ing are directly or indirectly connected with 
heathen temples and idolatrous worship. The 
Chinese attribute these cases to unclean and 
malicious spirits, who are the enemies of men, 
and are constantly seeking to injure them. 

(22.) In case D in the Appendix we hear of a 
female slave possessed by a spirit, who was highly 
prized and used by her master as a means of 
gain. Compare the case given in the i6th 
chapter of Acts. 

(23.) The testimony upon which the cases of 
demon-possession and demon-expulsion in the 
New Testament rest is of virtually the same 
character as that upon which the authentication 
of the cases presented from China rests; viz., the 
testimony of intelligent, unbiased, common peo- 



TEACHINGS OF THE SACRED SCRIPTURES 2G1 

pie who were eye-witnesses of the events. The 
assumption so often heard now-a-days, that no 
testimony should be received in such investiga- 
tions but that of so-called "experts" finds no sanc- 
tion in the Scriptures. In investigations of this 
kind, la/io are the "experts.'" 

(24.) In reviewing the cases of "demon-pos- 
session" in China, we find that they are very rare 
in large cities, and that they occur principally in 
rural and mountainous regions. The same is true 
of the cases recorded in the Scriptures. We read 
of none occurring in Jerusalem. One occurred 
in Capernaum, in the very beginning of our Sa- 
viour's ministry: Mark i: 21-28; Luke iv: 31- 
37. The others were met with in Galilee, Ga- 
dara, the region of Tyre and Sidon, and that of 
Caesarea Philippi. 

As the result of the comparison which has been 
made we see that the correspondence between 
the cases met with in China and those recorded 
in Scripture is complete and circumstantial, cov- 
ering almost every point presented in the Scrip- 
ture narrative. The frequent assertions, made 
in extracts which we have taken from a variety 
of authors, that the possession phenomena of 
Judea found in the Bible are identical with those of 
other lands seems justified, and we may inquire 
in the language of Bishop Cardwell of India, "If 
the cases now-a-days differ from those of the 
Hebrews in the time of Christ, will anyone point 



262 DEMON-POSSESSION 

out the exact bound and limit of the difference?" 
Now as we have the highest authority for re- 
ferring the phenomena presented in the scrip- 
tures to the agency of evil spirits, the conclusion 
that the same phenomena met with in China and 
other lands is referable to the same cause is ir- 
resistible. 

It was my hope when I began to investigate 
the subject of so-called "demon-possession" that 
the Scriptures and modern science would furnish 
the means of showing to the Chinese, that these 
phenomena need not be referred to demons. 
The result has been quite the contrary. 

•■In discussing James IV : 7, 'Resist the devil,' etc., Dr. Pluinmer de- 
clares that James, quite as much as Peter, Paul, or John, speaks of the 
chief power of evil as a person. The passage, he holds, is not intelligible 
on any other interpretation. James 'vyas probably well aware of the teach- 
ing of Jesus Christ.' 

'If the belief in a personal power of evil is a superstition, Jesus Christ 
had ample opportunities of correcting it; and He not only steadfastly ab- 
stained from doing so, but in very marked ways, both by His acts and by 
His teaching, He did a great deal to encourage and inculcate the belief.' " 
—(From The Old aiid New Test. Student, Sept. 1891, page 182.) 



CHAPTER XV. 

TEACHINGS OF SCRIPTURE CONTINUED. 

The authorized English version of the New 
Testament is less clear in its presentation of the 
subject of demon-possession than is the original 
Greek, in consequence of its translating diabolos 
and daimonion and daimon by the one word 
"devil." In the revised version the first of these 
words is translated "devil," and the other two 
"demon," the important distinction of the origi- 
nal being thus preserved. The word diabolos 
(devil) meaning "slanderer" or "false accuser" is 
in the New Testament only used in the singular, 
and appears more than thirty times as a descrip- 
tive title of Satan. In its adjective form it is 
used three times to represent men as accusers or 
slanderers.* The words rt'rt/w^w/^w and daimon 
are used very frequently in the New Testament, 
both in the singular and plural, but never inter- 
changeably with diabolos, and always in a sense 
different from that of diabolos. Whenever the 
words daimonion or daimon occur the margin 
of the newly revised version gives demon as their 

• 1 Tim. iii; ii. 2 Tim. iii; 3. Tit. ii; 3. 

263 



264 DEMON-POSSESSION 

proper translation or equivalent. Its synonym 
is "evil" or "unclean spirit." There is then in the 
Scripture only one devil, but the number of de- 
mons is indefinitely large. We are never told 
of a person's being possessed by the devil; but 
all the cases of possession are possessions by 
demons. It may be well to add here that the 
expression "possessed by a demon" so frequently 
used in our English translation of the New 
Testament, is the rendering of a single word 
in the Greek, which might be translated "de- 
monized." In Acts xvi: i6, the expression in 
our authorized version, "a certain damsel pos- 
sessed with a spirit of divination," would be liter- 
ally translated "a certain damsel having a spirit 
of Python" or a "Pythian spirit." 

The Scriptures are not more explicit in mak- 
ing a clear distinction between the devil and de- 
mons, than in teaching us the relation which 
subsists between the devil and demons. The 
Jews accuse our Lord of casting out demons by 
the power and authority of Beelzebub, the prince 
of the demons. * Our Saviour replied, "Every 
kingdom divided against itself is brought to des- 
olation; and every city or house divided against 
itself shall not stand; and if Satan cast out Satan 
he is divided against himself; how shall then his 
kingdom stand, etc." Here Beelzebub and Satan 
are used as exchangeable terms, and the statement 

* Matt, xii, 22-30; Mark iii, 22-27; Luke xi. 14-23, 



TEACHINGS OF SCRIPTURE CONTINUED 265 

of the Jews that Beelzebub or Satan is the prince 
of the demons is accepted by our Saviour as true. 
We are confirmed in this conclusion by other 
teachings of our Saviour. We are told that "the 
seventy returned again with joy, saying, "Lord, 
even the demons are subject to us through Thy 
name." And He said unto them, "I beheld Satan 
as lightning fall from Heaven. Behold I give 
you power to tread on serpents and scorpions, 
and on all the power of the enemy; and nothing 
shall by any means hurt you. Notwithstand- 
ing, in this rejoice not, that the spirits are sub- 
ject unto you ; but rather rejoice because your 
names are written in heaven. "(*) 

The Apostle Peter also referring to the inflict- 
ion of sufferings by demons, says of our Lord, 
that he "went about doing good and healing all 
that were oppressed of the devil, "t What is done 
by demons, is here as elsewhere in Scripture as- 
cribed to the devil as their leader or head. Ow- 
ing probably, to the frequent use of "devil" for 
"demon" in the authorized version of the New 
Testament, we often find in Christian teachings, 
oral and printed, that many things are attributed 
to the devil which should be attributed to de- 
mons. We are thus led, by conceiving of Satan 
as in so many places, and doing so many things 
at the same time, almost to consider him omnipo- 
tent. This shows the importance of adhering 

• Luke x; 17-20. 
t Act9s:39. 



266 DEMON-POSSESSION 

to Scripture usage in keeping up the distinction 
between these two words. In matters of grav- 
est importance Satan probably appeared himself 
personally, as the acting agent. This is notably 
the case in the temptation of our Saviour. 

The intimate connection between Satan and 
demons invests the subject which we have been 
considering with a new importance. These de- 
mons are the "power of darkness" with which we 
have to contend. They are enemies, the more 
dangerous because working in the dark, unper- 
ceived and unsuspected; not few in number un- 
trained and inexperienced, but a martialed host 
of veterans, composed of the "prince of this 
world" as its head, and the "principalities and 
powers," and "rulers of the darkness of this 
world," with legions of Satan's angels or messen- 
gers who are his willing subjects.! 

The popular conception of the devil, in what- 
ever way it may have been derived, is quite dif- 
ferent from that which a careful and unbiased 
reading of the Scriptures will give us. He is to 
most persons who really believe in his existence, 
a being ghostly, hidious, and repulsive, of whom 
we have the vaguest and most shadowy concep- 
tions. 

In the Bible though he is represented as the 
embodiment of all wickedness and malignity, 
he is still never spoken of lightly. Our Saviour 
refers to him as the "Prince of this World"; * 

* John zii, 31; ziv, 30; xvi, 11; t Lu. xsii, 63. Col. i, 13. Epb. vi, 12. 



TEACHINGS OF SCRIPTURE CONTINUED 267 



as the "strong man armed;"* and when Satan 
asserts the authority to give to our Lord "all 
the kingdoms of the world" t that authority is 
not denied. When the seventy were sent forth 
to preach the gospel Satan and his agents with 
whom they had to contend are spoken of as "all 
the power of the enemy." | He is represented 
as the "great dragon." § "Michael, the arch- 
angel, when contending with the devil" "durst 
not bring against him a railing judgment." || 

The Book of Job gives us some conception, 
though the subject is full of mystery, of the 
character of Satan, and the relations which he as 
the "god of this world" is permitted to sustain 
to this world and its inhabitants. His distin- 
guishing characteristics, as there presented 
are freedom, self assertion, consciousness of 
power, unbelief, undisguised opposition to God, 
taking pleasure in accusing God's people and 
inflicting injury on them. He is represented as 
coming audaciously, with "the sons of God," "to 
present himself before the Lord." T His pres- 
ence excites no surprise. He is received and 
addressed by God in a manner not unlike that 
which characterizes God's intercourse with men. 
His character and purposes as the avowed enemy 



* Luke xi, 21 

t Matt, iv, 8. g. 

X Luke s, ig. 

8 Rev. xii, g.-x^ 

II Judeg. 

H Job, chap's i, ii. 



268 DEMON-POSSESSION 

of man are assumed to be well understood; and 
the right, or at least the privilege of accusing, 
tempting, and subjugating man, if he can do so, 
is implied. • From the narrative as given in Job 
we may draw the following conclusions: 

1. Satan has a kind of recognized, legal stand- 
ing ground in this world, and (under limitations) 
liberty, authority, and influence. 

2. It is his purpose to tempt and gain control 
over men, and to do this he is ever seeking op- 
portunities. 

3. He cannot carry out his purposes except 
by God's permission. 

4. This permission is sometimes obtained. 
These disclosures with reference to Satan in 

the Book of Job, are in perfect agreement with 
the teachings of the New Testament. Of this 
fact our Lord's temptation in the wilderness 
furnishes a striking illustration. Led by the 
Spirit, our Saviour, though possessed of divine 
dignity and power, in this as well as in other in- 
stances in his earthly life, voluntarily submits to 
the temptation of Satan as divinely permitted. 

The temptation of Peter presents the same 
characteristics. We read in the revised version 
(which is in accord with the original Greek) "Si- 
mon, Simon, behold Satan asked to have you," 
(or, "obtained you by asking")''that he might sift 
you as wheat. "(*) 

* Luka xxii, 31. Compare Longfellow's poem, "The Siftiog of Peter." 



TEACHINGS OF SCRIP TURH CONTINUED 2(50 



The Scripture accounts of Paul's "thorn in the 
tlesh," "the messenger of Satan, "■^ and the "de- 
livering unto Satan for the destruction of the 
flesh," (t) present the same features. It is a fact 
full of significance and hope, that in every one of 
the cases given above, Satan was foiled, and his 
temptations overruled for good. 

Access of demons to the divine presence, and 
their connection with the divine councils, byway 
of permission is further illustrated in the fall of 
Ahab. (X) 

The question naturally arises, who were, or 
who are these demons.^ Whence do they come .-' 
The Greeks used this word "demon" to designate 
the disembodied spirits of deceased men.§ It 
would appear that the same idea of spirits which 
"demonize" men has been held by all nations 
since the time of the Greeks, including the Chi- 
nese of the present day. The inquiry in what 
sense do the Scriptures use the word demon is 
pertinent and important. To this question the 
Scriptures do not give a specific answer. The 
opinion which is probably most generally adopted 
is that they were originally one with the holy 
angels, but that they have fallen from their 

* 2 Cor. xii, 7, 

t I Cor. V. 5. 

t I Kings xxii, 18-22. 

§ Primarily, of men who had lived in the Golden Age before the ex- 
pulsion of Saturn. See Hesiod, "Works and Days," 109-126. Also "Earth's 
Earliest Ages," by G.H. Pember. M. A., F. H. Revell Co. N. V. pp. 70-73, 
and whole ch^tar. 



270 DEMON-POSSESSION 

original state by sinning against God. * 
An ingenious hypothesis of Rev. James Gall, 
author of a work entitled: "Primeval Man Un- 
veiled," t is worthy of notice in this connec- 
tion. He believes that Satan and the demons who 
are his subjects, are the disembodied spirits of a 
pre-Adamic race, who once lived on this earth, 
whose human remains may yet be found, if they 
have not already been found in its strata. This 
race sinned, and fell from its original state as 
ours has since done. In consequence of sin, 
they suffered physical death. These are the 
"angels which kept not their first estate, but left 
their own habitation" (i.e. their bodies) } and are 
"reserved in everlasting chains under darkness 
unto the judgment of the great day." Satan is 
the acknowledge head of these spirits, and prob- 
ably by right of primogeniture. He was naturally 
envious of the race which succeeded him, and 

♦ Greek writers speak of the worship of gods and demons as synony- 
mous or interchangeable. Favonius a philosopher of Adrian's time who 
at different periods of his life resided in Rome and Greece and the Lesser 
Asia, describes the religion of these nations indiflerently as "the fear of 
gods and demons." Zenophon intending to commend the piety of Ages- 
elaus king of Sparta says "he was ever a worshiper of demons;" 

Festus pronounces the accusations of the Jews against Paul to be (Acts 
XXV, ly,) "A question of their own demon woTship," (deis/daimofn'as \ 
Paul calls the Athenians (Acts xvii, 23,) remarkable for their worship of 
demons, {os deisidai7>io7zesterous,') 

Augustine gives the Platonic conception of demons in Civ. Dei. lib. 
viii. Chap. XVI as follows; "In kind they are animal, in disposition 
passionate, in mind rational, in body carnal, induration eternal, having 
the first three in common with us; the fourth peculiar to themselves, and 
the fifth common to them with the gods." This was probably the popular 
creed of the times. Imperial Bible Dictionary. 

Article on Demons by Rev. James Henderson D, D. Glasgow. 

t Primeval Man Unveiled: Or The Anthropology of the Bible." id 
edition. 1880. London, Hamilton, Adams & Co. 

X Compare 2 Cor. v, 2. the only other place in which this word is 
used in the New Testament, In the revised version the Greek word used 
in the original i3 translated "habitation" as in Jude 6. 2 Peter, ii: 4.} 



TEACHINGS OF SCRIPTURE CONTINUED 271 

plotted and compassed its fall. After Adam's 
fall and loss of the proprietorship and control of 
the world, Satan reasserted his claim to it by 
right of precedence. He still contests the claim; 
the final issue of the contest being suspended on 
the success or failure of the redemption and res- 
toration of men. In the mean time these dis- 
embodied spirits of a former human race, being 
accustomed to the occupation and use of human 
bodies constructed in all respects like our own, 
seek for ends of their own to possess themselves 
of them. 

The question naturally arises here, is it possi- 
ble for the spirits of deceased men, either good 
or bad, to hold communication with living men, 
and if so, are there actual cases of such commun- 
ication.-' We know that angels may convey in- 
formation to men by means of dreams and in 
other ways. We may also infer from the man- 
ner in which our Saviour in the parable of the 
rich man and Lazarus* treats the suggestion that 
Lazarus should be sent to warn the rich man's 
brothers, that such communication is not in the 
nature of things impossible. In the case of Sam- 
uel's appearance to Saulf it would seem that we 
have the evidence that spirits of the dead either 
by their inherent faculties or powers, or by spe- 
cial divine permission and arrangement, may as- 

* Luke xvi; ig-31. 
t I Sam. ssviii. 



273 DEMON-POSSESSION 

sume human bodies and hold conversation with 
men just as angels do. It seems also to be a 
natural inference from the injunction "prove the 
spirits whether they are of God,"* that communi- 
cations may be expected from the unseen world 
from spirits both good and bad. We not infre- 
quently hear in the recital of personal experiences, 
and, in biographies and other books, instances 
of supposed communication with the spirit 
world. The Society for Psychical Research has 
collected many cases of this kind which seem to 
be authenticated. The present tendency is to 
account for them by thought transferrence or 
telepathy. A few occasional instances of sup- 
posed impression from the spirit world when the 
minds of those thus affected are roused to an 
abnormal state of excitement by tear and cvpec- 
tation, would not be remarkable. The frequency 
of these cases, however, renders them worthy of 
careful collection and examination. It is proba- 
ble that these events are kept from publicity in 
most cases from fear on the part of those cog- 
nizant of them of being regarded as superstitious. 
The viewing of certain phenemona with a kind 
of ghostly dread and apprehension, which deters 
us from examining whether they represent im- 
portant facts or only delusive appearances, is of 
the very essence of superstition. Dr. Horace 
Bushnell, in speaking of occurrences popularly 

* I Jno. iv; i. 



TEACHINGS OF SCRIPTURE CONTINUED 373 

called: "supernatural" says: "What is wanted, 
therefore, on this subject, in order to any suffi- 
cient impression, is a full consecutive inventory 
of the supernatural events or phenomena of the 
world. There is reason to suspect that many 
would in that case be greatly surprised by the 
commonness of the instances." * 

It does not admit of a reasonable doubt that 
in the cases of "possession" presented in the 
Scriptures and in the records of heathen nations, 
the motive which characterizes and dominates 
these cases is not a desire to instruct and benefit 
man, but the very opposite. Whether there is 
such a thing as "possession" from good motives 
and intentions is a question on which I have no 
sufficient ground for forming an opinion. I have 
met with one case which may seem to be of this 
character, which has not been given before in 
this book because it is exceptional, and insuf- 
ficient of itself to warrant any reliable conclu- 
sion. It may be given here, however, as an in- 
timation of the possibility of other similar and 
perhaps more pronounced and fully attested 
cases, which have not, so far as my information 
goes, been found in China.f 

In one of our stations in Western Enchiu, in 
the village of Chwang-teo, we have two Chris- 
tians, father and son of the family Sung. The 
inhabitants of this village are exceptionally rude 

* See his "Nature and the Supernatural." t Lu. xvi, 27. 
18 Demon 



274 DEMON-POSSESSION 

and lawless. These two Christians have suffered 
much opposition and persecution, not only from 
their neighbors, but especially from the female 
members of their own family, the elder Mrs. 
Sung, and her three daughters-in-law. The op- 
position of these women was for several years 
bitter and persistent. On one of my visits some 
years since I learned that the elder Mrs. Sung 
had recently died, and was surprised to find that 
the three daughters-in-law, and another son 
were studying Christian books and applying for 
baptism. The reasons given for this remarkable 
change were the following: I was told by the 
two Christians, both of whom are very trust- 
worthy men, that some time after Mrs. Sung's 
death, one of the daughters-in-law passed into 
an unconscious state, manifesting symptoms very 
similar to those which characterize cases of "pos- 
session." In one of these abnormal states, a 
voice spoke through her, purporting to be that 
of the deceased Mrs. Sung, declaring that she 
had gone to the land of spirits, that she was re- 
fused entrance to the abode of the blest, but had 
seen it from a distance. She was asked if she 
saw there certain persons who had recently died 
in the village. She replied with reference to 
each person specified, no. When asked whom 
she saw there whom she knew, she replied that 
she saw a great multitude, but only recognized 
one individual, naming a woman who had re- 



TEylCHINGS OF THE SACRED SCRIPTURES 275 



cently died in a village some miles distant, who 
had for some years been a professing Christian. 
She informed them that her simple object in 
coming to them was to tell them that Christian- 
ity is true, and to urge them all to study Chris- 
tian books, give themselves to Christ, and enter 
the Christian church. I was told that after this 
one communication the daughter-in-law regained 
her normal consciousness and had not been simi- 
larly affected since. The new interest in Chris- 
tianity continued for some months, but proved 
to be only superficial and temporary. I visited 
the village, Oct., 1887. The two believers who 
were baptized about ten years previous are still 
Hving, and are respected by their neighbors as 
consistent Christians, but no others had up to 
that time been baptized in the village. The 
women in the family had ceased the violence of 
their opposition, and evince occasional impulses 
towards entering the Christian church, but their 
feelings and efforts are not sufficiently strong to 
effect their separation from idolatry, and the re- 
formation of their lives. 

To the question what is the motive which in- 
fluences demons to seek to possess themselves of 
the bodies of men, the Scriptures furnish us with 
a ready answer. The Bible clearly teaches us 
that in all Satan's dealings with our race his ob- 
ject is to deceive and ruin us by drawing our 
minds away from God, and inducing us to break 



276 DEMON-POSSESSION 



Gods laws and bring upon ourselves his displeas- 
ure. These objects are secured by demon-pos- 
session. Superhuman effects are produced, 
which to the ignorant and uninstructed seem di- 
vine. Divine worship and implicit obedience 
are demanded, and enforced by the infliction of 
physical distress, and by false promises and fear- 
ful threats. In this way idolatrous rites and 
superstitions, interwoven with social and politi- 
cal customs and institutions, have usurped the 
place in almost every nation in history of the 
pure worship of God. As regards the demons 
themselves it appears that they have additional 
personal reasons. The possession of human 
bodies seems to afford them a much desired place 
of rest and physical gratification. Our Saviour 
speaks of evil spirits walking through dry places 
and seeking rest, and especially desirous of find- 
ing rest in the bodies of their familiar or accus- 
tomed victims,* When deprived of a place of 
rest in the bodies of human beings, they are 
represented as seeking it in the bodies of inferior 
animals, t 

The question is often asked, and very naturally, 
if demon-possession is possible and also actual 
in the world's history, why does it exist in the 
past rather than the present; in remote and in- 
accessible places, rather than in our immediate 

* Matt. XII., 43-45- 

t M^'t- VIII.. 31. ... 



TEACHINGS OF THE SACRED SCRIPTURES 271 

presence; among ignorant and savage rather than 
civilized races ? The usual answer to this ques- 
tion is that at the time of the introduction of 
Christianity God permitted demons to possess the 
bodies of men in order by the casting them out 
in the name of Christ, to display more conspic- 
uously the power of Christ and the divine origin 
of Christianity. That the casting out of demons 
was among the most prominent and convincing 
of the evidences of the divine origin of Christian- 
ity in early times, the Scriptures leave no room 
for doubt. I believe, however, that the reason 
for the fact that cases of possession are less fre- 
quent now than formerly, and still less frequent 
in Christian countries, is to be found in Satan 
himself. He uses methods best suited to his 
ends. A form of possession adapted to ad- 
vance his ends in heathen lands, may only be 
suited to subvert them in Christian lands; and 
this is a reason quite sufficient for its being dis- 
countenanced and suppressed. Satan acts un- 
der cover of darkness, concealing his purpose, 
his nature, and his presence. The Bible teaches 
that demon-possession is of Satan. So, for Sa- 
tan to practice demon-possession in Christian 
lands (at least in its old forms with which the 
world is familiar) would be to reveal himself in 
his true character, and thus excite suspicion and 
opposition. Besides, the dispossession of de- 
mons in places where Christianity is introduced, 



278 DEMON-POSSESSION 



would be injurious to Satan's influence. Fur- 
thermore demons had an intuitive apprehension 
that they could not hold their victims in the 
presence of Christ, and cried out, "What have 
we to do with thee?" "Art thou come hither to 
torment us before the time ?"* In China the uni- 
form testimony of the supposed demon is, "I can- 
not live where Christ is. I must go." There is 
something in the very atmosphere of Christianity 
which is repellent to them. Thus the best an- 
swer to this question comes from the demons 
themselves. As a matter of fact, cases of this 
kind disappear almost at once whenever Chris- 
tianity is introduced, or continue in a modified 
and less pronounced form. They probably now 
exist and always have existed in all heathen na- 
tions, but, appear to our view, with compara- 
tively few exceptions, only at the epoch when 
the advancing tide of aggressive Christianity 
comes into contact and collision with the storm - 
tossed sea of heathenism. 

It may be objected that according to our above 
hypothesis the permission by Satan of any cases 
of possession in Christian lands, or in lands 
where Christianity is being introduced, is incon- 
sistent with the doctrine of the wisdom of Satan 
and his control over his subordinate spirits. This 
objection is only conclusive on the supposition 
that Satan has a complete knowledge of all that 

Matt. Vni.. 29- 



TEACHINGS OF THE SACRED SCRIPTURES 279 

is going on in the world, and that all demons 
are perfectly subject to his authority and control, 
neither of which supposition is probable. Want 
of vigilance on^the part of superiors, and per- 
sonal ambition and gratification in subordinates 
may operate in Satan's administration to obstruct 
and delay changes, as well as in the affairs of 
men. 

It may be objected, if association with Chris- 
tians is repellent to demons, why are they con- 
stantly represented in the Scriptures as following 
and tempting Christians? We answer, posses- 
sing and tempting men are widely different. One 
implies a relation intimate, the other more re- 
mote; one internal, the other external; one may 
be regarded as unauthorized and illicit; the other 
as permitted. A screened position of nearness to 
an antagonist is eagerly sought for, while an ex- 
posed one is carefully avoided. Under our pres- 
ent circumstances Satan makes his attacks under 
subterfuges and disguises. The victim of his 
wiles proudly imagines that the artful sophistries 
by which he evades truth, stifles conscience, and 
justifies himself in his opposition to God, are the 
product of his own superior wisdom and insight. 
He regards the idea of the existence of such a 
being as Satan as a weak superstition, and the 
suggestion that he may be unconsciously acting 
under his influence and control with contemptu- 
ous incredulity. 



280 DEMON-POSSESSION 

It may be asked: Why is not our Saviour as 
willing to protect and rescue men from the more 
covert and insidious attacks of demons, as from 
their efforts to possess men's bodies? We can 
only say that the Scriptures clearly teach us that 
God permits the former but not the latter. The 
latter is an outrage against nature. It is robbing 
man of his very personality. It seems to 
some persons inconsistent with the character of 
God that evil spirits should be allowed to roam 
over the earth at will to seek the injury and dis- 
truction of his children. It is an obvious fact, 
however, that many evils are permitted in the 
present order of things which, no less than de- 
mons, destroy both the happiness and the lives 
of men. Pestilence and famine sweep away the 
earth's inhabitants by thousands and millions. 
These evils can, however, be mitigated or avoided 
by man's using the means which God has put at 
his disposal for his own protection. In the case 
of danger from demons the ability which God 
has given to man to protect himself is still more 
complete. They are allowed to tempt and in- 
jure man, but only under limitations and re- 
straints, and if they are resisted in the name of 
Christ they will "flee from us."* 

It may seem at first sight that the surprise 
and astonishment attributed to the Jews, on see- 
ing our Saviour cast out demons, is inconsistent 

* See J at. iv, 7. 



TEACHINGS OF SCRIP TURE CONTINUED 281 

with their familiarity with the practice of exor- 
cism, and with the words of our Saviour Himself; 
"By whom then do your children cast them out."* 
If we examine carefully the gospel narrative, the 
explanation of this seeming inconsistency will, I 
think, become apparent. We read in Mark's 
gospel : "And they were all amazed insomuch that 
they questioned among themselves, saying: What 
thing is this? What new doctrine is this? for 
with authority commandeth he even the unclean 
spirits, and they do obey him. And immediately 
His fame spread abroad throughout all the region 
round about Galilee." (t) Similar language is 
found recorded in other gospels. (;[:) We read 
also in Matthew. "The multitudes marvelled, say- 
ing, It was never so seen in Israel." (§) There 
can be little doubt that the wonder of the peo- 
ple was excited not so much by the fact as the 
inaniier oi our Saviour's casting out demons. It 
was "by authority," by "a word," or in the lan- 
guage of our Saviour himself, " with the finger of 
God, "II "by the Spirit of God."1l What amazed the 
Jews was the contrast between the dread and ap- 
prehension with which their exorcists addressed 
demons, together with their frequent failures, and 
the calm dignity and authority with which our 

* Matt, xii, 22-2g. 

t Mark i. 27, 28. 

X Luke iv, 36, 57. 

S Matt, ix, 33. 

II Luke si, 20. 

\ Matt, xii, 28. 



283 tEMON-POSSESSION 

Saviour always addressed them, an authority 
which was in every case at once acknowledged 
and obeyed. 

It is very noticeable that the multitudes or 
common people, and not the learned or educated 
classes, were specially moved and influenced by 
our Saviour's method of casting out demons. It 
is so at the present time. The higher evidences 
of our Saviour's divine mission have their weight 
with cultured minds capable of understanding 
and appreciating them. The poor and illiterate 
who are incapable of deep research, or close logi- 
cal process of thought, find in these cases of cast- 
ing out spirits an evidence of our Saviour's sym- 
pathy and divinity, palpable, and suited to their 
wants and capacities.* When the apostles 
were commissioned to go forth and evangelize 
the nations, among the "signs" promised to "fol- 
low them that believe," "in my name shall they 
cast out demons" stands first in the enumera- 
tion, t But when John the Baptist is pointed to 
our Saviour's wonderful works to confirm his faith 
in him as the promised Messiah, the casting out 
of demons is not mentioned, t. 

Since the casting out of demons seems provi- 

♦ Chinese Christians in different parts of the Chinese Empire have 
not only had their faith confirmed by the casting out of demons, but by 
numerous instances which they will adduce of the sick being restored to 
health in answer to prayer, and also remarkable deliverances and dreams 
and visions. These cases might be collected in great numbers by any 
vne on the ground who has the leisure and the disposition to do so. 

t Mark zvi., 17. 

i Matt. si.. 3-6. Luke vii., ig-23. 



TEACHINGS OF SCRIPTURE CONTINUED 283 

dentially used as furnishing so striking an evi- 
dence of our Lord's mission as the Son of God 
and the Saviour of the world, why when the de- 
mons were cast out, and openly testified that 
Christ was the "Son of God," "The Holy one of 
God," * did our Saviour rebuke them, saying: 
"Hold thy peace," and on another occasion 
"straitly charge them that they should not make 
Him known?" f This command of our Sa- 
viour not to make him known is almost identical 
to that made to the twelve about two years after- 
wards; the reason is probably the same in both 
cases. It was the special function of the apos- 
tles to witness to the world that Jesus was the 
Christ, the Son of God, and this they did after 
our Saviour's resurrection repeatedly and per- 
sistently, in the face of persecution and death. 
Before our Lord's resurrection, the time for 
this public testimony had not come. A certain 
reserve was necessary. Our Saviour's earthly 
ministry was characterized by a nice balancing 
between revealing and concealing. He must 
reveal himself with sufficient clearness to furnish 
aground for^the faith of his followers, but not 
so clearly as to overawe his enemies, and pre- 
vent the crowning act of his mission on earth, 
his suffering on the cross. It was by this nice 
discrimination between revealing too little and 

* Mark i, 24, 25. 
t Mark iii, is. 



284 DEMON-POSSESSION 

too much, this holding precisely to the middle 
course without diverging to the one side or the 
other that he was "straitened" until his baptism 
of blood should be accomplished.* It is remark- 
able that this testimony of the demons was given 
near the beginning of our Lord's ministry, show- 
ing that they knew his character at that time 
better even than the twelve who were daily in- 
structed by him. It is possible that this testi- 
mony to our Saviour may have been purposely 
designed by Satan to interfere with Christ's plan, 
and defeat the great object He had in view. In 
this matter, however, as in all others, the demons 
were under divine control. The suppression 
of this testimony for the time being, and its be- 
mg recorded in the Gospels afterward were no 
doubt alike for our good and the good of the 
church universal, 

The Mosaic law denounced death against 
witches or wizards. This was evidently not be- 
cause the wizard's art was a mere pretense or 
imposture, but because it was a natural and vol- 
untary intercourse with evil spirits. The lan- 
guage of Scripture is too plain on this point to 
be misunderstood. "A man also or woman 
that hath a familiar spirit, or that is a wizard, shall 
surely be put to death; they shall stone them with 
stones; their blood shall be upon them." t 

* Luke xii., 50. 
t Lev. XX. 27. 



TEACHINGS OF SCRIPTURE CONTINUED 285 

"There shall not be found among you an en- 
chanter, or a witch, or a charmer, or a consulter 
with familiar spirits, or a wizard, or a necro- 
mancer."* The demoniac is an object of com- 
pasion as one overpowered and enslaved, the 
'wizard' is a willing slave of demons, and, among 
the Jews, consciously engaged in the service of 
those who were the opposersandenemiesof God t 

The facts which have come to our notice in 
connection with spirit-manifestations in China 
may perhaps assist us in understanding the dif- 
ferent phases of spirit-manifestations recorded 
in Scripture, as they are related to each other in 
a course of progressive development. 

Four Stages of Obsessioii and Possession. 

First, we have the initial stage of demon in, 
fluence which may be called that of obsession. It 
is the stage of the first approach, and the intro- 
ductory or tentative efforts of the demon. In 
this stage cases are often unpronounced in their 
character, leaving it difficult to determine whether 
they are to be classed with demon-possession, 
idiocy, lunacy, or epilepsy. In many cases of de- 
mon possession this stage is wanting, the second 
stage described below being the first. 

Second. The stage marked by a struggle for 
possession, in which the unwilling subject resists 
and sometimes successfully, but generally pines 

* Deut. xviii, lo-ii. t See p. 428. 



286 DEMON-POSSESSION 



away until he yields an involuntary subjection 
to the demon's will. This may be called the 
transition stage or the crisis. It is compara- 
tively of short duration. 

Third. This stage may be designated, with re- 
gard to the subject, as that of subjection and sub- 
serviency, and with regard to the demon, as that 
of training and development. The condition of 
the subject is most of the time healthy and nor- 
mal. He is peaceful and quiet except in the 
paroxysm, which occurs in passing from the nor- 
mal to the abnormal state. This stage may con- 
tinue for years. 

Fourth. In this stage the demonized subject 
has developed capabilities for use, and is willing 
to be used. He is the trained, accustomed, vol- 
untary slave of the demon. He is called in 
China Tii Shien, "spirit in a body," or Wu-po 
"woman sorcerer;" in the language of the Old 
Testament, (according to the particular line of 
his development and use) a witch, or a "sooth- 
sayer", or a "necromancer;" in modern English 
phrase a "developed medium." 

The above are only general distinctions, which 
must be understood as allowing marked varia- 
tions in individual cases, and in the periods of 
time between them. In each stage also individ- 
ual cases may never pass from that stage to the 
succeeding one. 

It is important to understand the Scriptural 



TE/tCHINGS OF SCRIPTURE CONTINUED 287 

distinctions between forms of demon influence. 
These may be presented as follows: 

Four Foruis of Demofi Action Upon Men Which 
Are Noted in Scripture. 

First. Temptation in the form of spiritual sug- 
gestion. This m)'sterious influence from an un- 
seen world, to which believers and unbelievers 
are constantly exposed, is referred to very fre- 
quently in the Bible, especially in the New Tes- 
tament. 

Second. Absolute demon control, the result of 
voluntarily and habitually yielding to temptation. 
Men work "all uncleanness with greediness;"* and 
give themselves up to the control of Satan with 
reckless abandonment. In the history of Judas 
this form or degree of demon influence is in the 
Scriptures clearly distinguished from the former 
one. In the second verse of the 13th chapter of 
John we are told that the devil had already "put 
it into the heart" of Judas to betray Jesus. In 
the 27th verse of the same chapter we read 
"Then entered Satan into him," In the present 
day we often meet with men, desperately wicked, 
almost Satanic, but they are not possessed. 
Though fearfully under the influence of Satan, 
they are perfectly free, follow the direction of 
their own wills, and retain their own personality. 

Third. Bodily inflictions in the form of dis- 

* Eph iv , ig. 



288 DEMON-POSSESSION 

eases. May not Job's afflictions, the woman 
who had a "spirit of infirmity,"* and was bound 
by Satan fourteen years," and Paul's ''thorn in 
the flesh, the messenger of Satan"t be regarded 
as illustrations of demon influences of this kind? 
Cases of idiocy, lunacy, and epilepsy as they 
arc witnessed now-a-days are sometimes strongly 
suggestive of demon influence. It is probably 
impossible to determine whether any of these 
cases are or are not referable to demon influence. 
Supposing such a thing, however, it would still 
be a case of physical disease and quite distinct 
from one of "demon-possession." 

Fourth. Demon-possession, one chief charac- 
teristic of which is a new personality. To per- 
sons of this class alone is the term "possession" 
properly applied. 

We have yet to consider what is probably the 
most important passage of Scripture relating to 
this subject. I refer to the last petition in the 
Lord's Prayer. % The rendering of the Revised 
sj Version "deliver us from the evil one" gives us, 
I believe, the true meaning. In fact, a careful 
study of this passage in the Greek, and of other 
passages in which the same word occurs, seems 



* Luke siii., i6. 
t II Cor. xii., 7. 
t Matt, vi., 13. Luke xi., 4. 



TEACHINGS OF SCRIPTURE CONTINUED 289 



to necessitate the new rendering as the only 
legitimate one. * 

If the conclusion above expressed is correct 
we see what our Saviour's view is of our position 
and danger; what our views and feelings should 
be as a prerequisite to the intelligent and sincere 
use of these words "Deliver us from the evil one" 
as the divinely appointed expression of our emo- 
tions and desires. 

It is objected that to believe in these alleged 
cases of casting out demons is to lower and de- 
grade the miracles of our Saviour by represent- 
ing weak converts just emerging from heathen- 
ism as performing miracles, similar to his. But 
our Saviour declared that, after his ascension, 
his disciples should do greater things than he did t 
What they should do, however, would be done by 
them only mediately as agents, but actually and 
properly by Christ.:}: Our Saviour often honors 
humble Christians if they only have a strong and 
simple faith in him.§ It is not for us to say when 
Christ shall work wonders, or through whom. 

As to the character of these events they are 
wonderful as giving evidence of the presence of 
unseen opposing powers, and the sovereignity of 
our Lord ; but they are far less wonderful than 

♦ For on able defence of this new rendering see the elaborate and 
exhaustive treatment of this subject in "The Person and Kingdom of 
Satan" by Rev. Edw. H. Jewett, S.T.D. Whittaker, New York 1889. 

t J DO. xiv, 12. 

X Gal. iii., 5. Alford: "He then that supplieth unto you the Spirit 
and worketh mighty works in yon." 
S Matt, xvii ig. 
/9 Demon 



390 DEMON-POSSESSION 



the fact of the every-day miracle of the quicken- 
ing of dead souls by the life of Christ through the 
agency of the Holy Spirit. What renders those 
cases of demon-expulsion wonderful to us is the 
fact that in them spiritual being and spiritual 
events come, in a sense, within the range of our 
observation, and become to some extent tangi- 
ble and palpable. But why after all has it in 
this age of the church come to be regarded as a 
marvel that Christians should be able to cast 
out demons.? We believe that Christ is present 
with his people, and that his Spirit dwells in 
them. Is it strange then that demons, recog- 
nizing Christ's presence with his people should 
instinctively escape from a Christian atmosphere? 
Need we be surprised that in the early church 
the presence of one Christian was sometimes, we 
are told, sufficient to drive demons at once from 
the bodies they had possessed? 



CHAPTER XVI. 

HISTORICAL SKETCH OF DEMONISM. 

Alleged communications with the unseen world 
have characterized the religious beliefs and prac- 
tices of all nations from the earliest times.* 

Something may be learned relative to the de- 
monism of ancient Egypt from the Old Testa- 
ment. We have three references to the magicians 
of Egypt performing wonders similar to those 
wrought by Moses, t It is to be noticed that we 
have here a record, not of the beliefs or supersti- 
tions, either of Jews or Egyptians, but of visible 
facts, inseparably linked with one of the most 
important events in Jewish history. Such state- 
ments as these cannot be ignored or discredited 
by those who receive the Bible as the word of God. 

The book of Daniel gives evidence of the exist- 
ence, and official recognition in the Babylonian 
court, of "Magicians," "Astrologers," and "Sor- 
cerers," whose special province it was to disclose 

* For a clear and comprehensive presentation of the historical de- 
velopments of these beliefs, see article on "Witchcraft" in The Century 
January 1892. by the Rev. J, M. Buckley D,D. This has since been re- 
published in a volume, entitled: "Faith Healing, Christian Science and 
Kindred Phenomena," By Dr. J. M. Buckley. N. Y. The Century Co, 1891, 

t Ex. vii, 12, 22, viii: 7,18.19. 
See Robinson's Pharaos of the Bondage and Exodus; 153-169, also Appendix 
ii, 8,of this volume. 

291 



292 DEMON-POSSESSION 

the secrets of the future and of the invisible 
world.* 

The early books of the Old Testament make 
frequent reference to persons who had "familiar 
spirits." Christian writers who reject the doc- 
trine of demon-possession are led to put strained 
interpretations on these passages. It is said 
that although death is denounced against per- 
sons who have "familiar spirits" yet we are not 
to infer from these denunciations the reality of 
"familiar spirits," t but only the existence of a 
class who pf'o/essed to have "familiar spirits." 
It is also said that the misconception expressed 
in this language is to be referred to the prophets 
who were limited in knowledge, and were influ- 
enced by the beliefs and superstitions of their 
age. Direct statements of Scripture utterly pre- 
clude such an interpretation. In a repetition 
or republication of sundry laws given to Moses, 
this law respecting "witches" is directly referred 
to Jehovah as its author, by the familiar formula 
"And the Lord spake unto Moses saying," 

Furthermore the passages themselves will 
show to what authority they are referable. "Re- 
gard not those that have familiar spirits, neither 
seek after wizards to be defiled by them ; I am the 
Lord your God !"| Again, "The soul that turneth 
after such as have familiar spirits and after wizards, 

* Daniel ii, 3. 

t See Dr. Buckley on Witchcraft. Also G. H. Pember on page428. 

i Lev. lis: 31. 



HIS TORICAL RE^IEIV OF DEMON ISM 293 

to go a whoring after them I will even set my face 
against that soul, and will cut him off from among 
his people."'* That God and not Moses is rep- 
resented as theauthorof this lawis unquestionable. 
That these repeated denunciations against those 
who have familiar spirits should refer only to the 
mere pretence of being " witches, " without any in- 
timation in Scripture of any such pretense, is in- 
conceivable. As the words of the New Testament 
are inconsistent with the supposition of its being 
impossible to determine the reality of pronounced 
cases of so-called demon-possession, t so it is 
implied in the teachings of the Old Testament 
that there was no difficulty in determining who 
were and who were not "witches." 

The case of the damsel in Philippi who had (as 
it is in the Greek) a spirit of Python or a Pythian 
spirit, X gives us further insight into the spiritism 
of the ancient Greeks. The reference is to the 
famous oracle at Delphi. Aside from any pre- 
conceived hypothesis respecting spirits, and in 
accordance with the general teachings of the 
Scripture it is obviously implied in this passage 
that, First, this damsel was possessed by a spirit; 
Second, that this spirit was akin to that which 
possessed the prophetess of the Pythian oracle; 
and Third, that the utterances of this damsel, 

* Lev. XX :6. 

t Chapter xiv.of this book. 

t See Revised Version Acts xvi: 16. 



294 DEMON-POSSESSION 

like those of the Pythian oracle, proceeded from 
the possessing spirit. This passage of Scripture 
is important as connecting and identifying the 
demonology of the New Testament with that of 
the Greeks. 

The Apostle Paul also teaches us that the 
connection of demons with the worship of idols 
is a reahty. In speaking of idolatry he says "the 
things which the Gentiles sacrifice they sacrifice 
to demons and not to God."* In the previous 
verse he repeats the assertion so often made in 
Scripture, that an idol in itself is nothing. He 
teaches us that the gods worshiped under differ- 
ent names are imaginary, and non-existent; but 
that, behind and in connection with these gods, 
there are demons who make use of idolatry to 
draw men away from God; and it is to these 
that the heathen are unconsciously rendering obe- 
dience and service. 

The fathers of the early church also uniformly 
taught the reality of demon agency in connec- 
tion with idolatry and pagan oracles. 

Cyprian, says "These spirits lurk under the 
statues and consecrated images; they inspire the 
breasts of their prophets with their afflatus; an- 
imate the fibers of the entrails; direct the flight 
of birds; rule the lots; give efficacy to oracles; 
are always mixing up falsehood with truth; for 
they both deceive and are deceived." "Nor have 

• I Cor. X. 20. Also, Ps. cvi, 28, 34-38. Lev. xvii, 7. De. xxxii, 77. 



HISTORICAL REyiElV OF DEMONISM 295 

they any other desire than to call men away 
from God, and to turn them from the under- 
standing of the true religion to superstition with 
respect to themselves."* Clement of Alexandria 
says: "It is evident, since they are demoniac spi- 
rits that they know some things more quickly and 
more perfectly than men, for they are not re- 
tarded in learning by the heaviness of a body." 
"But this is to be observed, that what they know 
they do not employ for the salvation of souls, 
but for the deception of them; that they may in- 
doctrinate them in the worship of false religion. 
But God, that the error of so great deception 
might not be concealed, and that He himself 
might not seem to be a cause of error in permitting 
them so great license to deceive men by divina- 
tions and cures and dreams, has of His mercy 
furnished them with a remedy, and has made 
the distinction of falsehood and truth patent to 
those who desire to know. This therefore is that 
distinction; what is spoken by the true God, 
whether by prophets or by diverse visions is al- 
ways true; but what is foretold by demons is 
not always true." "There may occasionally be 
a slight mixture of truth to give, as it were, sea- 
soning to the falsehood." 

"Augustine remarks," says Rollin, "that God, 
to punish the blindness of the Pagans sometimes 

* Cyprian on The Vanity of Idols. 



296 DEMON-POSSESSION 

permitted the demons to give answers accord- 
ing to the truth." * 

We are not to suppose that the cultivated 
Greeks and Romans were led to consult the ora- 
cles without any evidence of superhuman know- 
ledge connected with them. On the contrary, 
these oracles were sometimes subjected to severe 
tests. Croesus, King of Lydia, before consult- 
ing the oracle at Delphi, sent messengers to in- 
quire at a specified day and hour what the king 
of Lydia was doing. At that time the king pro- 
ceeded to boil in a brazen cauldron, with a bra- 
zen lid, the flesh of a lamb with the flesh of a 
tortoise. It is said that the oracle, at the time 
the king was thus engaged, minutely described 
this event to his messengers. 

"The Emperor Trajan made a like demand of 
the oracle of Heliopolis by sending a sealed letter 
to which he required an answer. The oracle re- 
plied by sending to the emperor a bit of blank 
paper nicely folded and sealed. Trajan was 
amazed to find the answer in perfect harmony 
with the letter sent, which contained nothing 
but a blank paper." 

The ancients claimed that the spirits which 
aided them were the spirits of their demi-gods, 
heroes and departed friends. 

Pliny mentions conversations with disem- 

♦ See Spiritualism Unveiled, by Lieut. Gen. Sir. Robert Phavre K- 
C B. 



HISTORIC/1L REyiElV OF DEMONISM 297 



bodied spirits and inferior deities. It is not im- 
probable that the SybylHne oracles were nothing 
more than productions of writing mediums. 

It is an interesting question whether the origin 
of Mahometanism should not be referred to the 
agency of evil spirits. Its character as a prin- 
cipal foe to Christianity and modern civilization 
makes such a supposition a plausible one. Ma- 
homet's history is marked by two stages, clearly 
distinguishable; the former characterized by won- 
derful earnestness as a seeker after truth, and the 
latter as swayed by evil influences, the whole 
tenor of his character being thus changed. Dean 
Stanley says of him: "It is now known that at 
least for a large part of his life he was a sincere 
reformer and enthusiast." .... "The 
story of his epileptic fits, a few years ago much 
discredited, seems now to be incontrovertibly re- 
established, and we have a firmer ground than 
before for believing that a decided change came 
over the simplicity of his character after the 
establishment of his kingdom in Medina."* 

Fisher in his "Outlines of Universal History" 
presents these two stages in Mahomet's life, and 
the transition between them as follows:! "He 
retired for meditation and prayer to the lonely 
and desolate Mount Hira. A vivid sense of the be- 
ing of one Almighty God and of his responsibility 
to God entered his soul. A tendency to hysteria, 

* History of the Eastern Church, p. p. 360, 361. t.Fisber, p, 224, 



298 DEMON-POSSESSION 

in the east a disease of men as well as women, 
and to epilepsy, helps to account for extraordi- 
nary states of body and mind of which he was the 
subject. At first he ascribed these strange ecsta- 
cies or hallucinations to evil spirits, especially on 
the occasion when an angel directed him to be- 
gin the work of prophesying. But he was per- 
suaded by Kadija (his wife) that their source 
was from above. He became convinced that he 
was a prophet, inspired with a holy truth, and 
charged with a sacred commission." It was cer- 
tainly a strange form of "epilepsy," which in- 
stead of impairing the mental powers and capa- 
bilities of its subject, increased and intensified 
them. (See footnote on page 313.) 

Without doubt the beliefs of the nations of an- 
tiquity; the teachings of the Old and New Test- 
aments; and the teachings of the Fathers of the 
early church, are all in accord as to the existence 
and agency in this world of superhuman intelli- 
gences. Such a concurrence of testimony is cer- 
tainly of great weight. Before setting it aside, 
or discrediting it, we may well pause to inquire 
whether the assumption that we are wiser than 
all the ages, is justified by our actual and veri- 
fied discoveries. 

We come now to consider the more recent 
phases of belief in spirits which have continued 
until the present time. After the introduction 
of Christianity in the Roman empire the reponses 



HISTORICAL REyiEH^ OF DEMONISM 399 

of the oracles ceased, and spirit manifestations 
assumed new forms, until about the time of the 
Reformation a belief in the actual prevalence 
of witchcraft seemed to take possession of the 
different nationalites of Europe, and their colonies 
in America. The trials and executions of per- 
sons charged with "witchcraft" form one of the 
darkest and most mysterious chapters in modern 
history. 

In studying this subject a definite and discrim- 
inating use of terms is a matter of the greatest 
importance. For want of thus discriminating 
there is perhaps no field of inquiry into which so 
much confusion has been introduced, 

"Magic, applied by the Greeks to the hereditary 
caste of priests in Persia, still stands in the East 
for an incongruous collection of superstitious be- 
liefs and rites, having nothing in common except 
the claim of abnormal origin and effects. As- 
trology, divination, demonology, soothsaying, 
sorcery, witchcraft, necromancy, enchantment, 
and many other systems are sometimes included in 
magic, but" (and this is the point to which the 
attention of the reader is especially called) "each 
term is also employed separately to stand for 
the whole mass of confused beliefs which, outside 
of the sphere of recognized religion, attempt to 
surpass the limitations of nature. For this rea- 
son the title of a work on this subject seldom 
indicates its scope."* 

* Rev. J. M. Buckley D D. "Faith Healing" &c, p. p. 197-9. 



^00 DEMON-POSSESSION 

It is evident that most of the terms in this 
quotation are associated with debasing forms of 
superstition, and demonology is often indiscrim- 
inately classed with mere superstitions, and re- 
garded as equally baseless and unreal. Whoever 
avows his belief in demon-possession is likely 
to be regarded as giving the same credence to 
the mixed pretensions of spiritualism and witch- 
craft. Most of the above designations are so 
loosely employed that it may be hard to make 
distinctions between them both clear and just. 
Fortunately the two terms in which we are 
specially interested, demon-possession and witch- 
craft, are specific and self-defining. The meaning 
of the former has been sufficiently indicated in 
previous chapters. 

A "witch" is defined in the Capital Code of 
Connecticut A.D. 1642, as one who "hath or 
consorteth with a familiar spirit." This is in 
accordance with the teachings of the Old Testa- 
ment. We may then regard a "witch," and "a 
person who has a familiar spirit" as synonomous. 
Witchcraft is understood to embody three dis- 
tinct ideas: first, that it is a witch's craft; 
second, that its intent is to injure the person 
who is the object of it; and third, that the agent 
through whom this injury is to be effected 
is the "familiar spirit," in union and compact 
with the witch. This is the generally accept- 
ed and quite intelligible meaning of "witch- 



Historical reheiv of demonism sol 



craft." Dr. Buckley in the article above referred 
to says: "Witchcraft has been restricted by usage 
and civil and ecclesiastical law till it signifies a 
voluntary compact between the devil, the party 
of the first part, and a human being, male or fe- 
male, wizard or witch, the party of the second 
part, — that he, the devil, will perform whatever 
the person may request." Dr. Buckley further 
says: "The sixth chapter of Lord Coke's Third 
Institute concisely defines a witch in these words: 
'A witch is a person which hath conference with 
the devil; to consult with him to do some act.' " 
The trials for witchcraft during the seventeenth 
century all implied, or were based upon the 
above theory; they presented specific charges 
against alleged "witches" for effecting certain in- 
juries or torments through the agency of evil 
spirits. Now, if we assume this to be the only 
legitimate use of the word "witchcraft," we may 
inquire what evidence the world presents, or has 
ever presented, of the existence of witchcraft as 
a real thing. 

Some writers on the customs and experiences 
of the American Indians, and the tribes of Africa, 
and the South sea islands, imply the actual ex- 
istence of witchcraft in those places; and occur- 
ences described seem to give no little counte- 
nance to this belief. It is very desirable that 
persons residing in those countries should make 
a searching inquiry as to whether the alleged 



302 DBMON-POSSESSION 

practice of witchcraft is actual or only apparent 
and delusive. Without expressing any opinion 
on this subject with regard to places and races 
of which we have imperfect information; and 
confining our inquiries within limits in which 
we have reliable material on which to base our 
judgment, we may at least make some progress 
in answering this question. 

There is no evidence of the existence of witch- 
craft in this conception of it either in the Old 
Testament or the New. There are numerous 
references to witches in the Old Testament, and 
four to witchcraft.* Witches were the instru- 
ments through which demons acted. The pres- 
ence of demons was invoked by them, at the in- 
stance of those who applied to them, in order to 
obtain information or advice; but the idea of these 
mediums inflicting injuries on men by the aid of 
demons is foreign to the Bible. The word witch- 
craft occurs once in the authorised version of the 
New Testament, in Gal. v: 20, but our translators 
used it in a vague sense as a translation of the 
Greek pharmakciay which word means "sorcery 
by the use of drugs." The Revised Version 
gives in the place of "witchcraft," "sorcery." 

Witchcraft in this sense does not appear in 
those cases of "possession" found in China, India, 
Japan and other nations which have been pre- 
sented in previous chapters of this treatise. I 
v.'ould not venture to assert that there is no 

* 2 Chro. xxxiii, 6; 2 Ki. ix, 22; Mi. v. 12; Na. iii, 4. 



HISTORICAL REylElV OF DEMON ISM \m 

"witchcraft" in China, for I have heard rumors 
of something like it. I only say that no evidence 
of it has appeared in communications received 
in the course of any inquiries respecting demon- 
possesion. 

In speaking of witchcraft we can hardly avoid 
reference to that deplorable episode in our 
American history, the Salem Witchcraft trials. 
Case after case was formally tried, and one after 
another of the accused, after what was regarded 
as full and conclusive evidence, was condemned 
to suffer the penalty of death. The judges of 
the court seem to have had a profound sense of 
the solemnity of the occasion, and of personal 
responsibility, and a sincere desire to do right. 

In the trial of one such case. Judge Hale 
"prayed the God of heaven to direct their hearts 
in the weighty thing they had in hand; for, to 
Condemn the Innocent, and let the Guilty go 
free, were both an Abomination to the Lord"* 
The decisions of the court were sustained by the 
general sentiment of the people. And still it is 
now universally acknowledged that every one of 
the condemned persons was innocent, and in all 
these cases it is generally doubted if there weie 
any such thing as witchcraft. 

How it was possible for the intelligent and 
cultured people of New England to be thus de- 

* See Cotton Mather: "The Wonders of the Invisible 
World. " p 119. 



304 DEMON-POSSESSION 

luded, is a question which has puzzled thinking 
men from that time to this. 

There is no difference of opinion as to the fact 
that the accused were convicted principally on 
the testimony of a class of persons generally called 
the "afflicted" or the "bewitched." Cotton Mather 
says in his account of one of the trials, (and the 
statement is applicable to them all;) "To fix the 
Witchcraft on the Prisoner at the Bar, the first 
thing used, was the Testimony of the Be- 
witched. "* 

Its general character may be succinctly stated 
as follows: First, The bewitched would in the 
presence of the accused, or when brought into 
court to bear testimony be thrown into "fits" and 
a state of insensibility. This was regarded as an 
evidence that the accused had mysterious super- 
human power over them. These "tortures" are 
constantly referred to in the course of the trials. 
We are told for instance, in one case that "It 
cost the Court a wonderful deal of Trouble, to 
hear the Testimonies of the Sufferers; for when 
they were going to give in their Depositions, 
they would for a long time be taken with Fits, 
that made them incapable of saying anything, "t 

Second, When in these "fits" or "tortures" the 
"afflicted" ones would accuse by name those whom 
they declared to be the cause of their sufferings. 

* Ibid p. 130. While a variety of other testimony was used by way of 
corroboration, this testimony is everywhere the most prominent. 

t Ibid, p, 122. 



HISTORICAL kEFlElV OF DEMON IS M 305 



This kind of evidence was very common in the 
trials and had great weight with the juries and 
judges. 

Third, Further evidence of the guilt of the 
accused was found in the fact that they had, as it 
appeared, an influence over the "bewitched" 
when they were in a state of unconsciousness, 
which influence no one else possessed. For in- 
stance it is said of one case: "It was also found 
that the Sufferers were not able to bear her 
Look, as likewise, that in their greatest Swoons, 
they distinguished her Touch from other Peoples, 
being thereby raised out of them.""^ 

Fourth. Still further evidence was found 
against the accused in the fact that the "be- 
witched" were restored to their normal condi- 
tion when the accused were convicted. Numer- 
ous cases of this kind are given in evidence. 

That the decision of these cases turned on the 
testimony of the "bewitched" while in these ab- 
normal conditions is further evidenced by Sir 
Matthew Hale's charge in the trial of Rose Cul- 
lender and Amy Duny. "The Judge told the 
Jury, they were to inquire now, first whether 
these Children were bewitched; and secondly, 
whether the Prisoners at the Bar were guilty of 
it."t 

Proceeding on the concluson that the principal 

* Ibid. p. 149. 

t The Wonders of the Invisible World, p . ii9- 

20 Demon 



306 bEMON-POSSESSION 

ground of the conviction of those accused of 
witchcraft was the evidence furnished by the "be- 
witched," what opinion are we to adopt with 
reference to the character of these witnesses, 
and of their depositions? Some have attempt- 
ed to show that their testimony is to be attributed 
wholly to fraud, and have regarded the "afflicted" 
as adroit actors and deceivers. Perhaps much 
that appeared in these trials is referable to de- 
ception; but to endeavor thus to explain all the 
phenomena presented is to attribute a degree 
of ignorance and obtuseness to the intelligent 
men of that age which is inconceivable. It is 
to suppose that a few ignorant children were able 
for months together to deceive the wisest heads 
of New England; and that in that age intellect- 
ual ability was at its maximum in childhood, and 
diminished with increasing age. 

Most writers have acknowledged something in 
the "bewitched," not to be accounted for on or- 
dinary principles, which they have attributed to 
hallucination, nervous disease, hysteria and hyp- 
notism. Any attempt however to explain in de- 
tail the acknowledged phenomena by any of the 
above hypotheses, will show how unsatisfactory 
they are, and how inadequate to cover the whole 
ground. 

The author of the last and one of the ablest 
works on "Salem Witchcraft" gives the following 
estimate of his own theory, and of those pre- 



HISTORIC/^ L REVIEIV OF DEMON ISM 307 

viously propounded, for explaining these events. 
"I only desire to suggest what may have been; 
something which offers, perhaps, a rational ex- 
planation of the beginning of this horrid night- 
mare. Certainly such a course is as plausible, 
as reasonable, and has as much basis of fact as any 
of the theories heretofore advanced. We know 
nothing about these things as matter of know- 
ledge; all is conjecture."* 

There is another theory for explaining the 
phenomena of the so-called "Salem Witchcraft" 
which deserves more attention from writers on 
this subject than it has hitherto received. It is 
the theory which was held by some of the accused. 
Not a few of them when under trial evinced a 
consistency, truthfulness, and conscientiousness 
worthy of Christian martyrs, preferring to die 
rather than falsify themselves. They seem to 
have been the only ones who in that time of ex- 
citement manifested mental poise, cool judgment, 
and composure. These they maintained even 
in the turmoil of the court, and on the scaffold. 
When asked in court how the tortures and ab- 
normal conditions of the "afflicted" were to be 
accounted for, if they were not "bewitched," 
their answer in several instances was that they 
were caused by the devil; and I am strongly in- 
clined to agree with them. What reason is there 
to prevent us from supposing that the "afflicted" 

» Witchcraft in Salem Village. By W. S. Nevjns. p. 52- 



308 DEMON-POSSESSION 

were controlled by demons directly and imme- 
diately without the intervention of a human 
instrument, the so-called "witch? 

This hypothesis furnishes a consistent and ade- 
quate explanation of all the facts without dis- 
crediting honest testimony, or requiring any 
stretching or straining it to cover the ground. 

It is recommended by the fact that many of 
the pathological and psychological symptoms 
of the "afflicted" correspond to well known symp- 
toms of demon-possession. On this hypothesis, 
the actions and words of the "afflicted" are seen 
to be natural and consistent. When in their 
tortures, they uttered fiendish accusations against 
the innocent, they were but the mouth-pieces of 
demons. We are no longer required to puzzle 
ourselves to account for inexperienced and uned- 
ucated girls succeeding, by such strange and un- 
precedented methods, in turning the heads, of 
juries, judges and the populace; but these results 
are referred to an agency both competent and 
morally suited to the work. The fact of these 
girls declaring, when in their normal condition 
that they had no ill-will towards the accused, 
and did not know what they had said when ac- 
cusing them, as well as the remorseful confessions 
of some of them years afterwards, entirely har- 
monizes with this theory. 

This hypothesis also goes far to explain the acts 
and vindicate the character of the judges and 



HISTORlC/iL REyiBlV OF DEMON iSM 309 



jurors. They proceeded on the conviction that 
the "fits" of the "afflicted" were abnormal — that 
they could not be accounted for on natural prin- 
ciples, and were to be attributed to evil spirits. 
If the theory now proposed is the true one, they 
were not deluded on this point, but simply made 
the mistake of regarding the innocent accused, 
instead of the "afflicted," as the instrument of 
evil spirits; being misled by the view of witch- 
craft so common in that age, and by the law 
which they themselves were administering. 

When we consider this hypothesis as it is re- 
lated to Satan, and his character, and designs, 
everything is natural and consistent. All his 
attributes as a deceiver, a liar, a murderer, and 
a false accuser, re-appear conspicuously in this 
one transaction. The Christian world was 
amazed and paralyzed while Satan the active 
agent, concealed behind the mask of "witchcraft" 
though recognized, was totally misplaced. 

It is the habit of writers now-a-days, shun- 
ning any intimation of Satanic agency to speak 
of this calamity as a "moral cyclone," "a whole- 
sale delusion," "a neighborhood insanity," all 
produced by that vague impersonal intangible 
something called "witchcraft," which attacks 
individuals and communities like the plague, and 
from which there is no sure means of escape. 

So the term witchcraft, which seems to have 
been so largely misconceived, and often so 



310 DEMON POSSESSION 

grievously misapplied, though an integral part 
of the English language from Anglo-Saxon times, 
is one about which men write essays and books 
as the Chinese do about the dra,qon and phoenix. 
Even where the devil's agency has been plainly 
seen and acknowledged, men have been totally 
deceived as to the real direction and character of 
his operation, and have thus become his ready 
prey. 

Were it not well to substitute "devil-craft" for 
"witchcraft;" to believe in the Bible doctrine of 
Satan as an actual and personal enemy? Had 
the courts in Salem proceeded on the Scriptural 
presumption that the testimony of those under 
the control of evil spirits would, in the nature of 
the case, be false, such a thing as the Salem 
tragedy would never have been known. 

It is possible that the definition is at fault 
which conveys the popular conception of a witch 
and witchcraft. If we should broaden the defi- 
nition, and say that a witch is a person in collu- 
sion, either voluntary or enforced, with a demon; 
and witchcraft is whatever act or art such a 
person may practice in the proper character of 
a witch — -then real witchcraft would seem not 
be wanting. In this case we need not assume 
that the witch has necessarily made a deliberate, 
formal and voluntary compact with the devil; 
nor yet that the witch, in her own person, freely 
designs to inflict an injury upon others, But 



HISTORICAL REI^IEIV OF DEMON ISM 311 

we can identify the witch and her arts as one in 
kind with the ancient Delphic priestess, and the 
modern medium, with their arts, and as subject 
to some form of demon-possession. Perhaps to 
the same family belong the founders of some 
false religions, the medicine men of the American 
aborigines, the fetish priests of Africa, the magi- 
cians of Ancient Egypt, and of modern India. 
But on this hypothesis, there were no witches in 
Salem, but rather demoniacs, and these must 
be identified with the "afflicted." 

I am well aware that the views here presented, 
of the continued presence and agency of Satan in 
individual and public affairs, will be scornfully re- 
jected by many persons of education and culture. 
These views, however, have the sanction of 
many names which command universal respect. 

From one of these, Frederick Denison Maurice, 
I beg to introduce the following quotations. In 
speaking of the belief in the influence of evil spirits 
over bodies and souls of men, he says: "This 
belief we may often have been inclined to look up- 
on as the most degrading and despicable of all, 
from which a sounder knowledge of physics, and 
of the freaks and capacities of the human im- 
agination has delivered us. Are we sure that the 
deliverance has been effected.-' Are we sure that 
the fears of an invisible world, of a world not to 
come, but about us, are extinct .-•... Are we sure 
that all our discoveries, or supposed discoveries 



313 DEMON-POSSESSION 

respecting the spiritual world within us, may not 
be appealed to in confirmation of a new demon- 
iac system? Are we sure that the very enlighten- 
ment, which says that it has ascertained Chris- 
tian stories to be legends, will not be enlisted 
on the same side, because if we only believe 
these facts, it will be so easy to show how those 
falsities may have originated? 

"Oh! let us give over our miserable notion 
that poor men only want teaching about things 
on the surface, or will ever be satisfied with such 
teaching. They are groping about the roots of 
things, whether we know it or not. You must 
meet them in their underground search, and 
show them the way into daylight, if you want 
true and brave citizens, not a community of dupes 
and quacks. You may talk against deviltry as 
you like; you will not get rid of it unless you can 
tell human beings whence comes that sense of a 
tyranny over their own very selves, which they 
express in a thousand forms of speech, which ex- 
cites them to the greatest, often the most profit- 
less, indignation against the arrangements of this 
world, which tempts them to people it, and 
heaven also, with objects of terror and despair. 

"There is no disguising it, the assertion stands 
broad and patent in the four gospels, construed 
according to any ordinary rules of language: — 
the acknowledgment of an evil spirit is charac- 
teristic of Christianity."* 

* Theological Essays p. p. 32-34. 



HISTORICAL REyiElV OF DEMON ISM SlS 

Another and more recent form of spiritism will 
be considered in the next chapter. 

The highest authority in English upon the life of Mahomet is Sir Wil- 
liam Muir, LL. D. S>eehis"Li/e of Mahomei/rom original Sources, New 
Ed. [Abridged /rout the first Ed., in /our vols.] With an index, London. 
Smith, Elder &r> Co., 1878" The entire third chapter of this work, pp. 38-59 
on "The Belief of Mohamet in His Own Inspiration," may be read in this 
connection with great interest. 



CHAPTER XVII. 

SPIRITUALISM. 

The number of "Spiritualists" in the world has 
been reckoned at 20,000,000. This is probably 
an overestimate. Making all allowance for ex- 
aggeration the number is very large, and, until 
recently at least, has been rapidly increasing. 
As early as 1875 spiritualists had forty periodi- 
cals advocating their peculiar views. Besides 
these they have their book literature, their lec- 
ture halls, and their popular conventions. 

Spiritualism — or more properly spiritism — is 
avowedly based on communications with disem- 
bodied spirits. As one of the great intellectual 
forces entering into modern thought and civil- 
ization it challenges our serious consideration. 
In the present chapter it is not proposed to enter 
upon an elaborate examination of it; such an 
undertaking being foreign to the object and 
scope of this work. 

We assume that the phenomena which spirit- 
ualism presents have a large substratum of truth. 
This conclusion is adopted because the Scriptures 
imply that physical phenomena resulting from the 
314 



SPIRITUALISM 315 

agency of spirits are in accordance with natural 
laws, and may be expected as ordinary events of 
experience; because large numbers of educated 
men have been influenced by the evidence which 
it presents to acknowledge the reality of cer- 
tain of its phenomena, and to add their names 
to the increasing numbers of its adherents; 
and also because experts and specialists in 
Germany, France, England and the United States, 
have carefully examined its alleged facts, and 
declared to the world that they have found phe- 
nomena which could not be explained by any 
known physical laws. 

The above assumption is not invalidated by the 
not infrequent discovery of fraud among the ad- 
herents of spiritualism. A score of impostures 
will not overthrow the evidence of one fact. 
Though it may be admitted that the existence of 
numerous impostures tends to produce a pre- 
sumption that all is imposture, it is equally true 
on the other hand, that on the supposition of the 
phenomena of spiritualism being real, imposture 
is to be expected. This is true to a greater or 
less degree of almost every known science. For 
instance, how much fraud, imposture and failure 
to effect promised results are found in the history 
of medical practice. Spiritualism is not the only 
system in which untrained and incompetent per- 
sons, bring reproach upon themselves and those 
gf whom they are the self appointed representa- 



316 DEMON-POSSESSION 

tives. Even persons who have facts to present, 
often add to these facts and phenomena meretri- 
cious accessories, in order to increase their at- 
tractions and make them more startling to the 
public eye. We must remember that the deceit 
of the fictitious accessories may be detected ,and 
the author of them unmasked, while the actual 
facts remain unaffected. 

The British "Society for Psychical Research," 
and the more recently organized "American 
Psychical Society," have, by their investigations 
elicited many facts that illustrate this discussion. 
But the facts which they gather from the credi- 
ble testimony of others who have witnessed them 
in their ordinary surroundings, are, in general, 
much more striking than those which the inves- 
tigating committees witness in the course of 
their own experiments. 

In 1887 there was published in Philadelphia, 
by J. B. Lippincott Co., "A Preliminary Report 
of the Commission Appointed by the University 
of Pennsylvania to Investigate Modern Spiritual- 
ism, in Accordance with the Request of the Late 
Henry Seybert." The well-chosen members of 
this commission took much time and care to 
arrive at satisfactory evidence and explanation 
of spiritualistic phenomena. But it is hardly to 
be wondered at that their efforts did not result 
in any very decided conclusions. On the sup- 
position that spiritualism is only a system of 



SPIRITUALISM 317 



delusion and deception, no results were to be ex- 
pected. On the supposition that spiritualistic 
phenomena, when genuine, are produced by 
demons, it is hardly reasonable to suppose that 
these demons would voluntarily, gratuitously and 
without restraint, submit themselves to an ex- 
amination which might only serve to disclose 
their actual character, instead of confirming false 
pretentions, or might thwart the very object of 
their manifestations. 

Any experiment to be successful must conform 
to all the conditions of the case. An experi- 
ment with spirits can never be like one made in 
chemistry or physics. A spirit is an intelligent 
and moral being who may be supposed to have 
some choice as to where and how to exhibit its 
presence and power. A spirit must be sensitive 
to the moral conditions and atmosphere that 
surround it, and must be governed by moral 
affinities and antipathies. Things that a spirit 
will do in one company it cannot or will not do 
in another. If spirits have anything to do with 
these phenomena they have some purpose in 
what they do, and are seeking to accomplish 
some end. They will naturally do most where 
the conditions are most favorable to this end. 

We may suppose some medium, or witch, or 
pythian oracle to be powerfully possessed by a 
familiar spirit, and both the spirit and its sub- 
ject eager to exhibit that power in pursuit of itg 



318 DEMON-POSSESSION 

usual aims. Yet in the presence of persons in 
whom there may be recognized a sufficiently 
pronounced moral antagonism, the medium or 
spirit may be utterly helpless, or so guarded that 
nothing is done. If evil spirits are the agents in 
question, then obviously they would show forth 
their true character principally in those com- 
munities or companies most congenial to them, 
and most thoroughly under their sway, and they 
would suit their wonders to their hopes of secur- 
ing the confidence and subserviency of their 
witnesses. But if mankind is so beset by evil 
spirits we may herein gratefully recognize our 
source of safety, being sure that those have least 
to fear who are most indwelt and possessed by 
the Holy Spirit of Christ and of God. And just 
as an evil spirit will come to those who seek it, 
so the Holy Spirit is sensitive and responsive to 
our faith. 

"Ye are of God, little children, and have over- 
come them; because greater is he that is in you, 
than he that is in the world."* 

"You may then," to use the words of Dr. Aus- 
tin Phelps, t "take the crude mass of the phenom- 
ena alleged, and set aside a certain proportion, 
large or small, as you please, to the account of the 
rascality which the system somehow attracts to 
itself as a ship's bottom does barnacles. Strike 
off another portion, as probably due to the hones.t 

* I John iv. 4. 

t Spiritualiim p. p. 24.25, 



SPIRITUALISM 319 



exaggeration of credulous or prejudiced observ- 
ers. Cancel another section, as explicable by 
electric laws, or by principles of the animal econ- 
omy, and especially by laws of disease well 
known to science. Ignore, if you must, every- 
thing else which is purely physical, as likely to 
be one day explained by physical laws yet to be 
discovered. Eliminate something more for the 
incertitude of psychological research, when 
pressed beyond the facts of the general conscious- 
ness. After all these deductions spiritualism is 
apparently right in claiming that a residuum of 
fact remains, which goes straight to the point of 
proving the presence and activity of cxtj-a hu- 
man intelligence. For one, I must concede that, 
at least, as a plausible hypothesis. ""' 

The above admission will no doubt be regarded 
by many as a dangerous concession to spiritual- 
ists. We, however, concede nothing which is pe- 
culiar to spiritualism, but only the existence of 
certain phenomena with which the world has been 
familiar in all ages, and to which multitudes at the 
present day are eye-witnesses in all lands. The 
effect of denying the existence of these phenomena 
is to lose influence over those who witness them; 
to confirm the assertion of spiritualists that we are 
only blind guides, and to leave those who are 

* In the woil; entitled "Ten Years With Spiritual Mediums'' to 
which reference has been made in Chapter xii, while the author rejects 
and combats the assumption ol the agency of spirits in producing the 
phenomena of spiritualism, he still does not question the rr^/Z/y o| ihe 
phenoniiijji!, ' 



320 DEMON-POSSESSION 



honestly seeking an explanation of facts of con- 
sciousness to the instruction and guidance of 
spiritualists. Dr. Phelps well remarks "that no 
very attenuated hypothesis of any kind, in ex- 
planation of the phenomena in question, can 
meet the case as it presents itself to the popular 
mind. Shadowy conjectures on the subject will 
seem so glaringly inadequate, that they will only 
shift the charge of creduality to ourselves." 

Proceeding on the assumption that communi- 
cations are received from spirits, the question 
remains, ivomzvhat ki7td ois'^iuis do they come? 
Are they good spirits, or are they bad spirits .-' 
Do they tell us truth or falsehood.-* Is it their 
object to benefit or to injure us.^ 

It would be difficult to find any discussion of 
this subject more candid, or more thorough, than 
the nine lectures delivered by Joseph Cook in 
Boston in 1880.* 

In these Mr. Cook remarksf that "Two points 
are in debate concerning spiritualism — the reality 
of communications between spirits and men, and 
the trustworthiness of these communications as 
a source of religious knowledge." * * * "The 
great error of our time in dealing with spiritual- 
ism is that we do not sufficiently emphasize the 
fact that the question between the biblical view 

* Full reports of these are to be found in The Independent, N. Y. 
1880, Jan. 29 to March 25. A few supplementary lectures based on later 
material, would if prepared make the whole series well worth republica- 
tion. 

t S^^ Independent, March 4. 1880. 



SPIRITUALISM 331 



and the spiritualistic view of the world is not 
as to the reality of communications of spirits 
with men, but as to their trustworthiness?" 

This issue can be determined only as moral 
tests are used as well as those which are physical, 
and rational. 

In comparing the phenomena of spiritualism, 
alleged or actual, with those of demon-possession 
as presented in previous chapters, we are struck 
with the remarkable correspondence between 
them. Some obvious points of resemblance 
may be given in general as follows: 

ist. The use of a medium for the purpose of 
holding communication with spirits. 

2d. Necromancy, or professed communica- 
tions with the dead by the intervention of a me- 
dium. 

3rd. The invoking or summoning of spirits 
by means of hymns or prayers. 

4th. Receiving communications from spirits 
by writing, through methods more or less direct 
and immediate. 

5th. Gradual "development" or training by 
which the medium or subject, and the spirits, are 
brought en rapport, so that the medium becomes 
ready and responsive in performing his new func- 
tions. 

6th. Obtaining prescriptions and healing dis- 
eases by spirits, though the intervention of a 
medium. 

2 J Demon 



n23 DEMON-POSSESSION 

7th. Carrying on communications with spirits 
through a medium by the use of spoken language, 
or by raps, or other arrangements and devices. 

8th. The mysterious appearance and disap- 
pearance of lambent lights and frames. 

9th. Levitation, suspension in the air, and 
transference from one place to another of crock- 
ery, household utensils, and other objects, in- 
cluding also men, either in a conscious or uncon- 
scious state. 

loth. Haunted houses, mysterious opening 
and shutting of doors, and other similar phe- 
nomena. 

nth. The moving of furniture and other ob- 
jects without physical contact. 

1 2th. Rappings, clattering of dishes, and un- 
usual noises and disturbances, without any phys- 
ical cause which can be found. 

13th. Impressions by unseen hands, some- 
times gentle, and sometimes violent, producing 
physical pain and injuries. 

14th. The nervous and muscular symptoms 
peculiar to the demoniac, and often to the 
medium during possession, or its initial stage. 

The above points cover the general phenomena 
connected with what is called "spiritualism," and 
show that it is in accordance with the demonism 
of China, and other countries, and of the Bible. 
We have seen that the Scriptures categorically 
and authoritatively attribute such manifestations 
to demons, the agents of the devil. 



SPIRITU/tLISM 323 



It is a striking fact that the Chinese uniformly 
attribute these phenomena to evil spirits whom 
they fear and hate. To be possessed by an evil 
spirit they consider a misfortune and a disgrace. 
Mediums, those who invoke and hold intercourse 
with spirits, are, from a supposed necessity, 
often consulted, but are never regarded with 
respect or affection. The general name given 
to all forms of spirit manifestations is "sie", a 
term which combines the ideas corrupt, injiiri- 
ous, demoralizing, debasing: 

Spiritualists will no doubt insist that the as- 
sertion that the phenomena in question are the 
work of evil spirits, and none others, is both 
gratuitous and malicious. Is not "mediumship", 
however, in the very nature of the case evil? I 
believe it to be but another name for demon- 
possession. What are the moral accompani- 
ments and sequences of mediumistic practices.^ 
"Who does not know them.-* What is their moral 
tone.-* What is their final tendency.? What 
type of character most widely prevails among 
confirmed and persistent spiritualists.? How do 
they stand related to the New Testament Christ.? 

The Bible teaches us that to have intercourse 
with a "familiar spirit" is a voluntary act of dis- 
loyalty to, and rebellion against God. It is for- 
saking God, and holding intercourse with, and 
becoming the agent of his avowed enemy, the 
devil. 



824 DEMON-POSSESSION 

There were instructions given in the New 
Testament, specific, simple and infalHble for de- 
termining the character of spirits holding com- 
munications with men. There was a command, 
"Believe not every spirit, but try the spirits 
whether they are of God; because many false 
prophets are gone out into the world."* And a 
test was given "Every spirit that confesseth not 
that Jesus Christ is come in the flesh is not of 
God."t But in applying this Scripture test to 
spiritism in the present age we meet at once with 
difficulties. First, because some spiritualists 
may not deny the fact of our Saviour's having 
come in the flesh; and secondly, from the want 
of such an authorized presentation of the tenets 
of spiritualism as will be accepted by its adher- 
ents. Spiritualists have never, so far as we are 
aware, published an authoritative statement of 
their beliefs. Their representative literature, 
however, furnishes evidences of its tendency and 
temper which are unmistakable. From a mass 
of this kind of material a few specimens only can 
be given here. 

In a long article in a spiritualist "Weekly Jour- 
nal "there appeared the following under the title 
"The Genuine Teachings of Jesus, The Synopti- 
cal Gospels and John, Jesus and the Talmud," etc. 

"It is to Paul, not to Jesus, we owe the abro- 

* I John, iv, 1. 
t I John. iv. 3. 



SPIRITUALISM 325 



gation of the law; it was to Paul's influence that 
the writer of Hebrews opposed sacrificing bulls 
and goats. Jesus had nothing to do with it." 
. . . "Jesus had defects and imperfections like 
all other men." .... "It is an absurd idea 
that Jesus was a perfect man, or any more Divine 
than any other man. He was a simple Jewish 
enthusiast and religious reformer, foolishly sup- 
posing himself the Messiah, thereby coming to 
an untimely death."* 

A letter to the editor of the same Journal pre- 
sents the claims of spiritualism as a new and 
better religion than Christianity in these words: 
"How can professed spiritualists scout the idea 
that spiritualism is a religion? Has not spirit- 
ualism done a thousand fold more for us than 
theology or' Christ and him crucified,' in open- 
ing the portals, and giving us real glimpses of the 
life to be, giving us line upon line of philosophy 
of existence in both spheres?" 

The following extracts are from a somewhat 
elaborate work on "Moral Philosophy" highly 
recommended by spiritualists. Speaking of 
Christian obedience the writer says: "To be- 
lieve the Bible and obey the Christian church is 
the obedience intended. We unqualifiedly say 
that a man owes no such obedience, and has 
no such duties." . . . "The slow relinquish- 
ment of the personality of God has left this doc- 

* Religio-Philosphical Journal January 14,1880. 



326 DEMON-POSSESSION 

trine in a most precarious state, and with its fall 
Christianity ceases to exist."* 

The following gives the author's estimate of 
Christ's work of atonement. "Slaughtered ox- 
en, hecatombs of human victims, or ten thous- 
and bleeding Christs" will not atone for the least 
transgression of the laws of our being." .... 
"The true redemption is not through the blood of 
Christna of India, a pilgrimage to the shrine of 
Mohammed, or the efficacy of Christ's blood, 
but by compliance with the laws of the physical 

and spiritual worlds." "Terrible is the 

significance, and humiliating to the student of 
history are the words, 'peace with God,' 'lost 
from God,' 'reconciled unto God,' 'atonement,' 
'salvation through the blood of the lamb, ' 're- 
generation, ' an endless vocabulary which is fos- 
silized ignorance, credulity, folly, selfishness, 
fear and rascality." Quotations of this kind 
might be multiplied indefinitely. 

There is little room for doubt that spiritualism 
antagonizes all the distinctive doctrines of Chris- 
tianity, especially the doctrine that "Jesus Christ 
has come in the flesh," though it adapts itself to 
the moral and religious state for the time being 
of those whom it would influence, and many 
would not be entrapped in its snare if at times, 
it had not at least an outward veneering of Chris- 
tianity. This however is for the timid novitiate not 

* Ethics of Spiritualism — A System of Moral Philosophy, etc,, p. 99. 
Ibid pages iox-103, 



SPIRITUALISM 327 



for the advanced spiritualist. Dr. T. L. Nich- 
ols, a distinguished spiritualist, says: "Spiritual- 
ism meets, neutralizes, and destroys Christianity. 
A spiritualist is no longer a Christian in any 
popular sense of the term. Advanced spirits do 
not teach the atonement of Christ; nothing of 
the kind."* 

It is an important fact that spiritualists do 
themselves acknowledge that the world is full 
of lying spirits, that they themselves are con- 
stantly deceived by them; and the difficulty of 
determining whether they are or are not being 
deceived, troubles them not a little. A spirit- 
ualist writing on "Test Conditions" says: 

"This is a topic on which a great deal has 
been said, and is still being said, within the 
ranks of the spiritualists. Those outside know 
nothing of "test conditions" beyond their own 
crude ideas of the manner in which spirits should 
manifest, if there be any spirits, which they 
doubt or deny. A "test condition" with them 
is that which brings the phenomena of spiritual- 
ism within the category of physical miracles. 
Many so-called spiritualists are on the same 
plane." 

******* 

"With the believing spiritualist it is different. 
He is supposed to have passed beyond the mere 
test plane. He is thoroughly and finally con- 

9 ^Qntbl^ ^a^a^iqe of ^opiftl Science and Progressive I^itsrstyr^. 



338 DEMON-POSSESSION 

vinced that there are spirits, and that they do 
communicate and manifest. Then what are 
physical "test conditions" to him? He wants 
triith. He knows that deceiving spirits exist by 
millions, that some spiritual tramp may come 
and personate his father, for example, and, hence, 
he wants a spiritiial condition that will prevent 
this. 

"Locking or tying up the medium will not ac- 
complish this, for material bonds are nothing to 
spirit power. The lying, deceptive spirit in the 
medium, if it exist, must be exorcised. Who 
wants to spend his time and money for such 
Dead Sea fruits as catering to the sports or tricks 
of low, deceptive spirits? Here is a medium, 
for example, that is discovered in a palpable fraud, 
the toggery found upon her being publicly ex- 
hibited; and yet spiritualists sustain her, because 
she is really a medium; and it is, they say, the 
spirits that perpetrate the fraud, while the poor 
medium is innocent. Her mediumship hallows 
all she does, whether good or bad. Let me ask, 
is fraud any less a fraud because it is perpe- 
trated by a spirit ? 

"If Spiritualism is to be a cloak and an excuse 
for crime, away with it; and if mediums are to 
be sustained in lying, cheating and swindling, 
let it all perish. This constant cry of 'Sustain 
the mediums, right or wrong, because they are 
mediums, charging all their offences — their low 



SPIRITUALISM 329 



disgusting trickery — on the spirits, is a delusion 
and a snare, and Vv'ill, if it is continued, sink our 
great cause so low that the sun of truth and right- 
eousness will never be able to shine upon it?"* 

Another writer says: "For seven years I held 
daily intercourse with what purported to be my 
mother's spirit. I am now firmly persuaded that 
it was nothing but an evil spirit, an infernal de- 
mon who, in that guise gained my soul's confi- 
dence, and led me to the very brink of ruin."t 

The law of moral affinities precludes the idea 
that these rapping, roistering table-tipping, lying 
spirits invoked by modern spiritualists are in 
any sense good spirits. Good spirits would in- 
stinctively shrink from such companionship, and 
methods. The good "demon" of Socrates is an 
appellation made use of by writers who succeeded 
Socrates, and was not used by Socrates himself. 
He spoke of this mysterious guiding influence as 
the inward "voice." It seems to have been con- 
science, or the voice of God, which was to him 
so distinct and authoritative that he was almost 
disposed to attribute to it personality. Dean 
Stanley speaks of the extraordinary disclosures 
which he (Socrates) has himself left of that 
^^ divine sigfi!'' which by later writers was called 
his demon, his invoking genius, but which he 
himself called by the simpler name of his 
prophetic or supernatural "voice." + 

* Spritualism Unveiled by Miles Grant p, 35. 
t Religio-Philosophical Journal Dec. 24. 1887. 
i History of the Jewish Church, vol. iii. p. 824. 



330 DEMON-POSSESSION 

The connection in whicli Marcus Aurelius uses 
the word demon shows clearly that it is only a 
personification of conscience. 

We have endeavored to present the real tenets 
of spiritualism by extracts which are typical and 
representative. For a fuller and more minute 
presentation of its doctrines the reader is referred 
to its own publications, a careful perusal of 
which will leave no room to doubt that spiritual- 
ism, off its guard, denies the existence of a per- 
sonal God, utterly rejects the Bible as a Divine 
revelation, and especially denies the Divinity of 
Jesus Christ, and His work of atonement. 

As to the adaptiveness of spiritualism to its 
ends, let me quote again from Dr. Phelps — 
"Senseless as it seems to sedate and Christian 
logic, it is very crafty as a compound of tempta- 
tions. Look at the ingredients. What are they .'' 
Here are some truths for the honest ones, con- 
verse with the dear departed for the bereaved, 
gushing messages for the affectionate, marvels 
for the curious, revelations for the credulous, 
gossip for the idle, mummery for the frivolous, 
swelling words for the mystical, a loosening of 
marriage-ties for the impure, and an anti-Chris- 
tian supernaturalism for minds famished by life- 
long skepticism. Surely, so far as it goes, it is 
a cunningly-laid snare. Very foolish it may be 
to be caught in it, yet it is a subtle thing in the 
bands of the fowler. Considering the materia] 



SPIRITUylLISM S31 



he has to deal with, is it not worthy of the great 
hierarch of evil?" 

It has been reserved for inhabitants of culti- 
vated and nominally Christian nations of the 19th 
century to court that intercourse with spirits from 
which many of the more intelligent heathen shrink 
with aversion. They represent the spectacle of 
thousands and millions of men and women, many 
of whom have been reared in Christian homes, 
and are possessed through heredity, educa- 
tion, and national and social ties, with all the ad- 
vantages of Christian culture, who have adopted 
a religion ignoring a personal God, who have 
"changed the truth of God into a lie, and wor- 
shiped and served the creature more than the Crea- 
tor."* Avoiding communion with the infinite, 
everpresent Spirit of Holiness, and in flagrant 
disobedience to His will, they deliberately throw 
themselves open to the access and incursion 
of miserable, wandering, finite spirits, that work 
in darkness, abound in deeds that are either 
paltry or vicious beyond expression, and who, 
even when they seem to confer a benefit, show 
by results that they do it that evil may come. 
This is a religion which, notwithstanding its 
vaunted intercourse with the spirit-world for 
many years, has added nothing to our knowledge 
of truth or virtue, or to our motives to a better 
and higher life. 

* Rom. i; 25. 



333 DEMON-POSSESSION 



I cannot think that I fail in the duty of Chris- 
tian charity in affirming my belief as I have al- 
ready done, that the phenomena of spiritualism 
are plainly referable to demons\ in the main 
identical with phenomena which have been re- 
ferred to demons by the common consent of all 
nations, and are declared to be such by the 
authoritative teachings of Scripture. 

To briefly sum up all: It would seem that 
every age and country present phenomena which 
exhibit, in some variety of form, the reality of 
demon intercourse with men, and of demon- 
possession. 

The demoniac is an involuntary victim of pos- 
session. The willing subject becomes a medium. 
This general term includes others more specific, 
and is often but the modern name for witch and 
sorcerer. 

History is full of facts which illustrate the 
demonology of the Bible, and seem to find in 
that neglected doctrine their only sufficient ex- 
planation. 



CHAPTER XVIII.* 

THE FACTS AND LITERATURE OF THE OCCULT. 

The facts that make the foundation for the 
discussion conducted in the present volume have 
not been drawn from literature, but from life. 
A considerable body of carefully sifted and well 
authenticated facts are offered to be accounted 
for, which yet are but specimens of a much 
larger collection made. They are gathered from 
the author's personal observation and the agree- 
ing testimony of many trustworthy and living 
witnesses, having no collusion with each other. 

Such facts, however unfamiliar to many read- 
ers, are not confined to any distant antiquity, but 
are still occurring. They are not the half seen, 
half remembered, and many times exaggerated 
phenomena out of which myths of were-wolves 
and changelings are evolved. They are every- 
day facts which can be examined at first hand 
in many places, and substantiated at every point 
by any person who will take the pains. 

Nor are these facts of an isolated kind. For 
nothing is more obvious than that they belong 
to an enormous class, with important subdivi- 

*In regard to this chapter see the Noteof Explanation at the beginning 
of this volume, 

333 



334 DEMON-POSSESSION 

sions, and that they exhibit an unfailing vitality, 
a persistence of recurrence, and a relation to 
human welfare which gives them a commanding 
claim to be understood. The designation of their 
class in most instances involves some theory of 
their origin, and varies with different persons. 
They are said to belong to the order of the 
supernatural. They are called preternatural, 
supernormal, superhuman, supersensuous, mi- 
raculous and occult. One describes them in terms 
of medical science. Another regards them as 
myths, and no testimony will convince him that 
such facts have ever existed as this volume and 
many other books report. 

But the same thing called by one name will 
often get a hearing which, called by another, is 
ignored. 

The term most used is supernatural, and no 
other is more loosely used and misunderstood. 
What it may mean depends upon each man's 
conception of nature. To one man nature only 
includes the range of his own experience, still 
further limited by the defects in his analysis of 
that experience. What is beyond that is beyond 
nature. To another it is all of the visible or 
sensible world. But, in its fullest sense, nature 
is all that is natns^ born, produced or made. 
It is the entire finite universe,in distinction from 
the infinite Creator. 

The distinction, it is right to say, is not that 



FACIS AND LITERATURE OF THE OCCULT 335 

between the seen and the unseen, nor that be- 
tween matter and spirit; but that between the 
contingent and the absolute, the finite and the 
infinite. Paul's splendid climax in the eighth 
chapter of Romans may be said to express the 
sum, and contain an inventory, of nature. It is 
as if he had said: Though all nature were against 
me, it could not separate me from God. Death, 
life, angels, principalities, powers, things present 
or future, far or near, or whatsoever created 
thing, must all and equally fail to accomplish 
that. 

All is nature that is not God. Nature is the 
synonym for the divine creation. 

Strictly speaking, there is only one super- 
natural being, and whatever is done as the im- 
mediate act of God is supernatural. The com- 
monest function of nature directly maintained 
by his operation is, in the best sense, supernat- 
ural quite as much as original creation, or any 
unusual effect which he may produce, and which 
is called a miracle. But the immediate act of 
a finite will, intelligence or power may properly 
be regarded as a natural act, and any effect 
proceeding from it as a natural effect. 

There are doubtless many planes of natural 
being and action little known to men. And each 
must have its special laws, yet all may interact, 
and stand related to each other in some com- 
prehensive plan. The phenomena under review 



336 DEMON-POSSESSION 

are those which have all the outward seeming 
of proceeding from the interaction with the fa- 
miliar human plane of another natural plane of 
intelligent being less well known. This is an 
inference that they inevitably suggest even to 
the most incredulous. 

They do not appear as effects of divine 
action. The cause at work is not the first cause, 
nor the familiar human cause, or at least not 
that alone; but an intermediate cause that oper- 
ates in much obscurity, yet betrays the marks 
of intelligence and a certain variable quality of 
moral character. 

Perhaps no better designation for this class of 
facts can be had than the word occult. This 
convenient term commits no person to an ex- 
planation, and may be used in common by the 
advocates of every view. It merely implies 
that the phenomena in question are shrouded in 
mystery, and neither suggests an explanation, 
nor denies that one can be made. 

Occult phenomena may counterfeit the super- 
natural while yet they are not such; nor are 
they to be thought anomalous. The laws of 
their manifestation, as is true of many other 
things, may be, in part, peculiar to themselves, 
and still may have their proper place. in the gen- 
eral order of nature. Every kind in nature has 
laws after its kind. Great prejudice has been 
needlessly aroused against testimony affirming 



F^CTS AND LITERATURE OF THE OCCULT 337 



the occult by the assumption that such phenom- 
ena not only exist and are supernatural but are 
also outside the pale of law; as though the laws 
of the universe were not sufficiently compre- 
hensive to include all beings and all events that 
have a place within it. 

The modern conception of all-pervading law 
may yet become recognized as being no less Bibli- 
cal than scientific, while those things in the Bible 
which, on a hasty reading, seem most anomalous, 
with deeper study show the very bloom of law, 
in which the moral and physical are perfectly 
blended and equally expressed. The miracles 
which later theologians have viewed as infrac- 
tions of law, are never so considered by the 
Bible writers who record them. As early as the 
fifth century Augustine could say that a 
miracle was not opposed to nature, but only 
to so much of nature as is known. ^^Portentum 
ergo fit non contra naturam, sed contra qiiam 
est nota natura.^^ [De Civitate Dei, xxi. 8 J) 

His memorable words should never be for- 
gotten. They are suited still to answer all who 
fain would stand upon the quicksands that were 
chosen by David Hume. 

Even to this knowing age known nature is al- 
most an inconsiderable section of the whole. 
Although experience is a test of truth, no man's 
experience measures all the truth, nor would the 
collective experience of the race, could it be ex- 



:{38 DEMON-POSSESSION 

pressed, exhaust the facts with which we have 
to deal, nor can the lack of experience prove a 
negative. 

Theologians have done hurt to their own cause 
by conceiving of the miraculous in a way not 
required by the Bible, and making a needless 
occasion of unbelief; also by confounding the 
terms Diiraculous and superttatural. Divine 
action is not always miraculous, nor are mira- 
cles always divine, but all divine action is su- 
pernatural, and all miracles are exceptional to 
common experience. 

The Bible shows but one thing that is opposed 
to law, that abuse of free agency called sin. 
Sin is the only thing called in the Bible an 
anomaly, (i John iii. 4 ) But even sin has a 
lav.' of its own (Rom. vii. 21-23), and this 
strange antinomy of divine providence is made 
to subserve a higher harmony of law than with- 
out it had been possible. 

Between the occult and the supernatural the 
Bible exhibits not only an obvious difference, 
but often a moral antagonism. This is made 
impressively clear to the mind when the occult 
wonders related in this and other volumes, and 
in the Bible itself, are compared with its ac- 
counts of divine creation, miracle, inspiration, 
guidance, protection and provision. Every day in- 
stances and modern illustrations of divine action 
in human life may be profitably compared and 



FACTS AND LITERATURE OF THE OCCULT 339 

contrasted with the occult, and are credibly re- 
ported in a multitude of books, of which three 
good specimens are these by Horace L. Hast- 
ings : 

Tales of Trust; Embracing Authentic Accounts of Provi- 
dential Guidance, Assistance and Deliverance. 
Ebenezers; or Records of Prevailing Prayer. 
The Guiding Hand; or Providential Guidance, Illustrated by 
Authentic Instances. 
All published at 47 Cornhill, Boston, Mass. 

There is reason to suppose that occult phe- 
nomena of some sort, occurring at some time, 
have given rise to many myths and many super- 
stitions. But although the genuine phenomena 
have often suffered every exaggeration and 
spurious imitation, they are too numerous and 
well attested to be ignored. Unauthenticated 
instances pervade national and local traditions, 
and are abundantly scattered among different 
authors. Once they were accepted with undis- 
criminating credulity; now with an equally reck- 
less scepticism they are denied. 

Such is the temper of the present time that 
few persons who meet with these facts only in 
the course of reading ever give them a fair ex- 
amination. After they have produced a passing 
wonder the facts go unexplained, or are hastily 
judged in accordance with some predilection, or 
dismissed with total disbelief. Many a student 
will do justice to any other subject sooner than 
to this. Many, again, of those vyljo encounter it 



340 DEMON-POSSESSION 



by some practical experience of their own go 
from one to an opposite extreme, and suddenly 
abandon all former views in favor of some newly 
learned hypothesis that at the moment seems 
most plausible. 

But the incredibility of these events is much 
diminished when they are found to belong, in 
all senses of the word, to a prodigious class, of 
which countless cases have been as thoroughly 
proved as anything can be proved by human 
witness. Moreover, our general belief, resting 
on well assured evidence elsewhere gathered, 
may, without detriment to induction or conclu- 
sion, concede a corroborative value to many a 
story that lacks explicit proof. 

But these facts are so wrought into the inmost 
fiber of history that no incredulous criticism can 
ever do them quite away. Their influence has 
so deeply penetrated the religion, mythology, 
poetry, art and customs of every race that even 
a sceptical science, which picks and chooses the 
objects of its interest and ignores the rest, is al- 
ready beginning to feel it, and must be brought 
to close terms with it soon. 

The facts are many and indisputable which 
make it look as if mankind were beset by a race 
of invisible intelligences, occupying a different 
but proximate plane of existence, having power 
to act directly upon the minds and bodies of 
men, and to produce various prodigies, even 



F/iCTS AND LITERATURE OF THE OCCULT 341 

making themselves audible, and sometimes vis- 
ible, and sensible to touch, and also the objects 
of worship. 

These intelligences often claim to be, and 
seem like, the spirits of dead human beings. 
Like actors, they often appear to personate char- 
acters which incidentally they show are not their 
own. They often confess themselves to be lost 
souls, or even demons. They often act like de- 
mons while claiming to be gods demanding wor- 
ship, and the nature of their claims and mani- 
festations would seem to be largely determined 
by the company they are in, and the character 
and convictions of those persons whom they seek 
to approach or use. 

Whether there be such a race of spirits, who 
they are, and what forms they can assume, is 
simply a matter of evidence. No man knows 
the whole of nature well enough to say that in 
the nature of things it can not be. And yet this 
unwarranted and jejune assumption is the only 
ground for absolute scepticism in this matter. 
No persons are so forward to employ it as some 
scientific scholars who make most of the impor- 
tance of induction; for even careful scholars 
have been known to jump at a conclusion in 
the interest of some prepossession, and to reject 
good testimony which was hostile to their chosen 
views. 

It does not appear to be any lack ofgoodtes- 



342 DEMON-POSSESSION 



timony that makes men doubtful of spirit agency 
in some cases of occult phenomena. It seems 
rather to be ignorance of that testimony, or the 
collision of that testimony with some prejudice. 

The first question in the discussion is, What, 
precisely stated, are the phenomena.^ The next, 
What is their cause.^ and have spirits anything 
to do with them.? Hardly can the most incredu- 
lous person become familiar with the phenomena 
and fail to have a spirit agency strongly suggested 
to his mind. Then for those who accept the 
spirit theory it remains to determine who the 
spirits are. 

Whether in the course of their ministry (Heb. 
i. 13, i4)good angels ever manifest themselves, 
or "the spirits of just men" (Heb. xii. 23); 
whether the demons or "unclean spirits, "so often 
named in the New Testament, are to be identi- 
fied with the original Satanic race, or with lost 
souls of men, as Josephus and other Jewish, and 
some early Christian writers held; whether such 
lost souls continue in the region of this planet 
(and why should they not ?) ; whether these spirits 
are wholly without form or body because without 
flesh and bones (Luke xxiv. 37-39); all these 
and similar questions which follow the accep- 
tance of the spirit theory are matters of experi- 
mental evidence, and cannot be determined d 
priori. 

Many who at jBrst have utterly refused to be-^ 



FACTS AND LITERATURE OF THE OCCULT 343 

lieve in spirit agency have changed their minds, 
and among them a number conspicuous for 
their scientific training and achievements. Many 
who have ceased to ridicule the spirit hypothesis 
continue to pour their contempt upon the doc- 
trine of demon agency which is found in the 
Bible, endorsed by Christ, and illustrated in the 
preceding chapters of this book. But in one 
case, as in the other, the only criterion as to the 
actual facts is that of experience. One's own 
experience, so far as it may go, and the trust- 
worthy testimony of others whose experience 
causes them to know whereof they speak, must 
be gathered and examined with the utmost can- 
dor and care. Those who accept as valid the 
testimony of the Bible do so on the ground that 
its writers were trustworthy men, who knew 
much of what they reported by their own expe- 
rience, and all of it by the instruction of one 
who did know all. 

But a vast amount of evidence is already in, 
collected in former ages and our own. It is no 
new theme of interest to mankind, but as old as 
the history of the race; although new interest in 
the old theme has in recent years been shown in 
Western lands, because the phenomena seem to 
have multiplied. They have always elicited the 
profound attention of many, whether in fear or 
hope or wonder, especially of those whose con- 
tact with them has been of an experimental kind. 



341 DEMON-POSSESSION 

Inevitably all men come to the study of the 
subject with certain prepossessions, and are 
naturally inclined to make little of the testimony 
that does not agree with these pre existing views. 
Happy is the man who can recognize his own 
prepossessions, and hold them completely in 
control; who can consent to learn from an en- 
emy, and will do justice to evidence that is op- 
posed to his cherished convictions. Only one 
who loves the truth indeed better than his own 
opinions is fit to find or handle evidence in a 
matter that appeals to prejudice. A certain 
moral factor, in the pursuit of truth, takes pre- 
cedence of all intellectual qualities and attain- 
ments, howsoever invaluable these may be. 

For a brief summary up to date of results in 
psychical research perhaps nothing better has 
been made than a paper sent to the Psychical 
Congress of Chicago, in 1893, by the distinguished 
naturalist. Dr. Alfred Russel Wallace. It may 
all be found in Borderland for October of that 
year, and is entitled: 

Notes on the Growth of Opinion as to Obscure Psychical 
Phenomena during the last Fifty Years. 

In that paper, among other memorable re- 
marks is this: 

"The whole history of science shows that when- 
ever the educated and scientific men of the age 
have denied the facts of other investigators on 
a priori grounds of absurdity or impossibility, 
the deniers have always been wrong " 



FACTS AND LITERATURE OF THE OCCULT 345 

This statement is illustrated in a brilliant pa- 
per on "The Dogmatism of Science" by Dr. R. 
Heber Newton in the Arena for May, 1890. Dr. 
Wallace also remarks as follows: 

"For myself, I have never been able to see 
why any one hypothesis should be any less 
scientific than another,except so far as one ex- 
plains the whole of the facts and the other ex- 
plains only a part of them. 

"That theory is most scientific which best ex- 
plains the whole series of phenomena; and I 
therefore claim that the spirit hypothesis is the 
most scientific, since even those who object to 
it most strenuously often admit that it does ex- 
plain all the facts, which can not be said of any 
other hypothesis. 

"The antagonism which it excites seems to be 
mainly due to the fact that it is, and has long 
been, in some form or other, the belief of 
the religious world, and of the ignorant and 
superstitious of all ages, while a total disbelief in 
spiritual existence has been the distinctive badge 
of modern scientific scepticism. But we find 
that the belief of the uneducated and unscientific 
multitude rested on a broad basis of facts which 
the scientific world scouted and scoffed at as 
absurd and impossible." The man who says 
these things himself belongs by common consent 
to the first rank of living naturalists. 



346 DEMON-POSSESSION 

THE LITERATURE. 

And now^ to further facilitate the efforts of such 
readers as may wish to examine this subject 
more thoroughly for themselves, something more 
will be said regarding the literature in which it 
can be studied to advantage. 

The literature of the subject, like the phe- 
nomena which it describes, reaches through all 
periods of recorded history, is of immense extent, 
and may be found under many heads. No man 
could ever master all of it. No country ever had 
a literature of which a large part has not been 
devoted to the concrete representation, or the 
analysis of these very facts. 

In the preceding pages of this voliame about 
an hundred different writers are cited, most of 
whom were directly consulted in its preparation, 
and some large quotations from them are made. 
But no exhaustive comparison of the literature of 
the subject has been attempted. The Bibli- 
ographical Index which follows names all of the 
writers referred to. It also gives a more partic- 
ular account of those whose testimony is regarded 
as important, but insufficiently known, and in- 
sufficiently described elsewhere in this volume. 

In addition to these, some others will be pre- 
sented in the present chapter that are significant 
for the data which they yield, quite irrespective 
of their various theories. While making no pre- 



F/1CTS ^ND UTER/ITURE OF THE OCCULT 347 



tension to completeness, the list will serve to 
show the range and ramifications of this subject, 
and the various quarters in which information 
must be sought. But although it is practicable to 
distinguish the several departments of study in 
which the occult is treated, it is not possible to 
strictly classify all books; for these continually 
overlap one another's special province. 

Many useful books have been written upon 
this theme that are not strong enough to 
stand alone. Many reviewers pass their hasty 
judgment upon some single or occasional work 
as though it bore an isolated testimony not 
worthy to be seriously weighed. But if any stu- 
dent be determined to search this matter to the 
end, to secure evidence from every side, and to 
deal with it at any cost to his own pleasure, he 
will find an astonishing mass of consenting testi- 
mony to the reality of the facts, their powerful 
influence upon the fortunes and character of 
men, and the inadequacy of those explanations 
that are most congenial to the modern mind. 

If in the preceding chapters, and other similar 
accounts, the facts to be explained be correctly 
reported, then, whatever theory may be formed, 
it is obvious that they have important bearings 
upon several distinct regions of investigation. 
Pathology, psychology, mythology, folklore, 
witchcraft, magic, demonology and theology, 
each includes an extensive literature that discus§- 



348 DEMON-POSSESSION 

es these occult phenomena from different points 
of view. Even medical jurisprudence may be 
supposed to have a concern in them. They are 
described in modern works of fiction, travel, 
biography, and history at large. Books written 
in the interest of modern and western spiritism 
are multiplying with great rapidity, and probably 
in many a city would rival the number and as- 
sortment of those which the Ephesians who 
"used curious arts brought together, and burned 
before all men," and "counted the price of them, 
and found it fifty thousand pieces of silver." 
(Acts xix. 19.) 

It was stated in the periodical called Light, 
for June 19, 1886, that during the previous forty 
years two thousand volumes upon mediumistic 
wonders had been published, exclusive of tracts 
and pamphlets. 

Probably no fuller Bibliography exists in this 
general domain than the following: 

Graesses Bibliographie der wichtigsten in das Gebict des 
Zauber, Geister und sonstigen Aberglaubens einschlagenden 
Werke. Leipzig, 1843. 

But this does not include works issued since 
its own publication. 

THE BIBLE. 

The testimony of the Bible alone, even at its 
lowest estimate, is of high value. What the 
Bible has to say of sorcery, necromancy, diyin- 



FACTS AND LITERATURE OF THE OCCULT 349 

ation and possession is never said as if these 
things were at all peculiar to the age or coun- 
tries of which they are told. The Bible describes 
these experiences as if they were common to 
humanity, and always would be until the final 
overthrow of evil, and Satan's end. The Bible 
is a record of facts as well as of doctrines in this 
matter, and as such quite as worthy of regard 
as the latest report of hypnotic experiments, or 
the psychical researches of modern savants. 
There are good reasons for believing that all 
history is full of strictly parallel instances which 
confirm and vindicate its witness. 

DEMONOLOGY. 

Ralph Waldo Emerson, in his essay under 
this caption, as good as any penned from the 
rationalistic side, calls demonology the shadow 
of theology. And certainly no Christian theology 
can be formed which does not involve, in deep 
but inseparable contrast with its elements of 
glory, the factors of this somber theme. 

The connection of demonology with the oc- 
cult, however disallowed in our age, has been 
so intricate in the past that a student must read 
it perforce to get at a large part of his facts. 
Baxter, Glanvil and DeFoe are no less useful 
than they ever were in furnishing these facts from 
the experimental side, while others, like Char- 



350 DEMON-POSSESSION 



lotte Elizabeth, have incidentally treated them 
in connection with the Biblical doctrine, 

A useful catalogue, prepared by Henry Kernot, 
was published by Scribner, Welford and Arm- 
strong in 1874, and exhibited in chronological 
order a collection of books made by this firm at 
that time. 

It is a pamphlet of 40 pages, io^x63i( inches, entitled as fol- 
lows: Bibliotheca Diabolica: Being a choice selection of the 
most valuable books relating to the Devil - - - compris- 
ing the most important works on the Devil, Demons, Hell, 
Hell Torments, Magic, Witchcraft, Sorcery, Divination, Su- 
perstition, Angels, Ghosts," etc., etc. 

This includes many once famous and now al- 
most forgotten books, which will bear to be read 
again in view of the more accessible facts of our 
own day.* 

On modern cases of possession by evil spirits 
probably no treatise hitherto published takes 
precedence of the one hy Jus tintis Kerner^M. D. , 
named in the Index, and quoted by Griesinger t 

Issued in Karlsruhe in 1834, and now largely 
lost sight of, it is a book of the utmost impor- 
tance to those who want well accredited and 
well delineated facts from a medical psychologist 
of high rank, and some unusual opportunities in 
practice and observation. "Whatever errors of 
judgment it may contain, it is an honest book cf 
facts which cannot be easily explained away, 

* Copies of this pamphlet may perhaps still be had through 
A. S. Clark, 34 Park Row, N. Y. 

f See page 125 



F^CTS AND LITERATURE OF THE OCCULT 3P1 

and such as corroborate in many particulars 
those exhibited in the present volume. 

In close relation with this book and the one 
by Kerner, much better known, and called The 
Seeress of Prevorst, stands a book by his col- 
laborator, possibly not translated. 

Adam Karl August Eschenmayer, 1768-1852. M. D. of 
Tubingen. Prof, of Philos. & Med. at Tubingen. Conflict 
Zwischen Himmel und Holla an dem Damon eines Besessenen 
Madchens beobachtet - - - Nebst einem Wort an Dr. 
[David Friedrich] Strauss. Tub & Leipzig. 1837. Pp 215 734x5. 
(The Conflict between Heaven and Hell observed in the De- 
mon of a Possessed Girl, etc.) 

With these two writers may also most properly 
be named the once well-known Jung Stilling, 
whose Autobiography, first introduced to the 
world by Goethe, attained a wide celebrity on 
both sides of the Atlantic. It was published in 
New York by Harper Bros., in 1848. 

Johann Heinrich Jung, 1740-1817. M. D. of Strassbnrg. 
His Theorie der Geister-Kunde was translated by Saml. J. Jack- 
son (who also rendered the Autobiography), and issued under 
the title: Theory of Pneumatology. In Reply to the Question, 
What ought to be Believed or Disbelieved concerning Presenti- 
ments, Visions and Apparitions, According to Nature, Reason 
and Scripture? Translated from the German by S. J. Jack- 
son, London, Longmans, 1834. Sm. 8vo. Pp. xxii., 460. 

The first and best American edition was published by J. S. 
Redfield, N. Y., 1851. i2mo. Pp. xxiv., 286. Edited by Rev. 
George Bush, a well known Hebraist and Swedenborgian. 

Modern demonology is discussed in this book 
only as a part of its whole theme. But this au- 
thor Jung, with Kerner, Eschenmayer, Enne- 



352 DLMON-POSSESSION 

moser and Blumhardt, form a group of South 
Germans who should be named together. Four 
of them were distinguished physicians, three of 
them graduates from the then most sceptical 
university in Europe, All of them are among 
the best qualified witnesses and historians of 
occult phenomena, and the mental and patho- 
logical conditions which go with them. 

Those who antagonize the spirit theory are apt 
to object to all lay witnesses that they are not 
scientific experts. Then when highly trained 
physicians testify favorably to the same view, it 
is objected that they are visionary. If the wit- 
nesses go further, and infer that some of the 
spirits so engaged are demons, then, however 
well informed, and inured to exact thought the 
witnesses may be, it is objected that they judge 
only in the interest of their theology. Thus no 
witness can be found on one side of this question 
who is acceptable to its opponents, who prefer to 
decide the whole controversy upon antecedent 
grounds. 

In the light of the facts presented in the pres- 
ent volume the writings of these men, which, 
although once subject to much obloquy, were 
also widely read, will repay a fresh perusal. 

Besides them may be named the following: 

Collin de Plancy, Dictionnaire Infernal, ou Bibliotheque 
Universelle sur les Etres, les Personnages, les Livres, les 
Faits, et les choses qui tjennent aux Diables, aux Apparitions, 



FACTS AND LITERATURE OF THE OCCULT 353 

a la magie, a I'Enfer, etc., etc. ,4 vols. 8vo. Paris, 1818. Seconde 
edition entierementrefondue, 1825. Of this work Henry Kernot 
says an English translation exists which has not been published. 
Abbe Lecanu: Histoire de Satan, sa Chute, son Culte, etc. 
8vo. Paris, 1852. 

Gustav Roskoff : Geschichte desTeufels. avoh. 8vo. Leip- 
zig, 1869. 

Among the more useful recent books assuming 
the Biblical ground are the following: 

Wm. A. Matson, D D. The Adversary, His Person, 
Power and Purpose. A Study in Satanology. Pp. 238. W. B 
Ketchum. N. Y., 1891. 

This book is not confined to doctrine, but with 
much ability illustrates the Scripture doctrine 
by many impressive incidents which confirm the 
conclusions of the present volume. 

Jas K. Ormiston, K. C. L. Vicar of Old Hill, Staffordshire. 
The Satan of Scripture. 2d ed. revised. Pp. 194. 7^x5. 
John F. Shaw & Co., London, 1871. 

Mrs. George C. Needham: Angels and Demons. Pp. 92. 
7%mH- Fleming H Revell Co. Chicago i8gi. 

If it be said of the old books that they are 
full of absurdities, the same may be said of the 
new, even of those written by highly scientific 
men. Each reader must sift for himself as best 
he can both old and new, remembering that 
many things once thought absurd are so no 
longer, and much now looked upon as science 
will some day seem absurd. 

ANGELOLOGY. 

Incidentally the subject of angelology is in- 



554 DEMON-POSSESSION 



volved in this connection, whether or not it may 
be rightly classed with the occult. The Bible 
exhibits the agency among men of good angels, 
as well as of evil spirits; and describes it as con- 
stant and perpetual. It describes the visible ap- 
parition and intercourse of angels, with no word 
to show that these might not ahvays continue. 
Occasional instances of such appearances, es- 
pecially to dying persons, or in the way of pro- 
tection, are related in many books. A notable 
case is given by Krummacher, the illustrious 
court preacher to the king of Prussia, in con- 
nection with the earlier history of that country. 
The claims of some spiritists make it important 
that both in and out of the Bible this subject 
should be included in any comprehensive study 
of these matters. Even a secular daily journal 
like ihe Neza York He ra/d prints along editorial 
on "The Ministry of Angels," in which it is 
assumed that the fact of this ministry, and hu- 
man need of it, largely form the motive and 
justification for the doings of spiritists. {Herald^ 
June 3, 1894.) The Bible, which teaches this 
ministry, does not teach that men should seek 
the approach of angels, but does warn them 
against the approach of bad spirits that come 
in a guise of the good. Two meager but useful 
books are these: 

Rev. Chas. Bell: Angelic Beings, Their Nature and Min- 
istry. Religious Tract Soc'y. London, 1875. 



F^CTS AND LITERATURE OF THE OCCULT 355 

E. A. Stockman, Editor of Tke World's Crisis: Footprints 
of Angels in Fields of Revelation. Advent Christian, Pub. 
Soc'y. Boston, 1890. 

A book of great originality and beauty is the 
following, which has to do with the Old Testa- 
ment appearances of the Angel Jehovah. 

Rev. Wm.M. Baker, D. D. The Ten Theophauies; or the 
Appearances of our Lord to Men before his Birth in Bethlehem. 
Pp. 247. 7XX5K. A. D. F. Randolph & Co., N. Y. 1883. 

WITCHCRAFT. 

The witchcraft excitement produced for two 
hundred years books affirming and denying that 
abound in data. Indeed, from the Malleus 
Maleficarum or Witch Hammer of 1489 down to 
Sir Walter Scott's Letters on Demonology and 
Witchcraft (Black, Edinburgh, 183 1), and Sir 
David Brewster s Natural Magic, or the latest 
novel or medical treatise having occult phenom- 
ena for its theme, an endless succession of 
books deal with it. Several important works 
describe the criminal trials connected with 
witchcraft, and an extended history of these 
trials is W. G. Soldau' s Geschichte der Hexcn 
processes 184.J. 

The New England witchcraft was a small 
affair compared with that of Europe at the time, 
and its literature is correspondingly limited. The 
most important works regarding it are still those 
written by the Mathers, father and son. Modern 
works repeat the original narratives, with the 
addition of blind efforts to explain them. 



356 DEMON-POSSESSION 

The principal book produced in England to 

oppose the then prevailing view of the subject 

was 

Reginald Scott's Discoverie of Witchcraft, 1584, of which 
a new issue was made in 1886, edited by Dr. E. B. Nicholson, 
with Introduction, Notes and Glossary 4to. E. Stock, London. 

This was a notable book, and had an impor- 
tant influence in staying the persecution of sus- 
pected witches, and diminishing the fanatical 
excitement through which many innocent persons 
suffered. 

The author did not deny that there might be 
genuine witches and apparitions, but in a very 
modern spirit he aimed to show how little witch- 
craft there was in much that was so called, how 
grossly blundering and cruelly false were many 
accusations. 

He was answered by the King of England, 
James /. , who published a Devionologie in 1597. 
The view that there has always existed a genuine 
witchcraft continued to be ably maintained. In 
1666 appeared the first edition of 

Joseph Glanvil's Sadducismus Triumphatus, or a Full and 
Plain Defence concerning Witches and Apparitions. This 
went through several editions, and contains some important 
data, as does also 

Richard Baxter's Certainty of the World of Spirits; 1691. 

Glanvil was chaplain to Charles II., and one 
of the founders of the Royal Society. He has 
been rightly described, even in the Popular 
Science Monthly (August, 1892) as "a man of 
acute and original intellect." Many of his nar- 



FACTS AND LITERATURE OF THE OCCULT 357 

ratives are not duly authenticated, but his Drum- 
mer of Tedworth obeys the law of evidence quite 
as well as if its writer were a member of that 
same society to-day. His testimony has of course 
been ridiculed by those to whom his facts are 
an offense. But now, two hundred years after, 
men of science having the best repute and most 
modern training bear witness to entirely similar 
facts met with in their own observation. 

Horsts Zauberbibliothek, 6 vols. Maitiz, 1820- 
26, is called a perfect cyclopaedia of the 
doctrine and methods of magic. In 1851 the 
new spiritism brought out from one of its ad- 
herents, 

J C Colquohoun, a History of Magic. Witchcraft and 
Animal Magnetism. 2 vols. sm. 8vo; and about the same time, 
Victor Rydberg's Magic of the Middle Ages: Translated from 
the Swedish by A. H. Edgren, lamo N.York. 

ANCIENT SPIRITISM. 

The testimony of the ancient Greek and 
Roman authors to the existence and character 
of similar phenomena in their day, so ably sum- 
marized by Dr. Leonard Marsh (See p. 133, and 
Index) is also to be found recapitulated in 
Ennemoser and Pember,as mentioned elsewhere. 
With them the following may be named: 

William Howitt: History of the Supernatural in all Ages and 
Nations, in all Churches, Christian and Pagan, Demonstrating 
a Universal Faith. 2 vols. London, Longman & Co. Am. ed. 
J. B. Lippincott, Phila., 1863. 



358 DEMON-POSSESSION 

L. F. A. Maury: La Magie et I'Astrologie dans I'Anti- 
quiteet au Moyen Age. Paris, 1864. 

Bouche Leclercq: Histoire de la Divination dans I'Antiq- 
uite. 4 vols., 8vo. Paris, 1879. 

J. A. Hild: Etude sur les Demons - - - des Grecs. 
8vo. Paris, 1881. 

MODERN SPIRITISM. 

Under the one head Spiritism the catalogue 
of the Boston Public Library enumerates more 
than 250 titles, a far from complete collection. 
But Spiritism may be found discussed inciden- 
tally in many other books of the same library. 

Probably the foremost places among recent 
writers, who themselves adhere to this doctrine 
and cult, belong to the two Frenchmen known 
by their pseudonyms as Elipha:; Levi and Ai/an 
Kardec. 

Levi has an English exponent in Arthur Edward Waite, 
who has written 

The Mysteries of Magic, A digest of the writings of Eliphaz 
Levi, with Biographical and Critical Essay. Dem. 8vo. Pp. 
XLIII.. 349. 

Waite has also written or edited the following works: 
The Occult Sciences. A Compendium of Transcendental 
Doctrine and Experiment, Embracing an Account of Magical 
Practices; of Secret Sciences in connection with Magical Arts; 
and of Modern Spiritualism, Mesmerism and Theosophy. Pp. 
292. Kegan Paul, Trench, Triibner & Co., London, 1891. 
The Real History of the Rosicrucians. 

The Magical Writings of Thomas Vaughn. A Reprint, etc. 

Lives of Alchemistical Philosophers. 

The principal work of Allan Kardec is, more 
than any other book, the Bible of European 



F/ICTS AND LITERATURE OF THE OCCULT 359 

Spiritists. It was done into English by Anna 
Black well from the 120,000 French issue, and an 
American edition was published in 1875, entitled 
thus: 

Spirit Philosophy. The Spirits' Book; Containing the Prin- 
ciples of Spiritual Doctrine according to the teachings of Spirits 
of High Degree, Transmitted through various Mediums. Pp. 
24, 234, i6mo, with Portrait (of Kardec). Colby & Rich, Boston. 

(French title) Philosophic Spiritualiste. Le Livre des Es- 
prits, contenant les principes de la doctrine spirite - - - 
selon I'enseignment donne par les esprits superieurs a I'aide 
de divers mediums. Recueilles et mis en ordre par Allan Kar- 
dec. Diedier, Paris. 

Kardec was a man of fine education, and a 
proficient educator. Without being himself a 
medium, he collected from different mediums a 
large body of statements, given in trance, or by 
automatic writing, in response to his carefully pre- 
pared questions covering the principal problems 
of philosophy and religion. These questions and 
answers, thoroughly classified and edited, make 
up the Spirits' Book, which certainly exhibits 
a far greater coherence and solidity of matter, 
and skill of presentation, than most writings 
emanating from a similar source. His other 
books are these: 

Livre des Mediums. 
Instruction Pratique, etc. 
La Spiritisme h sa plus simple Expression. 
Qu'est-ce que le Spiritisme? 
Caractere de la Revelation Spirite, etc. 

All to be had from the Biblioteque des Sciences Psycholo- 
giques, 5 Rue Petits Champs, Paris. 



330 DEMON-POSSESSION 



Kardec is well enough informed to rightly dis- 
tinguish between the terms SpiritiLalisin and 
Spiritism. He regards the former as having its 
estabhshed use in philosophy as opposed to ma- 
terialism, and designates his doctrine of spirits 
by the latter. It would save much confusion of 
speech were this distinction generally heeded. 
Beyond its use in philosophy the word spiritual^ 
in all Christian hterature, has a religious use, 
describing what pertains to, depends on, or pro- 
ceeds from the Divine Spirit; and this modern 
application of its related term, apart from phi- 
losophy, is, to an evangelical Christian, a spe- 
cies of sacrilege. 

Strictly mediumistic writers are numerous. 
Among the best known are, Judge John IV. Ed- 
monds, Andrew Jackson Davis, and an English 
clergyman, an M. A., of Oxford, \.\\QRev. Win. 
Stainton Moses IV. T. Stead, the well-known 
editor, now claims to write as a medium, and 
under a "control" at will. 

No one can compare the experience of these 
men with that of Mahomet, or even Swedenborg, 
and not recognize an extraordinary likeness, if 
not identity, in the sources and methods of 
their inspiration, 

A practical study of mediums has been writ- 
ten by Rev MinotJ. Savage, called 

Psychics: Facts and Theories. Arena Pub. Co. Boston, 1893. 

Among American advocates of spiritism prob- 



F^CTS /IND LITER/ITURE OF THE OCCULT 361 

ably no writers have been more fair and highly 
accomplished than Epes Sargent, and Robert 
Dale Oiuen. The books of the former are named 
in the Index following. Of the latter are these: 

Footfalls on the Boundary of Another World, with Narrative 
Illustrations. Pp. 528, 7^2x5. J. B. Lippincott & Co., Phila., 
i860. 

The Debatable Land, with Illustrative Narrations. Pp. 542. 
G. W. Carleton & Co., N. Y., 1871. 

A valuable study of spiritism, worth translat- 
ing, was printed in Geneva in 1888, as the grad- 
uating thesis of a candidate in theology, named 
Eugene Lenoir. 

The matter is handled under the three main 
heads of Historical, Contemporary and Experi- 
mental Spiritism. The writer views first the spir- 
itism of India, Persia, Assyria, Chaldea, of the 
Hebrew Bible and Kaballa, of Greece and Rome, 
and of the time of Christ. Then the modern 
doctrines most widely diffused and the modern 
phenomena, with the experiments and researches 
of scientific men; and finally the author's con- 
clusions, in nine admirably stated theses, make 
up the book, which is thus entitled: 

Etude sur le Spiritisme. These Presentee a la Faculte de 
Theologie Protestante de Montauban, pour obtenir le grade de 
Bachelier en Theologie, et sutenue publiquement, par Eugene 
Lenoir. Geneve. Imprimerie Maurice Richter, 10 Rue des 
Voirons, 1888 

The well known books on this subject by Al- 
fred Russell Wallace and Prof. Wm. Crookes, 



302 DEMON-POSSESSION 

eminent zoologist and chemist, are among the 
most important; also the 

Report on Spiritualism of the Committee of the London 
Dialectical Society; Together with the Evidence, oral and 
written, and a selection from the Correspondence. Published 
by the Committee without the authorization of the Society. Pp. 
XI., 412, 8vo. Longman, Green, Reader and Dyer; London, 
1871. 

The identity in kind of occult phenomena in 
Europe and India is obvious from many things. 
An Englishman, J. B. Brozvn, writes upon 

The Dervishes, or Oriental Spiritualism. i6mo. London, 1868. 
A Frenchman, Paul Gibier, calls spiritism an 
occidental fakirism in an important book con- 
taining ten pages of bibliography. 

Dr. Paul Gibier, Ancien interne des, Hopitaux de Paris: 
Aide naturalisteau museum d'histoire naturelle. Le Spiritisme 
(fakirisme occidentale) Etude historique, critique et experi- 
mentale - - - avec figures dans le texte. Pps. 398. i2mo. 
Octave Doin, Paris, 1887. 

Also see 

Spiritism. By Edelweiss. Pp. 366. i6vo. John W. Lovell 
N. Y.. 1892. 

Lionel A. Weatherby, M. D. The Supernatural? With a 
Chapter on Oriental Magic and Theosophy, by J. N. Maske- 
lyne. Bristol, Arrowsmith; London, Marshall, Kent !c Co., 
1891. 

Among books aiming to assume the Biblical 
ground in dealing with these matters perhaps 
none is better worth reading than the one by 
Robert Broivn described in the Index But others 
in the same line useful are these: 

Wm. R. Gordon, D. D. A threefold Test of Modern Spir- 
itualism. Chas. Scribner. N. Y., 1856. Pp. 408, 7^8x5. 



FACTS AWD LITERATURE OF THE OCCULT 363 



Rev.M.W. McDonald: Spiritualism, Identical with Ancient 
Sorcery, New Testament Demonology and Modern Witch- 
craft; with the Testimony of God and Man Against It. Carle- 
ton and Porter. N. Y., 1866. 

Rev. A. B. Morrison, of the So. Illinois Conference: Spir- 
itualism and Necromancy. Pp. 203, i2mo. Cincinnati. Hitch- 
cock & Waldron; N. Y., Nelson & Phillips, 1873. 

John H. Dadmun, Minister of the Gospel: Spiritualism Ex- 
amined and refuted; It being found Contrary to Scripture, 
Known Facts and Common Sense. Its phenomena accounted 
for, while all its claims for disembodied spirits are disproved. 
Pub'd by the author. P. O. Box 124 1, Philadelphia, Pa., 1893. 
$1.50. per Copy, Postpaid. Pp. 468, 8Xx6. 

This author has had much personal contact 
with spiritism, and has been an industrious col- 
lector of current information about it. The book 
embodies considerable material and keen obser- 
vation. It is better worth reading than might 
be supposed from a hasty view of its obvious 
defects. 

APPARITIONS. 

Intimately connected with the subjects thus 
far named, and having a place in many of the 
books already described, is that of ghosts, phan- 
toms or apparitions. The following books treat 
of it more at large. Although it may be easy 
and proper to dismiss the ordinary ghost story 
with a laugh, yet if it is to be known whether 
phantoms ever have an objective reality it be- 
comes necessary to examine a good deal of tes- 
timony, and there is no lack of testimony for 
this purpose. 



364 DEMON-POSSESSION 

Even the rationalizing Kant said that "he did 
not feel himself authorized to reject all ghost 
stories; for however improbable one taken alone 
might appear, the mass of them taken together 
command some credence." The following books 
contain a mass of them. 

Magica de Spectris et Apparitionibus Spiritura. Leyden, 
1656. 

Daniel Defoe, under the name of Andrew Moreton, Esq.^ 
wrote ; 

The Secrets of the Invisible World Disclosed; or the Uni- 
versal History of Apparitions, etc. A third edition was pub- 
lished in 1738. 

Augustine Calmet: The Phantom World; or the Philosophy 
of Spirits, Apparitions, etc., edited with an Introduction and 
notes by Rev. Henry Christmas. M. A., F. R. S., F. S. A., 
Librarian and Secretary of Sion College. 2 vols. Pp. 378, 
362. Richard Bentley. London, 1850. 

Calmet, abbot of Senones, the learned, em- 
inent and admirable Roman Catholic commen- 
tator on the Bible, lived from 1672 to 1757. 
This was his most popular work, and went 
through many editions The translation fol- 
lows that of 175 1, which contained the author's 
latest corrections and additions. The translator 
calls it "a vast repertory of legends, more or less 
probable." By no means were all of these be- 
lieved by the author himself, and some carry 
their own evidence of imposture. Yet many 
are of a kind for which there exists a large de- 
gree of corroboration in other and better at- 
tested narratives. 



FACTS yiND LITERATURE OF THE OCCULT 3G5 



D'Ameno Sinistrari (L. M.) De la Demonialite et des An- 
imaux Incubes et Succubes, ou Ton prouvequ'il existe sur terre 
des creatures raisonables autres que I'homme, ayant comme 
lui un corps et une ame, naisant et mourant comme lui, et 
capable de salut ou de damnation. Ouvrage inedit publie d'- 
apres le manuscrit original, et traduit du Latin par Isidore 
Liseux. Sm. 4to. Paris, 1875. Only 598 copies printed. 

Of this book Henry S. Olcott says in Post- 
humous Humanity, Pp. 233, "Father Sinis- 
trari' s De Daemonialitate et Incubis et Succubis 
learnedly and exhaustively deals with the whole 
question," (and) "among others the Chevalier 
G. des Mousseaux, a great modern Catholic 
writer upon magic, . . . has entered at 
great length into the discussion. In his Les 
Hauts Phinomenes de la Magie he devotes an 
hundred pages to it." 

Adolphe D'Assier, member of the Bordeaux Academy of 
Sciences: Posthumous Humanity. A Study of Phantoms. 
Translated and Annotated by Henry S. Olcott, President of the 
Theosophical Society. To which is added an Appendix show- 
ing the Popular Beliefs current in India respecting the Post 
Mortem Vicissitudes of the Human Entity. Pp. 360. Cr. 8vo. 
Geo. Redway. London, 1887. 

The French title of this book reads: "Essai sur I'Humanite 
Posthume, et le Spiritisme, Par un Positiviste." 

Regarding the spiritistic theory as a delusion, 
this avowed positivist defends the objective real- 
ity of phantoms of the dead, offering an expla- 
nation of great ingenuity if not tenuity. His 
book abounds in extraordinary illustrations and 
facts acquired from first hand witnesses, and from 
the most incontestable authorities. These he 



:iOG DEMON-POSSESSION 

undertakes to interpret, "to strip them of every- 
thing like the marvelous, so as to connect them, 
like all other natural phenomena, with the laws 
of time and space." 

He is "forced to notice a mysterious agent re- 
vealing itself by manifestations of the most pe- 
culiar and varied nature. Averse from invoking 
a supernatural cause," he seeks some other, and 
discovers it in a magnetic liuid, a new applica- 
tion of the doctrine of odic force. Like all men 
who try to strip the universe of the marvelous, 
he totally fails to do it. The marvels left when 
his explanation is done are more incredible than 
those he attempts to explain, and which at the 
first aroused his own incredulous contempt. 

But if these strange phenomena were never 
called supernatural, if it were freely granted that 
they are wholly within the range of nature, and 
of law, even should they be produced by intel- 
ligent beings occupying a plane of nature little 
known, one constant occasion of prejudice 
among scientific men would be removed. For 
nature surely is not the visible or familiar world 
alone. 

The next work shows at their best so far the 
efforts of the British Society for Psychical Re- 
search. It is principally devoted to the two 
subjects found to have a certain close relation 
Vv'ith each other, of telepathy and apparitions. 
It is in two large volumes, crowded with iilus- 



FACTS AND LITERATURE OF THE OCCULT 3(J7 

trative data. These have been collected and 
authenticated with so great care that they would 
hardly be made more credible had every state- 
ment been sworn and witnessed before a notary. 
Some definite conclusions are reached, and others 
tentatively proposed, but all are offered with 
admirable modesty, soberness and caution, and 
good evidence of a desire for the truth alone. 
Edmund Gurney, M. A., Fredk. W. H. Myers, M. A., 
and Frank Podmore, M. A. Phantasms of the Living, 2 vols. 
Pp- 573i 733! demy 8vo (6x9). London. Rooms of the S. P. R., 
14 Deans Yard.S. W.; and Triibner & Co., Ludgate Hill, E. C. 
1886. Price one guinea. The first edition is now out of 
print. 

Another more recent book written by a high 
authority in English folk-lore is the following: 

Rev. T. F. Thistleton Dyer, M. A. The Ghost World. 
Pp. 447, 7|^x5j^x2. Ward and Downey, London; J. B. Lip- 
pincott Co.,Phila. 1893. The subject is treated as folk-lore, 
and illustrated in its whole range. 

Perhaps the most impressive and dreadful ac- 
count of an apparition ever written, and claim- 
ing to be true in every particular, is to be found 
in Blackivood' s Magazine for October 1888, 
entitled, "Aut Diabolus aut Nihil." The writer 
asserts that every statement may be proved by 
direct application to any of the persons con- 
cerned in his account, who were then all living. 
An apparition of Satan in his own proper person 
to a company of his avowed worshipers, is told 
in words that convey all the effect of having 
been inspired by an victual participation in this 



3G8 DEMON-POSSESSION 

unique Parisian siajice. The story may be 
fiction, but the impossibihty of the occurrence 
can not be successfully maintained. 

The fact that sects of acknowledged devil 
worshipers exist in India and other portions of 
the east has long been a matter of familiar his- 
tory and observation. That such a sect exists 
at this day in France, deliberately offering formal 
worship to the Prince of Darkness in his recog- 
nized character, and including highly intelligent 
persons among its votaries, is a report which has 
attained some notoriety quite recently. 

The pia:tices connected with this worship, the 
persons engaged in it, and the causes which 
have led to it, have been made the basis of a 
work of fiction now (1894) in its 9th edition, 
and first published in 1891. 

J. K Huysmans: L^ Bas. Pp. 441. 7)ix4>^. Tresse & 
Stock, Editeurs. Paris, 1891-4. 

A further account of these Luciferians may be 
found in the Paris correspondence of the Cour- 
rier des Etats Unis for April 30 1894 (N. Y.), 
and a condensed translation of the same letter 
in the Neiv York Sun for May 3,, 1894. 

INCIDENT. 

There are books valuable for their data that 
can not be strictly classed with any of the pre- 
ceding nor of the following departments named, 
although trenching upon all of them. They are 
chiefly books of incident, furnishing more or less 



FACTS y^ND LITERATURE OF THE OCCULT 3G0 

wsll accredited examples of the occult of every 
sort. It is true that in these books, as in all the 
literature of demonology and witchcraft, a good 
deal maybe found that may fairly be called rub- 
bish. It is true that certain stock stories con- 
tinually reappear, being passed around from 
writer to writer. But amid the mass of unau- 
thentic tales are many well attested, and no 
amount of lying or romancing invalidates good 
testimony in any single case where it is found. 
Moreover frequent repetitions, under similar 
conditions, of the same kind of phenomena often 
makes a degree of intrinsic probability in favor 
of the genuineness of reputed facts. A book 
of incident extremely popular at one time is this: 
Mrs. Catherine Crowe. The Night Side of Nature; or 
Ghosts and Ghost-Seers. London, 1848. (Reached in Eng- 
land its i6th thousand in 1854.) Am. ed. Pp. 451. J. S. Red- 
field. N. Y. 1850. 

Of this book the Athenczum said: "It shows 
that the whole doctrine of spirits is worthy of 
the most serious attention." The Boston Post: 
"It is not a catch-penny affair, but an intelli- 
gent inquiry into the asserted facts respecting 
ghosts and apparitions, and a psychological dis- 
cussion upon the reasonableness of a belief in 
their existence " The Boston Transcript : "In 
this remarkable book Miss [Mrs.] Crowe, who 
writes with the vigor and grace of a woman of 
strong sense and high cultivation, collects the 
most remarkable and best authenticated aq- 



370 DEMON-POSSESSION 

counts, traditional and recorded, of preternatural 
visitations and appearances." 

The title of the book is worthy of attention, 
for it describes the phenomena recorded as be- 
ing neither preternatural, supernatural or unnat- 
ural, but as belonging simply to the more deeply 
hidden part of nature. 

John Tregortha (possibly a pseudonym): News from the 
Invisible World, or Interesting Anecdotes of the Dead; In a 
number of Well Attested Facts, showing their Power and Influ- 
ence on the Affairs of Mankind. With Several Extracts and Orig- 
inal Pieces from the Writings of the best Authors. The whole 
designed to Prevent Infidelity, Show the state of Separate Spir- 
its, and Evince the Certainty of the World to Come. A new and 
Improved Edition. "There appeared Moses and Elias talking 
with him." Pp. 454, 9x534^ Manchester, J. Gleave, 1835. 

This book in its arrangement shows little lit- 
erary skill, and the attestation of its stories is 
quite insufficiently shown. But the internal 
evidence of historical probability is in many of 
them not lacking, and in some of them such as 
can only be refused by assuming the natural 
impossibility of the events. This assumption, so 
legitimate in its place, is made to serve all kinds 
of sophistry in the interest of any reigning pre- 
judice. Both morally and psychologically con- 
sidered, these tales form a rare collection, and 
are profoundly suggestive of thought. 

In 1852 Harper & Bros. (N. Y.) published 
the following: 

Chas. Wvllys Elliott: Mysteries or Glimpses of the Super- 
natural. Containicg Accounts of the Salem Witchciaft, the 



FACTS AND LITERATURE OF THE OCCULT 371 



Cock Lane Ghost, The Rochester Rappings; The Stratford 
Mysteries; Oracles, Astrology, Dreams, Demons, Ghosts, 
Spectres, etc. (The author writes only as a sceptic.) 

In the next division belong works by Andreiv 
Lang. 

MYTHOLOGY AND FOLK-LORE. 

The religious mythology of antiquity, and the 
folk-lore of existing races, contain important fea- 
tures, to whose meaning such phenomena as are 
reported in the present volume may furnish a true 
key. It is by no means a key to be hastily applied 
to all mythology, for this is made up of various 
factors and is a complicated thing. It may well 
be trueof many myths that they originate in the 
effort of unscientific minds to explain the ordinary 
phenomena of nature; that they are what John 
Fiske calls "the earliest recorded utterances of 
men concerning the visible phenomena of the 
world into which they were born." * 

There can be no doubt that the transforma- 
tions of myths are largely due to the accidents 
and vicissitudes of language. But mythology 
is not made up of poetic elements alone. Myths 
and legends, which are different things, have 
become inextricably blended. The imaginative 
and traditional elements are combined, and there 
are many reasons for believing that the more 
important traditions have some historical 
ground. The events that seem to arise from an 
occult agency, whatever that may be, are quite 
*See Myths and Mythmakers, Pp. i6, 21,47. 



372 DEMON-POSSESSION 



sufficient to account for many legends and be- 
liefs. 

It is the strong and growing tendency of mod- 
ern thought to regard all demonology asso much 
mythology. Many even of those Christian schol- 
ars, who still claim to accept the Biblical view 
of the world, shrink from committing themselves 
decidedly to Biblical demonology. To a great 
extent they practically ignore it, and often do 
not seem to know, in any thorough manner, 
what the Bible doctrine is. 

On the other hand good reasons have been 
given, and not yet shown to be invalid, for re- 
garding a great deal of mythology as only a per- 
version and expansion of the Biblical demonol- 
ogy. Not that it has been borrowed from the 
Bible, but from the same original fund of facts 
and teachings which the Bible writers used. 

The Persian Ahriman, the stories of Titans, 
heroes and demigods, and the views of spirits 
and demons always maintained in pagan lands, 
all have a closer accord with the Biblical state- 
ments than is commonly recognized. Even mis- 
sionaries who carry the Bible to the heathen 
sometimes fail to see how much it has in com- 
mon with the heathen views. 

In the Missionary Herald for Jan., 1894, p. 
6, a missionary in China is quoted as saying: 
"During this month more money will be spent 
in propitiating spirits that have no existence than 



FACTS AND LITERATURE CF THE OCCULT 373 

all the churches in the United States give in 
one year for foreign missions." 

Christians often think of the devil and his 
emissaries as safely shut up in hell. Whether 
the Bible hell be an existing, or still future, 
condition or place, man's world is regarded 
as the present sphere of Satan's operation, and 
as swarming with man's invisible foes. 

With this view the heathen everywhere 
readily agree. Of the truth of the statements 
made in Ephesians vi. 12, and supported by the 
entire Bible, the Chinese are vividly and over- 
whelmingly convinced, while the missionary 
sometimes is not. 

Perhaps there is no more able nor interesting 
popular exposition of mythology in accordance 
with the principles of philology, and the defini- 
tion given by Mr. Fiske, than his own book, 
which since its first appearance has passed 
through some seventeen editions. 

John Fiske: Myths and Myth Makers. Old Tales and Super- 
stitions Interpreted by Comparative Mythology. (Copyrighted 
first in 1872.) Pp. 251, i2mo. 

Max Miiller's interpretations of mythology, 
with some reservations and modifications, and 
supplemented by Tylor's view of animism, finds 
in Mr. Fiske at once an admirable expositor, 
disciple and critic. The theories elucidated in 
his book are unquestionably valid for much, but 
as surely not for all the matters to which they 
are applied. 



374 DEMON-POSSESSION 

Since the publication of this work, and of 
Tylors Primitive Culture, so largely quoted in 
another part of the present volume, there has 
appeared Herbert Spencer's Principles of Soci- 
ology, of which the first volume more partic- 
ularly deals with the same class of facts that is 
handled by Tylor. Mr. Spencer finds in spirit 
or ghost worship the beginning of all religion. 
To show that it may be the beginning of every 
polytheistic cult would be a much easier task. 

Under the present heading only three other 
works will be named. They are each written 
by men of rare ability and scholarship, though 
with very different convictions. Yet incidentally 
the books supplement and confirm each other 
in a remarkable degree. 

Francois Lenormant: The Beginnings of History. Ac- 
cording to the Bible and the Traditions of Oriental People, 
from the Creation of Man to the Deluge. Translated from 
the French edition, with an Introduction by Francis Brown, 
Prof, in Union Theological Seminary. N. Y., Chas. Scribner's 
Sons, 1882. 

The seventh chapter discusses the crux in- 
terpretuui of the first part of Genesis, the pas- 
sage regarding the sons of God and the daughters 
of men. On purely philological grounds Lenor- 
mant, who has no superior as a judge, con- 
cludes that, whatever the historical facts may 
have been, the text unquestionably asserts an 
intercourse of fallen angels with humanity, and 
the consequent production of a race of demigods 



FACIS A:W LUERAlURd OF THE OCCUir 3:5 

corresponding with the traditions of the G.esks 
and other peoples. 

He also claims in his favor "the great majority 
of modern exegetes, and specially of all those 
who evince the most profound philological 
knowledge of the Hebrew," (p. 318), together 
with the general agreement of the ancient rab- 
binical teachers, and of the Christian fathers 
for some centuries after Christ. He regards the 
story as a legend only, though as one divinely 
authorized to convey a moral lesson. For the 
common explanation of recent times he, and 
his many strong authorities, leave no exegetical 
standing room whatever, and hold it to 
be an accommodation to common prejudice. 
And so they leave no choice to those who 
stand by the historical validity of all the Bible 
narratives but to find a very different meaning 
in the passage from that conveyed by popular 
interpretations. 

Once viewed in this light, the bearing of this 
text upon mythology, and also upon still existing 
possibilities of demon activity, becomes appar- 
ent. The same view, together with the histor- 
ical character of the events, has been elabor- 
ately defended by various German writers, and 
also in an English work, whose combined merits 
of learning, logic, style and temper are far above 

commonplace. Its author is the 

R27 John Fleming, A B, Incumbent of Ventry and Kildium, 



376 D ^MON-PGSSESSION 

Diocese of Ardfert; Rural Dean; and Irish Society's Mission- 
ary. The book is called, The Fallen Angjls, and the Heroes 
of Mythology, the same with "The Sons of God" and the 
"Mighty Men" of the sixth chapter of the First Book of Moses: 
- - - Hodges, Foster & Figgis, Dublin. 1879. Pp. 216, 

This bold and surprising argument is main- 
tained with a degree of scholarship and cogency 
that few would anticipate finding. The books 
of Pember and Gall, named elsewhere, should 
be read with this, as being profoundly sugges- 
tive, even if somewhat fanciful in their conjec- 
tures. 

Another author, of a different sort, and popu- 
larly known, is Chas. Godfrey Leland, an Amer- 
ican, who is President of the British Gipsylore 
Society, and who in the subject of folk-lore is 
an authority unsurpassed. A new and elegantly 
illustrated work of unique research, by Mr. Le- 
land, is called, 

Etruscan Roman Remains in Popular Tradition. Pp. 385, 
11x8. C. Scribner's Sons, N. Y. 1892. 

This exhibits a form of spiritism or witchcraft, 
prevalent among the Italian peasantry, which 
the author identifies with the ancient paganism. 
The invocations, and other ceremonies and prac- 
tices have an immemorial antiquity, and the 
spirits retain the name of the classical divinities. 
It is a religion of magic that survives and per- 
sists under the perpetual interdict of the Roman 
church, and its relation to modern spiritism on 



FACTS AND LITERATURE Ob THE OCCULT 3:7 

the one hand and pagan mythology on the other 
is singularly marked It is so with the voodooism 
of semi-christianized negroes in America, and 
the obi practice of the blacks in Jamaica and 
Africa. They are all forms of spiritism, which 
in its last result becomes polytheism, accom- 
panied with acknowledged demon-worship, idol- 
atry, fetichism, and consecrated immorality. 

How and why this comes to pass the first 
chapter of the Epistle to the Romans offers to 
explain. 

Mr. Leland's book will serve as a connecting 
link between some others that, without it, would 
not seem to be nearly related. A reviewer in the 
New York Tribune, Jan. i6, 1893, says: "The 
Romagnan peasants use what they call the old 
religion for purposes of magic, and call those 
imaginary beings spirits whom their ancestors 
worshiped as gods." 

But how far these beings are imaginary is the 
question. 

It is certain that the apostle Paul held a some- 
what different view of them (i Cor. x. 19, 20). 
It is certain that the entire Bible supports and 
inculcates the view that spirits other than men 
in the flesh have access to men, and power over 
them. It is certain that a deep conviction of 
this as truth pervades the entire pagan mind of 
every race, and has done so from the beginnings 
of history to this day. This conviction has also 



378 DEMON-POSSESSION 



been shared by no small portion of those peoples 
among whom some form of Christianity has pre- 
vailed, nor was it ever lost until the sway be- 
gan of the modern sensualistic philosophy of 
Europe. The conviction has ever been fostered 
and maintained by occurrences of the occult or- 
der, extraordinary prodigies, and facts of divi- 
nation that seemed to have no other explanation. 

Epes Sargent quotes it as a common saying 
of the ancient Romans that if divination is a 
fact there are gods — "Si divinatio est dii sunt." 
This conviction lies at the base of every poly- 
theistic system, if indeed it be not the principal 
source of all such systems. The dreadful sense 
of dependence on the favor of these spirits re- 
sulting from this conviction makes spirit or ghost- 
worship the most universal and fundamental 
characteristic of pagan religions, and it may be 
the initial form under which they commonly 
exist. 

The close affinity of western spiritism with 
oriental polytheism is strikingly illustrated in 
the recent theosophical movement associated 
with Madame Blavatsky, Col. Olcott and Mrs. 
Annie Besant. The latter, a cultivated English 
lady, while traveling in India, has not hesitated 
to tell the Hindus that Krishna is her god and 
Hinduism her religion, to go barefoot through 
their temples and do obeisance to their idols. 

(See letter from India in The Congregation- 
alisty Boston^ April ip, 18^4, Pp. 556.) 



FACTS AND LITERATURE OF THE OCCULT 379 
BIOGRAPHY. 

Many things may be found in biography. Oc- 
cult incidents, and those closely like them, are 
scattered throughout its whole range. But es- 
pecially to be read in this connection are the 
lives and legends of the famous sorcerers and 
magicians of all time. 

Many a man reads one such book, and won- 
ders and doubts, and then thinks no more about 
it. But let any reader follow up this line, and 
learn all he can of many such careers, and then 
form his conclusions. 

Simon Magus, Apollonius of Tyanna, Jam- 

blichus. Merlin, Michael Scott, Cornelius Agrip- 

pa, Jerome Cardan, Nostradamus, Dr. Faustus, 

Dr. Dee, Cagliostro — however great charlatans 

these men may have been, however legendary 

the accounts of their lives, it must be borne in 

mind that little or nothing is told of them which 

cannot be paralleled and witnessed in our own 

day among Hindu fakirs and western mediums. 

The mediums Home and Eglington must be 

accounted for in the same vvay, or are quite as 

inexplicable, as any magician of ancient or me- 

diccval times. The lives of Mahomst and Swe- 

denborg should be studied, and such books as 

the following: 

Wm. Godwin: Lives of the Necromancers. 8vo. Chatto, 
London, 1876 
Arthur Edward Waite: Lives of the Alchemistical Philos- 



380 DEMON-POSSESSION 

ophers. - - - To which is added a Bibliography. Pp.315, 
demi 8vo. George Redway, London, 1888. 

Geo. C. Bartlett: The Salem Seer, (or) Reminiscences 
of Charles H. Foster. Pp. 157. sm. 8vo. U. S. Book Pub. 
Co., (copyrighted) 1891. 

In the case of this medium intelligent and 
correct responses in foreign languages of which 
he had no knowledge was one of the frequent 
features of his sittings. 

D. D. Home: Incidents in my Life. Pp. 288, 7^x5. Long- 
man, Green, Longman, Roberts & Green, London, 1863. 

In the case of Home levitation and sensible 
apparitions were often witnessed. 

Arthur Lillie: Modern Mystics and Modern Magic. Con- 
taining a Full Biography of Rev. Wm. Stainton Moses, To- 
gether with sketches of Swedenborg, Boehme, Madame Guyon, 
the lUuminati, the Kabbalists, the Theosophists, the French 
Spiritists, the Society of Psychical Research, etc. Swan, Sonnen- 
schein& Co., London; Chas. Scribner's Sons, N. Y. 1894. 

TRAVEL. 

After biography booksof travel may be profit- 
ably searched for cognate data. Lane's Modern 
Egypt and Buyer s NortJiern India are two of 
many containing such information. Many of 
these have been written by missionaries regard- 
ing the countries of their labor. Of such works 
Tylor, Spencer and Sir John Lubbock have 
made large use, more particularly in collecting 
the facts of savage life. 

PATHOLOGY AND PSYCHOLOGY. 

These are hard to separate in the prosecution 



f-yiCrS AND LITERATURE OF THE OCCULT 3S1 

of this theme. Psycho-physics, medical psy- 
chology, mental pathology are names that show 
the blending of these departments in which are 
treated the phenomena of possession, trance, 
clairvoyance, hypnosis, animal magnetism, tel- 
epathy, illusion, hallucination, and the outward 
sounds and signs that accompany these. 

It may be that with the exception of possession 
not one of these phenomena is necessarily to 
be ranked with the occult. They exhibit static 
and dynamic conditions and possibilities of the 
human being which are incidentally involved 
with occult phenomena, but may also be quite as 
independent of them as ordinary somnambulism, 
sleep and dreams. Yet there are dreams which 
do connect themselves with the occult, and all 
of these phenomena may also be incidentally 
involved in supernatural action, using the word 
in that sense in which in this chapter it has been 
defined. 

Explanations physical, psychical and com- 
bined are broached by many physicians and 
psychologists, who do not long remain in agree- 
ment, but are frequently shifting their ground. 
The confusion of possession with epilepsy and 
insanity brings the literature of these subjects 
within this circle of research. 

The materialistic trend of modern psychol- 
ogy is by no means shared by all the strongest 
thinkers in this field, though men like Ribot pay 



352 DEMOM-POSSESSION 



much more attenticin to these matters than 
writers of a purely spiritual school, and the 
metaphysicians. Among formal and extended 
treatises upon psychology perhaps no other 
gives so much space to them as that by Dr. 
Wm. Jaiiies^ which is largely quoted in this 
volume. 

'BooksMke Sir Heujy Holland' s diud Dr. Chas. 
Elaui s Physiciaji's Problems, may already be 
considered a little old, although immensely inter- 
esting still. But most recent books are in a 
state of rapid change, and fast grow obsolete. 
Only three others will be mentioned. 

Daniel Hack Tuke: Illustration of the Influence of the 
Mind upon the Body in Health and Disease, Designed to Elu- 
cidate the Action of the Imagination. 2d. Am. from 2d. Eng. 
ed. Henry C. Lea. Philadelphia, 1884. 

Franklin Johnson, D. D. The New Psychic Studies, in 
their Relation to Christian Thought. Funk & Wagnalls. N. 
Y., 1887. 

Thomas J. Hudson: The Law of Psychic Phenomena. A 
Working Hypothesis for the Systematic Study of Hypnotism, 
Spiritism, Mental Therapeutics. Pp. 409. A. C. McClurg & 
Co., Chicago, 1893. 

This last is a disappointing book of large prom- 
ise and small fulfillment. In the way of new facts 
it contributes almost nothing. In the way of 
explanation it is likely to seem most plausible 
to those who are least acquainted with the char- 
acter and range of facts which have to be ex- 
plained. It is likely to be highly commended 
by those reviewers who have only a confused 



FACTS AND LITERATURE OF THE OCCULT 383 

notion of these facts, and are ready to grasp at 
any theory, especially if it relieves them from 
serious consideration of spirit agency in all por- 
tions of these phenomena. The merits and short- 
comings of the book are sufficiently indicated by 
IV. T. Stead in "Borderland," July, 1893, p. 78; 
and by Dr. Richard Hodgson in the Proceedings 
of the S. P. R , June, 1893, p. 230. 

FICTION. 

Many useful studies of the occult have ap- 
peared in works of fiction, and the number is 
constantly increasing. This is a straw on the tide. 
Both the supernatural and the occult are im- 
portant features in the romances of Hawthorne 
and Scott, 

The widely known story by Robert Louis 
Stevenson called "The Strange Case of Dr. Jekyll 
and Mr. Hyde" vividly illustrates some features 
of the subject of possession, and may be profit- 
ably compared with such facts as are shown in 
the present volume. Among other books the 
following may be mentioned as exhibiting vari- 
ous aspects of the occult. 

W. D. Howells: "The Unknown Country." 

David Christie Murray and Henry Hernion: 
"One Traveller Returns." 

F. Marion Crazvford: "The Witch of 
Prague;" "Khaled." 

W. Meinhold: "The Amber Witch." 



884 DEMON-POSSESSION 

Mrs. Margaret B. Peeke: "Born of Flame." 
Katherine P. Woods : "From Dusk to Dawn." 
Franklyn W. Lee: "Two Men and a Girl." 
Anna C. Rcifsneider : "Ruby Gladstone, or 
A Return to Earth." 

The Salem witchcraft has newly attracted at- 
tention owing to the two hundredth anniversary 
of its occurrence. Some years ago it wa 5 treated 
by Longfellozv in his New England Tragedies. 
Recently it has been handled by Miss Mary E. 
Wilkins in dramatic form, in Giles Corey, Yeo- 
man, A Play. Harper Bros., 1893. During 
1893 at least three different novels were first 
published having this same theme. 

JoJin R. Music: The Witch of Salem, or 

Credulity Run Mad. Funk & Wagnalls, N. Y. 

Constance Goddard DnBois: Martha Corey, 

A Tale of Salem Witchcraft. A. C. McClurg, 

Chicago. 

Augusta Campbell Watson: Dorothy the 
Puritan. E. P, Dutton & Co., N. Y. 

JOURNALISM. 

Finally, the journalism devoted to the occult 
has in a short time grown to enormous propor- 
tions. The number of periodicals published in 
Europe and America as the organs of spiritism, 
theosophy and the many forms of magic would 
greatly surprise those readers who have not had 
their attention especially drawn to the matter, 
and this number keeps continually growing. 



FACTS AND LITERATURE OF THE OCCULT 3b5 

There are also the journals of societies organ- 
ized for the scientific investigation of the occult, 
and of the peculiar mental phenomena, which, 
although associated with it, are by no means 
to be inseparably identified with it. 

The British Society for Psychical Research 
issue their Proceedings several times a year, 
and a monthly journal for private circulation 
among its members. The American Psychical 
Society began to publish its quarterly magazine 
in 1892. And now the most conspicuous of liv- 
ing journalists, the editor of the Review of Re- 
views, Wm. T. Stead, has entered upon the 
publication of a large popular magazine devoted 
to all branches of this subject. 

Borderland is at present issued quarterly. 
It may attain to such a circulation as to require 
a more frequent issue. It is crowded with mat- 
ter that will cast a spell upon multitudes of 
readers. 

Every number has a long catalogue of the 
current articles and books within the range of 
its discussions, showing a most rapid and extra- 
ordinary growth of general interest in these 
things. The variety of strange phenomena and 
practices displayed in its pages would immeas- 
urably astonish many intelligent people, who 
yet are not prepared to learn that all the mys- 
teries of pagan temples, Babylonian, Greek and 
Roman, Chinese and Hindu, are now being 



380 DEMON-POSSESSION 

searched and practised on every hand in the 
cities of so-called Christian lands. 

The editor proposes that in the interests of 
truth his readers shall everywhere form circles 
2,n6. stances, io make their knowledge as full and 
experimental as may be; while a correspond- 
ent offers property for the establishment of a 
college in which experts may be trained, like the 
neophytes in the colleges of priests connected 
with the temples of antiquity. 

Already in circles of wealth and rank the oc- 
cult is followed as a fad, while the signs and 
advertisements of trance-mediums and fortune- 
tellers are so many in our modern streets and 
papers that Boston and Paris may yet outdo 
old Ephesus and Antioch and Rome in their 
cultivation of what was once known as Black 
Art. 

It is certain that the interests of truth and 
morals call for a proper understanding of these 
phenomena and practices. A search-light should 
be thrown upon them of the highest power, that 
no more doubt may remain as to what they are 
in their real character and whence they emanate, 
On every side, and daily, old and young are be- 
ing swept off of their feet by a mad curiosity to 
experience these wonders the reports of w^hich 
are being so widely spread. The nations that 
for three hundred years have lived in the face 
of an open Bible have for the most part only 



F^CTS AND LITERATURE OF THE OCCULT 387 



known these things as sporadic, and infrequent 
and much circumscribed events. But in pagan 
Africa and Asia they are an every-day affair, 
frequent and frightful in proportion to the dark- 
ness and degradation of any people. Now in 
Europe and America may be beheld a rising flood 
of the same tide by which the orient has for ages 
been submerged. 

Those who ignore it now cannot ignore it 
long. For good or evil it must be recognized 
and understood. But that which all history 
shows to be obviously fraught with danger to 
truth and morals needs not to be practised in 
order to be adequately known. It must be suffi- 
ciently observed to have its character defined 
and its danger advertised. But the tree of the 
knowledge of good and evil still bears fruit which 
allures full many to destruction. 

CONCLUSION. 

The one fact of demon possession so unmis- 
takably exhibited in this volume as an experience 
of our own age, if this be granted, is a fact in 
the natural history of man which has far-reaching 
implications. It is one that concerns the wel- 
fare of us all. At once we see what power 
among men these hostile beings are able to exert, 
and what they may be likely in far more subtle 
and less obvious ways to do. 

For it can not be supposed that they would 



58S DEMON-POSSESSION 



always betray or parade their inimical purpose 
by an overt act. They are much more likely 
to approach their victims in disguise, and for 
one person who is made aware of their presence 
and intentions countless others may be subject 
to their insidious influence and unobserved ap- 
proach. 

The further fact of telepathy, or the direct 
conveyance of thought from mind to mind with- 
out any operation of bodily sense, has been put 
beyond all question by the labors of the society 
for Psychical Research. Let him who laughs 
at this read Gurney's book (Phantasms of the 
Living), and he will laugh no more. 

This also is a fact in natural history of mani- 
fold importance. In his first book and public 
manifesto issued in 1835, called Nature, Ralph 
Waldo Emerson well said that "the use of natural 
history is to give us aid in supernatural history." 
For the universe is a unit, and a marvelous 
and purposed correspondence runs through its 
successive planes of being, from the lowest to 
the highest. To the human mind, in the ascent 
of its activities, each lower plane becomes an 
object-lesson, and furnishes the symbols and 
the language by which to apprehend what lies 
beyond. 

Possession and telepathy^ these two ac- 
quired facts in the history of nature and man, 
have a value beyond estimate in the effort to ac- 



FACTS AND LITERATURE GF THE OCCULT 3S0 

count for some relations between man and God. 
All of the various functions sustained to the 
human spirit by the Spirit of God are described 
by the New Testament writers as the effect of 
an inworking or energizing act of God. By 
this one method of action God divides sever- 
ally, as he will, to men manifold gifts and 
graces, (i Cor. xii.) By this contact and en- 
ergy of the Holy Spirit in the spirit of man 
God communicates with man in all degrees; im- 
presses, influences, draws, guides, regenerates, 
or imparts of his own nature, sanctifies, or sep- 
arates man from sin, makes him sensible of the 
divine presence, love and will, attracts and con- 
trols his heart, empowers his will, reveals Christ, 
explicitly instructs, abundantly illuminates, or 
plenarily inspires, just as he sees fit. Much more 
is attributed in the Bible to this invisible action 
of "God, who worketh all things in all men," 
(I Cor, xii. 6) and who maintains the throbbing 
life of all nature by the ceaseless influx of his 
power. (Ps, civ, 30.) But all of these offices 
are sustained to man through an inworking of 
the Spirit, an act whose general name is energy, 
while the act by which man voluntarily conveys 
his thought to the mind of God is principally 
known as prayer. This is the telepathy be- 
tween man and God which makes all true re- 
ligion possible. 

There is also a telepathy between man and 



390 DEMON-POSSESSION 

man, and it may be between man and other 
spirits, which would open up many possibilities. 
The very same term used to describe the opera- 
tion of the Holy Spirit is applied by the New 
Testament to "the spirit that now worketh in 
the children of disobedience." (Eph. ii. 2.) 
The now burning question of divine inspiration, 
and the manner in which either divine grace, or 
temptations to sin, may be communicated to the 
mind of man, find in this subject of telepathy 
much illustration, and in Gurney's book a strong 
side light which makes it one of the most profit- 
able that can be read. 

Again, as the spirit of man may fall under 
the complete possession and control of an evil 
spirit, who enters in and dwells in man, using 
directly his organs as well as his mind, even so 
may a man come under the complete possession 
of the Spirit of God, who desires this control 
for man's own good, and jealously resents the 
intrusion of an alien. (Jas, iv. 4,5.) Yet in 
assuming it he does no violence to the human 
personality, but exalts it to the highest degree 
of freedom and strength. 

This is the New Testament doctrine as to a 
man's becoming filled with the Holy Ghost, a 
condition which is held out as the duty and 
privilege of all believers, and to be attained by 
a free and entire submission to God's will, with 
believing prayer, and acceptance of-his promises. 



FACTS AND LITERATURE OF THE OCCULT 391 

While there may be all degrees of this attain- 
ment, the apostle Paul prayed that the Ephe- 
sians "might be filled up unto all the fullness of 
God. . . . according to the power that 
worketh in us," (Eph. iii. 19, 20.) All men are 
invited to this intimate fellowship with their 
Maker, the Father of spirits (Heb. xii. 9), and 
all are exposed to the approach of wicked spir- 
its, whose influence also is of all degrees. An 
adequate resistance to this approach is to be 
found in the Christian faith alone. Whoever is 
without this, or who fails to vigilantly act upon 
it, becomes a ready prey. So in this faith is 
also found the only adequate means of linking 
the human spirit to the Divine, and of promot- 
ing and perfecting their communion. 

This is the Bible view, which ancient and 
modern experience abundantly and equally con- 
firms. But now as formerly "Sadducees say 
that there is no resurrection, neither angel nor 
spirit;but Pharisees confess both." (Acts xxiii. 8, ) 
Of all books that report upon this boundary 
land of human life the Bible is most credible, 
if for no other than this reason, that it so per- 
fectly preserves the moral proportions and rela- 
tions of the facts which it describes. 

The Bible describes many interviews of men 
with angels, and it nowhere indicates that such 
communications should permanently cease. But 
an angel who spoke with John called himself "a 



393 DEMON-POSSESSION 

fellow servant ... of those who keep the 
sayings of this book." (Rev. xxii. 8, 9.) The 
self styled angels who in our day appear to 
men, and seek to establish with them a rap- 
port, are commonly such as set aside "the sayings 
of this book," or accommodate them to the pre- 
dilections of human nature unrenewed. 

The Bible permits men to address themselves 
to angels or spirits good or bad, who, unsought, 
have appeared to them and spoken; but it abso- 
lutely interdicts all efforts on the part of men 
to seek communication with the dead, and evi- 
dently requires that men who wish to approach 
the spirit-world shall address themselves to God 
only. Otherwise they cannot fail to invite the 
guile of lying spirits who would gladly divert the 
interest of men from its proper object to them- 
selves. For if by any means such spirits could 
entice men from the worship and service of God, 
and from confidence in his well accredited word, 
we may suppose that they would wish to do it, 
and would show themselves proficient in the 
art. 

The Bible requires that the messages of spirits 
shall be tried (i John iv. 1-3), and evidently 
tried by "the sayings of this book," and the testi- 
mony of Jesus Christ. 

In this nineteenth century and Jin dii Steele 
many consummations of history may be observed. 
If at this time some should depart from the 



FyiCTS AND LITERATUREOF THE OCCULT 393 

Christian faith by giving heed to seducing spirits, 
and doctrines of demons, who with their cau- 
terized consciences speak lies in hypocrisy with- 
in the hearing of men, it would be only what 
the Spirit of God long since expressly said should 
come to pass; while the servants of God were 
admonished to keep the brethren in remem- 
brance of these things, (i Tim. iv. i, 2.) 

The man through whom this prediction was 
conveyed elsewhere wrote that "even Satan 
transformeth himself into an angel of light. It 
is no great thing, then, if his ministers also 
transform themselves as ministers of right- 
eousness. "(2 Cor. xi. 14, 15.) And again he 
wrote: "Though we, or an angel from heaven, 
preach any other gospel unto you than that 
which we have preached unto you, let him be 
accursed." (Gal. i, 8.) 

The world makes light of the testimony of 
Christ and his apostles. But there are still 
those in it who, however doubtful of all others, 
believe there is one expert in these things who 
can be wholly trusted. All other testimony, and 
all other spirits, they will prove by their de- 
gree of conformity with his who is "the Faith- 
ful Witness, the First Begotten of the Dead, 
and the Ruler of the Kings of the earth." (Rev. 
i. 5.) His verdict and his views, so far as they 
can be known, are still, with many minds, a 



S94 DEMON-POSSESSION 

valid and supreme criterion by which to "prove 
all things, hold fast that which is good, (and) 
abstain from every form of evil." (i Thes. v. 

21, 22.)* 

Far more than poet's fiction to these minds 
is that magnificent piece of English writing, 
Marlow's Faus^us, almost three centuries old, 
and yet so pertinent to our own day. Its elo- 
quent lesson they would lay to heart, fleeing 
from all unnecessary commerce with those 

"Unlawful things, 
Whose deepness doth entice such forward wits 
To practice more than heavenly power permits." 

♦ It will be observed that the texts quoted from the Bible in this chapter 
do not always follow the King James version, but also the Westminster, 
Dean Alford's, and other approved translations. 



APPENDIX I. 

MORE CHINESE INSTANCES. 



(a) 

BXPEEIENeEg OF CHINESE CHRISTIANS IN PINGTU 
AND CHU-MAO. 

In the year 1874 we were not a little perplexed by 
occurrences in connection with the Christians in Ping- 
tu and Chu-Mao, in which a native preacher, Liching- 
pu, was the principal actor. Reports of these occurren- 
ces came to me from several independent and trust- 
worthy eye witnesses; I have obtained from them 
separate accounts which are mutually confirmatory. 
The various witnesses will appear in the narrative. 
I have taken down the story cliiefly from tlie lips of 
Liehung-pu, and it is as follows: 

"In the spi'ing of 1874 I went to a 'hwei'* east 
of Len-ko to preach. I saw there a company of 
twenty or thirty women who came to worsliip 
at the temple of Lai shan shing mu,t the most of 
whom I personally knew. While there a relative of 
mine pointed to a woman standing by, belonging 
to the Sie family, and said : 'That woman suffers 
fearfully from a demon wliich gives Iier no rest; 
and in obedience to whose command she has come 
here to worship.' The woman hearing the remark 
hung her head in shame. I addressed the group of 

* A market, or large gathering of people for the purpose of trade 
and idolatrous worship. These large gatherings are held annually, or 
semi-annually, generally in connection with a temple, and continued 
for several days. 

t "Holy Mother of the Great Mountain." The name of the goddess 
of the sacred mountain, Tai Shan, situated in the western part of thp 
province of Shantung. 

395 



396 DEMON-POSSESSION 

women, assuring them that they need not fear evil 
spirits, as such spirits can not harm any one who 
believes in God and Jesus Christ. 

"On hearing this another woman, Mrs. Ku from 
a place six Li* (two miles) distant addressed me 
as follows: 'Do you say that there is no reason 
for fearing spirits, I am a hiang-to\ of twenty year'.s 
standing, and am in communication with three spir- 
its. I have at home a beautiful picture of Kwan- 
yin (the goddess of mercy) . If my spirits are afraid 
of you and your doctrines I will have nothing more 
to do with them, and will give my painting of 
Kwan-yin to you and become a Christian myself. If 
you like to come to my house we will see whether 
my spirits are afraid of you or not.' I could not 
decline this challenge, and an arrangement was made 
that I should visit her that same afternoon. I went 
accompanied by a Christian Liu Chung-ho$ to the 
house of a relative of mine who lives in Mrs. Ku's 
village. In this family are two (^'hristians, and there 
was also stopping there at the time a pupil from the 
girls' boarding school at Teng Chow-fu. After con- 
versing with these persons for awhile Mrs. Ku en- 
tered. She said that of her three 'familiars,' she 
would summon the one which was the most pow- 
erful, and who manifested herself in the character 
of a girl named Tse-hwa. I then told the crowd 
that I had been challenged to meet this woman 
to see whether her spirits were afraid of the 
true God or not; that we would now pray 
to God; and if they did not wish to engage in 
this act of worship they might withdraw. Appar- 

* A Li is a Chinese mile, which is about a third of an English mile 

tA medium. Literally a leader of incense burners. 

$ Jhe same person refered to in a previous narrative. See p. 13. 



APPENDIX I. (a) 397 



antly from fear they all left. I read a chapter 
of the Bible and prayed. Mrs. Ku then burned in- 
cense, and prayed to the demon Tse-hwa. In a few 
moments Mrs. Ku sank down on her kang*, her 
frame rigid, her hands clenched and cold, and her 
lips and face purple. A few moments later she sat 
up again. Looking around her she saw her child 
standing by, and without any provocation struck 
her a severe blow. I said to the spirit, 'The relig- 
ion of Jesus Christ which has now been brought to 
this village is opposed to you and all your ways. 
You are an enemy of the truth and a disturber of 
man's peace, and as Christ's religion has come here 
and must prevail you must leave.' The reply was 
'I know that wherever the Christian religion is there 
is no place left for me. I know too that this re- 
ligion is good and true, and if my hiang-to wishes 
to become a Christian I must leave her.' After a 
considerable conversation all of this same tenor the 
demon said, 'I will go.' Mrs. Ku then returned to 
consciousness with the air of one disappointed and 
frightened, and soon after took her leave saying, 
'I must certainly suffer for this.' 

"From this place I went to the village where Mrs 
Sie lives. Her husband received me very kindlj', say- 
ing, however, that his wife during the intervals of 
her attacks appeared as other people, and at this 
time she was quite well. But it happened that a 
few moments later a child came running in saying, 
'Mrs. Sie has another seizure, and is under the in- 
fluence of the demon.' I went immediately in to 
the part of the dwelling where she was. When she 
heard us coming she rolled herself up in a mat 
on her kang where she kept up an incessant laugh- 
ing and tittering. I said to her: 'What is your 

* A bed made of earth and brick very common in North China. 



35)8 DEMON-POSSESSION 

name?' She replied: 'I will not tell you. Tse-hwa 
gave you her name and you have sent her away. 
She has just been here to tell me of it. There are 
eight of us, and I am employed in finding a place 
for the rest.' After prayer a conversation followed 
similar to the one described in the visit to Mrs. Ku 
and with a like result. The woman on returning 
to consciousness rose from the ^ang and entertained 
her guests with much politeness. Pointing to a re- 
cess in the wall covered by a curtain, where was 
an image and an incense urn, she told us that 
the demon exacted worship of her three times a day 
before that shrine. I tore away the curtain, removed 
the articles used in worship, and exhorted Mrs. Sie 
never again to believe in or fear these beings, but 
to trust only in Christ. It being almost dark I left 
promising to come back the next day, and then re- 
turned to the village of Mrs. Ku the medium. 

"The next morning Mrs. Ku came iu with one cheek 
swollen and red. The 'familiar' Tse-hwa (so she 
said) had beaten her the previous evening and up- 
braided her as follows: 'Why do you requite me 
thus? After helping you these twenty years to make 
money and get a living, why do you call in these 
Christians who would drive me away?" while Mrs. 
Ku was thus speaking her appearance changed an'l 
she seemed to be under the influence of the demon 
again. I then addressed the demon as follows: 'After 
having promised yesterday that you would leave, 
why have you come back again?' The answer was 
'I have something to say. If my hiang-to wishes to 
be a Christian I cannot prevent it, and in that case 
I will never visit her again. But I will tell you some- 
thing about her. She is a bad woman ; if she en- 
ters your religion you will have to look after her 
carefully. I advise you to have nothing to do with 



/tPPENDIX I. (a) 399 



her.' Liching-pu continues 'Mrs. Ku after recover- 
ing consciousness asked what Tse-hwa liad said. I 
informed her, and begged her to sever at once her 
connection with evil spirits, and be a disciple of 
Christ. I have since heard that after our intervie w 
the villagers, unwilling that the spirit Tse-hwa should 
leave them, because they were in the habit of con- 
sulting her through Mrs. Ku for healing their dis- 
eases, besought Mrs. Ku to pay homage to the de- 
mon and induce her to remain, which she did. I have 
met Mrs. Ku several times since, but she always 
hangs her head and turns away from me, and will 
not speak to me. 

"Early the same forenoon agreeably to my promise 
I started out to visit Mrs. Sie again. When I had 
gone half way to the village I met an old woman 
who begged me to hurry on saying: 'The demon 
has taken possession of Mrs. Sie, and she is to-day 
very violent. She attacks everyone who comes near 
her, and none of the family or the villagers dare 
enter her room. She is breaking utensils, scattering 
about the grain, and threatens to kill anyone who 
dares come to call you.' I said, 'How then did you 
dare to come?' She replied: 'I am more than sixty 
years old, I care little for life, and I determined that 
I would come.' I found Mrs. Sie's husband outside 
of the house with the rest, none daring to go in 
where his wife was. She had bolted the door of 
her room, but when she heard me outside she un- 
bolted it, and ran into another room, and rolled 
herself up in a mat as she had done the day before, 
saying: 'I am not afraid, I am not afraid.' After 
we had prayed the demon said : 'I will go as I 
promised yesterday, but I have first a few words 
to say,' Then addressing a certain member of the 
family it said: 'I must be revenged on you. Yea 



400 DEMON-POSSESSION 

have brandished swords at me. and fired fire-crack- 
ers before me, thinking to frighten me and drive 
me away. If it were not for the restraint I am 
under I would tear you to pieces.' I commanded 
the demon to leave Mrs. Sie and never to return, 
and thereupon Mrs. Sie was restored to conscious- 
ness, and spoke to us in a most pathetic way of 
herself. At this time she was reduced to a mere 
skeleton, and was so weak that she could hardly 
speak, though when in her abnormal state she had 
almost superhuman strength. She told us that she 
had not eaten food for three days. I urged her to 
trust wholly in Christ, and told her that if she 
did so she need not fear for the future. As far as 
I have been able to learn she has not been troubled 
since, and is, as she was before sh'^ was pos'^essed 
of the demon, a strong, well woman. She is not a 
professing Christian." 



APPENDIX. I. 

(b) 

EXPERIENCE OF MRS. LIU. 

Mrs. Liu, a widow about 65 years of age, lives 
in the market town. Shin tsai, about 230 miles 
west of Chefoo. She belongs to a respectable and 
what was formerly a "well-to-do" family. Twenty 
years ago her husband fell into the very common 
vice of gambling, and, to escape from his creditors 
went to Manchuria whei'e he probably died, as he 
has not since been heard from. Mrs. Liu was left 
in reduced circumstances with a large family to 
support. When she became a Christian thirteen years 
ago she was entirely illiterate. She can now read 
the Bible and other Christian books with ease, and 
is a very apt and earnest teacher of others. Chief- 
ly through her influence more tlian a score of her 
friends and neighbors, mostly women, have become 
Christians. The religious ser\ices of the little church 
in Shin tsai have been held in her house from the 
first. Indeed she was the founder and continues to 
be the chief support of this church. I have hardly 
known a woman in China who has more fully il- 
lustrated Christianity in her life, or one who has 
exerted greater influence for good. She has never been 
in the employ of the Mission, and her labors for 
Christ, which have been abundant, have also been 
spontaneous and gratuitous. Her meekness and firm- 
ness under trials and persecutions, and her many 
^cts of kindness to others have, for several years 

401 



402 DEMON-POSSESSION 

past, disarmed prejudice and opposition, and gained 
for her a "good report of them which are with- 
out." 

My attention was first called to the narrative 
which follows by persons living at some distance 
from Mrs. Liu's home. I afterwards gathered the 
particulars from lier, and they are given below in 
her own words. The account is confirmed in every 
point by the sons of Mrs. Liu, who have fi-equently 
visited the Chang family referred to, and by Mrs. 
Fung, who occupies so prominent a place in the 
narrative as Mrs. Liu's companion, and by Mrs. 
Fung's husband, who generally accompanied the two 
women on their excursions. 

"In the village of Chang-Chwang Tien-ts, lives a 
Mr. Chang, about fifty-seven years of age. who is 
a literary graduate of some wealth. His home is 
six miles from Shin-tsai. His family is related to 
ours by marriage, and 1 have been for years fa- 
miliarly acquainted with the members of it, 

"In 1883 this family was afflicted by a demon or 
demons. It appears ( or they appeared) as ])()ssess- 
ing different women of the family, and occasionally 
two at the same time. It demanded that worsliip 
should be paid to it, that a special shrine should 
be erected to it in the house; and public ser- 
vices performed in the temple; and that its com- 
mands in general should be implicitly obeyed. The 
women at first complied, and spent a considerable 
amount of money in paying homage to it. When 
these proceedings came to the knowledge of Mr. 
Chang, the head of the family, he felt indignant, 
and determined to oppose the whole thing, order- 
ing the women to disregard and defy the spirit. 
The spirit then took possession of one of the women 
ajid repeated its demands. Mr. Chang refused. The 



APPENDIX 1. (b) 403 



spirit threatened revenge and commenced executing 
it immediately by attempting to burn the house; 
by stealing and wasting the substance of the family, 
and by making trouble generally. Food, clothing, 
and valuables were stolen from the house in the 
most mysterious way, even when they were secured 
by lock and key; furniture .and dishes shook and 
rattled without any perceptible cause; and three 
women in the family were, at different times, pos- 
sessed. Fires broke out without apparent cause, and, 
on one occasion, destroyed a number of buildings. 

"In the summer of 1883 Mrs. Chang, having heard 
that the Christian religion gives to its adherents 
immunity from the inflictions of evil spirits, came 
to Shin tsai to see and consult with me. She re- 
lated to me her trouble, and said that she had 
come to seek help, through me, from the God I 
worship. She arrived at my house physically weak 
and emaciated, reporting that the demon had not 
allowed her to e^,t anything for a long time; — that 
when her food was prepared and brought to her, be- 
fore she could take it, she was seized with an ir- 
repressible aversion to it and obliged to turn away 
from it: After staying a few days with me Mrs. 
Chang's health was restored. She requested me to 
go home with her, but as this was impracticable 
at the time, Mrs. Fung, ( another Christian ) went 
in my stead, and remained with the Chang family 
some days. She exhorted the women to wor- 
ship the true God, and trust in Christ as their Sa- 
viour, and taught them also, elementary and easily 
understood truths of Christianity. In a short time 
comparative quiet was restored in the family, and 
Mrs. Fung returned home. 

"Before many days had passed a messenger came 
to me from the Chang family, informing me that 



404 DEMOhl-POSSESSlO!^ 

their troubles had increased, and begging me to come 
to their help. They told me that two women in 
the family had been possessed by demons for sev- 
eral days, and were still in a state of unconscious- 
ness. Mrs. Fung and I returned with the messenger. 
Arriving about noon, we found all in great confu- 
sion. Buckets and jars of water were set in differ- 
ent places about the house to put out fire whenever 
it might appear on the thatched roof, and men were 
constantly on the watch, i^repared with water and 
step-ladders for mounting the house if necessary. 
They informed us that fire frequently broke out 
where it was least expected. We were first sliown 
to the room of Mrs. Chang's eldest daughter-in-law, 
a person of about foi'ty years of age. She was un- 
der the influence of the demon and demanded wine, 
which she drank in large quantities, though ordi- 
narily she would not touch it. Followed by some 
servants and attendants we entered the apartment 
where she was lying, and stood observing and talk- 
ing about her for a time, she the meanwhile reclin- 
ing on the bed, tossing her arms, and staring wildly 
and unnaturally. We then requested most of those 
present to withdraw, so as to leave the place as 
quiet as possible, that we might read the Script- 
ures and pray, The demon seemed aware of our 
purpose and turning to us said : 'You profess to be 
Christians do you? And you read the book from 
Heaven, and think you are going to Heaven your- 
selves ; and you have come here from Shin tsai to 
cast me out ; you need not flatter yourself with any 
such expectation. I have been here thirty years and 
I am not cast out so easily.' We replied: 'We have 
no strength to cast you out, but we have come 
to do it in the name and by the, power of Jesus.' 
The demon replied: 'I acknowledge the power of 



/tPPENDlX 1. (b) 403 



Jesus but I am not afraid of you. You have not 
faith enougli to cast me out. You liave not faith 
as mucli as a mustard seed.' We replied : "We came 
trusting in Clirist. and in his name we will cast 
you out.' The possessed person replied by a con- 
temptuous smile followed by a fit of weeping-. We 
then proceeded to hold a religious service. We first 
sang the hymn 'The judgment day will surely come,' 
and read the 10th chapter of Matthew. Then each 
of us in succession prayed, after which we sang. 
When we had finished the service the woman was 
lying perfectly quiet, apparently unconscious or asleep. 

"We then went to the apartment where the other 
woman was lying. She is a widow, When under the 
influence of the demon she was constantly watched 
by her only daughter, as she had a fixed propen- 
sity to commit suicide by jumping into a well 
or pond, or by hanging herself. We held a similar 
service with this woman, and left her in a state of 
insensibility. 

"As we were leaving the room of the second wo- 
man, the one first visited came to find us, greeted 
us very cordially, and said she had just awakened 
from a long sleep, and had heard from others of 
our arrival, and all that had followed. Her man- 
ner was perfectly natural ; she was her old self again. 
She had no idea whatever of what happened dur- 
ing the abnormal state from which she had recov- 
ered. 

"About this time, just before dark an extraordi- 
nary commotion occurred among the fowls, which 
rushed and flew about in great consternation with- 
out any apparent cause, the family and servants 
having difficulty in quieting them, and restraining 
them from nmning away. After awhile they cow- 
ered up in the corner of the yard in a state of 



406 DEMON-POSSESSION 



fright. The swine also belonging to the family, more 
than a dozen in number, occupying a large pen or 
walled inclosure near by, were put into a singular 
state of agitation rushing about the inclosure, run- 
ning over each other and trying to scramble up the 
walls. The swine would not eat, and this state of 
disquiet continued until they were exhausted. These 
manifestations naturally excited a gi'eat deal of in- 
terest and remark, and were accounted for by the 
supposition that the demons had taken possession the 
fowls and swine.* ' 

"The next morning the second woman also made 
her appearance. She seemed perfectly well and nat- 
ural. We remained in the Chang family several days 
instructing the women in the truths of Christianity, 
I have visited them frequently since at their request. 
The women have made very encouraging progress 
in the knowledge of Christianity. Five in the family re- 
gard themselves as Christians, are continuing the 
study of the Scripture, and meet for a religious ser- 
vice on Sunday, even when we are not with them." 
So ends Mrs. Liu's narrative. 

This state of things has continued for nearly six 
years. No foreigner has visited the place as yet, and it 
is not thought expedient to do so. Mr. Chang, the 
head of the family, gives his free consent to the 
women to study the Bible, worship the true God, 
and trust in Christ as their Savior, and reads Chris- 
tian books himself, and expresses his belief that 
Christianity is true; but is not willing that the 
women in his family shall, at present, make a pub- 
lic profession of their faith. The manifestations which 
drove them to Christianity for relief have entirely 
disappeared. 

* See Mark v, 12, 13. 



APPENDIX I. 

(c) 

A CASE OF SUPPOSED POSSESSION IN SA-WO. 

A case of supposed possession which occurred in 
Sa-wo in June 1882, was, for the time, the one sub- 
ject of interest and conversation in that neiglibor- 
hood, and there is hardly a person in the village 
who is not familiar with all the details of it.. A 
Christian from Sa-wo , who was an eye-witness to 
many of the incidents of the case, gave me a mi- 
nute account of it. During the year 1887 I had an 
opportunity of a long conversation with the Chris- 
tian, Chu wen yuen, who was the principal actor 
in the affair. The following account was obtained 
from him, and written out as given in his verbal 
narrative. It differs from others only in having more 
minuteness of detail. His narrative is as follows: 

"In the village of Sa-wo, there is a woman of the 
family Chu, who has two sons Wen-heng, and Wen- 
fa. The mother obtained a wife for Wen-fa from the 
family Li, and while she was very young took her 
into their own family to bring her up. The girl was 
harshly treated by her future mother-in-law, and 
drowned herself. Some years after another daugh- 
ter-in-law was secured from a family named Yang, 
and it was agreed that she should remain in her 
own home until the time for her marriage. A few 
days before the marriage she was taken ill with 
what seemed to be possession by an evil spirit. 

On the night of the wedding and after the wedding 
407 



408 DEMON-POSSESSION 

ceremony, when most of the guests had left the 
house, the bridal pair were conducted to their 
apartments , and left to drink wine together, as is 
the custom with us hi our neighborhood. At this 
time the bride, changing to an unnatural appear- 
ance, and with the voice and manner of the de- 
ceased daughter-in-law Li, and a strength almost 
superhuman flew upon the unfortunate bride-groom 
in a fury of passion, and seized him by the throat, 
exclaiming, 'You never treated me in this fashion ; 
you never gave me wine to drink. My life in this 
family was a very wretched one.' Wen-fa cried out 
for help, and other members af his family ran to his 
assistance, and with difficulty extricated him from 
the relentless grasp of the young woman who seemed 
transformed into a fiend. 

"Afterthisthe wife of the elder brother Wen-heng was 
similarly affected. In the transition into this abnor- 
mal state she was at first rigid and insensible, and 
then she would regain consciousness and laugh, and 
cry, and talk, always assuming, like her sister-in-law, 
the voice and manner of the deceased sister-in-law Li, 
recounting the bitter trials which had driven her to 
commit suicide. 

"Her husband AVen-heng, came to me, and begged 
me to go and cast out the demon in the name of 
Christ. I could not well refuse. My l)rothers, (I have 
five brothers, none of them Christians) remonstrated. 
They said : 'Why should you meddle with such mat- 
ters and disgrace yourself and us? The whole thing is 
disreputable ; besides you will certainly fail and make 
yourself ridiculous.' I said: '1 cannot fail for the 
promise of Christ is sure.' One of them replied : 'If you 
succeed in casting out this spirit we will all be Christ- 
ians. 

"I arrived at the house in company with several 



APPENDIX I. (c) 409 



other Clu'istians, about the middle of the afternoon. 
A large crowd had collected to see the result of the 
matter, most of them entirely out of sympathy with 
us, and openly expressing their opinion that we 
should fail. I addressed the spirit in this language. 
'You have no right to come here to trouble this fami- 
ly, and we have come to insist on your leaving.' 
The reply was: 'I willleave, I will leave,' but it did not 
leave. We then knelt down and invoked God's help, 
and when we arose from our knees botli women seem- 
ed perfectly well and normal. The people generally 
were favorably impressed, others said that it was 
certainly a very happy coincidence, and still others 
that the women woiild probably have recovered just 
the same if we had not been called. Wen-fa said: 
'This spirit-business is all a delusion, You women are 
a weak set specially given to this sort of thing. Let 
the spirits take possession of tne and I will believe in 
them.' The crowd then dispersed. Wen-fa went to his 
own room, and the other Christians returned home. 
T stayed sometime to converse with those who had 
not dispersed. In a few minutes Wen-heng came run- 
ning in to inform us that Wen-fa was really possess- 
ed of a demon, and had entirely lost consciousness. 
He urged me to go to him and cast the demon out. 
I declined on the ground that I was alone, the other 
Christians having gone to their homes, or their fields, 
and besides, Wen-fa was an unbeliever and opposer, 
and if we should succeed in casting out the demon it 
would probably return. After I went home Weng- 
heng came to me again urging me to go home with 
him, as he and the other members of the family be- 
lieved in the power of Christ, and he had no resource 
but to come to me. I told him to return home and 
if Wen-fa should be very bad in the evening to come 
again, and I would try to gather a Jew Christians 
and go back with him. 



410 DEMON-POSSESSION 

"After (lark, and just after several of us Christians 
had had prayers in the chapel, Wen-heng appeared, 
saying that his brother was very violent, and it re- 
quired several men to hold him. We were told that 
a great crowd had gathered at the house, and that 
they ^had interrogated the demon, and had long con- 
versations with it. Among others these questions 
and answers were reported, 'Who are you? 'I am a 
friend of Wen-fa and have come to see him.' Where 
do you come from?' 'My home is south-west of 
here,' 'It seems that you are a friend of W^en-fa, 
how do you like these Christians? Are they your 
friends, too?' 'No, they are far from being my 
friends,' 'We propose to send for them to drive you 
out.' 'I am not afraid of them.' Wen-fa's mother 
asked : "Why do you not take possession of me in- 
stead of Wen-fa?' The rei)ly was: 'Oh, every one 
has his affinities and preferences; we do as we 
please |in this matter.' 

"Arriving at the house we made our way through 
the crowd into the inner court with difficulty. To our 
distress we found the two women apparently again 
possessed and they and AVen-fa were all together 
in the same abnormal state. Wen-fa was more vio- 
lently affected than the others and I directed my at- 
tention particularly to him. When I entered he seemed 
very restless and imeasy. He said to me : ' Why do 
you trouble yourself to come here to see me? I do not 
need your services. ' I replied : ' Other friends have 
come, why should I not come also.' He said he wished 
to leave the house for awhile, and I requested those 
who were restraining him to release him, and he tried 
to run through the crowd. His brother followed him 
and with the help of several others brought him back. 
We then engaged in pra,yer, invoking theprei?enee and 
power ol Christ to cast out the evil spirit. During 



APPENDIX I. (c) 41 1 



prayer he was rolling and tossing himself about on 
the kang (earth-bed), his mother removing everything 
from the kang for fear he vvould injure himself. When 
we rose from prayer all the persons affected seemed 
perfectly restored, and in their natural state. The vil- 
lagers present asked Wen-fa a great many questions 
to satisfy themselves that he was quite himself again. 
It was evident to all that when he came under the in- 
fluence of this spell he was not himself, and when re- 
stored he had no recollection of anything he had said 
or done. A large proportion of the villagers were now 
won to our side. There was still, however, a company 
of unbelievers and opposers, one of the most promi- 
nent of whom was the employer of Wen-fa, a man who 
kept a tanfang, an establishment for beating and clean- 
ing cotton. The Chu family was delighted with hav- 
ing found a waj"^ in which they could rid themselves of 
their unseen and unwelcome visitors. They urged me 
to remain after the other villagers had returned. 
While they were preparing food, (as most of thefamily 
had hardly eaten anything for the last twenty -four 
hours), they asked me a great many questions about 
Christianity. They said they all wanted to learn, and 
requested me to come in any time I could and teach 
them. I remained there teaching them the Lord's 
prayer until a late hour. Wen-fa did uot oppose his wife 
and the rest of the family in their wish to learn the new 
doctrine, but he evidently had no heart in the matter. 
"The next day Wen-fa went to the Tan-fang to work, 
and there was natui"ally a great deal of conversation 
about what had happened the night before, most of 
the workmen having been at Wen-fa's house. They 
said : ' You stay here among us, no demons will dare 
to come here.' (It is believed that an influence ema- 
nates from the bodies of strong men in active exercise 
which resists and drives away evil spirits.) There 



412 DEMON-POSSESSION 

was one pfrso]! i)r('seut who was favorably disposed 
to Christianity, who demurred to their speaking- so 
lightly of the subject, and being so self-confident. A 
warm discussion arose in which Christianity was de- 
nounced. Before this controversy was closed Wen-fa 
fell down in a fit. He was perfectly rigid and breath- 
less, apparently dead. His companions at once ran 
for guns and swords, especially an executioner's sword 
which spirits are supposed to be particularly afraid 
of, and shouted and brandished their weapons to in- 
timidate the demon, but all without effect. Wen-fa 
still remained ghastly and insensible. Fearing that 
he would die on the premises the head of the establish- 
ment ordered his men to carry him out. About this 
time his muscles relaxed and he became limp, though 
still motionless and insensible. When they reached 
the street a great crowd gathered, which was soon 
joined by Wen-fa's mother. Some one I'aised the cry, 
'take him to the chapel.' His mother and others cor- 
dially assented, and the men who carried him directed 
their steps that way. As they turned from the main 
road to enter the chapel Wen-fa commenced resisting, 
and it required the men in charge to use their utmost 
strength to prevent him from breaking away from 
them. By dint of great effort they dragged him into 
the chapel. Arriving there he fell down apparently 
exhausted and insensible. He soon got up, however, 
perfectly himself again, and asked, ' What are you all 
here for? What are you about? What does this 
mean? ' He had no idea of what had happened. 

"After this all ,the villagers, including Wen-fa, ac- 
knowledged the power of Christianity to cast out evil 
spirits. They said if this had only happened once we 
might have thought it a mere coincidence, but the con- 
nection of Christianity with these cures was too evi- 
dent to be doubted. To this day all the villagers take 



.■1PPHNDIX I. 413 

this view of the matter. Wen-heng, his mother, wife, 
and sister-in-law all commenced studying Christian 
books, and seemed very much interested, and made 
remarkable progress. The new year, however, came 
on in the course of a few weeks with its many idola- 
trous ceremonies and offerings. They agreed together 
to do away with the usual ceremonies, and pass the 
new year as Christians, but a wealthy and influential 
uncle opposed and over-ruled them. Having yielded 
to his commands to pass the new year in accordance 
with Chinese customs, they gradually gave up the 
study of Christianity, and have had but little intei'- 
course with us since. They, however, seem very kindly 
disposed to us, and grateful for what we did for them. 
They have had no further trouble from evil spirits. 
Cases of this kind were very frequent in our village 
some years ago, but since the introduction of Christian- 
ity we hardly ever hear of them." 



APPENDIX I. 

(d) 

CASE OF A SLAVE GIRL. 

In the south-eastern part of the district of En-Chiu, 
in the village of Yang-kiatswen, lives a man of the 
family Niu, who had an experience supposed to be at- 
tributable to an evil spirit. The case is familiarly- 
known and often referred to by the villagers in that 
neighberhood. Several Christians living from two to 
four miles distant from Yang-kiatswen, are well ac- 
quainted with the story which they related to me. It 
is as follows : 

"Some years since Mr. Niu was very much troubled 
by spiritual manifestations in his family. Strange 
noises and rappings were frequently heard about the 
house. The buildings were also set on fire in different 
places in some mysterious way. Everything went 
wrong. These misfortunes were supposed to be caused 
by a demon, which at times took possession of a fe- 
male slave in the family. Mr. Niu made every possible 
effort to get rid of the demon but without success. 

*' A Christian visited him about this time and urged 
him to become a Christian in order to be free from the 
inflictions of demons. He found him, however, very 
reticent and timid. He talked as if he thought some 
one was overhearing him, and ready to call him to ac- 
count for what he said. A short time afterwards he 
was visited by another Christian whom he frankly 
told that he did not care to get rid of the demon, in 
fact that he had made peace with it by worshiping it, 
414 



APPENDIX I. (d) 415 



and giving it a recognized place and authority in the 
family. It had taken permanent possession of the fe- 
male slave. It was consulted and its advice followed 
in all domestic and business matters, and now every- 
thing went on prosperously. This female slave after- 
wards gained a great reputation for telling fortunes 
through the aid of her familiar spirit, and her fortune- 
telling was the means of making a great deal money 
for her master. She was consulted by people from far 
and near. Before the man Chu became a Christian he 
himself consulted her with regard to his child who 
was ill."* 



• Compare Acts xvi, 16-18. 



APPENDIX I. 

(e) 

CASE IN EASTERN EN-CHIU. 

In the year 1883 a boy eighteen years of age, named 
Liu Yao-kwe, from the village Tung en-tai, in eastern 
En Chiu, was received as a pupil in the High School 
at Teng-Chowfu, when in the following year he was 
taken ill of fever and died. The new^s of his death to- 
gether Avith an account of his good deportinent in 
school, the high esteem in which he was held by his 
teachers, the sympathetic care he had received during 
his illness, and the evidences he gave that he was a 
true Christian, were sent to his mother who was then 
interested in Christianity but not a church member. 
She was comforted by this in her great grief, and con- 
tinued her preparation for baptism with increased in- 
terest and assiduity. About two months afterwards 
(as is reported and believed by the family and the 
neighbors), her two daughters-in-law were possessed 
by a demon, and this demon professed to be the spirit 
of the deceased boy. It gave the mother a harrowing 
account of what the boy had suffered from the hands 
of his foreign teachers, and assured her that he had 
died from starvation and ill-treatment. The mother 
believed the story, gave up Christianity and hated for- 
eigners with a bitter hatred, supposing them respon- 
sible for the death of her favorite son. The father of 
the boy was not deceived, as his wife had been, and 
applied to Christians in the village to come and cast 
out the evil spirit from his two daughters-in-law. 
416 



APPENDIX I. (e) 417 



They declined, however, on account of the unbelief and 
opposition on the part of the other members of the 
family. When we last heard from them this same 
state of things continued. Tliis affair has had a great 
deal to do with checicing and almost putting a stop 
to the progress of Christianity in that village. 



APPENDIX I. 

(f) 

A CASE IN SOUTHERN SHIU KWANG. 

In the spring of 18S3 or 1884, a girl of fifteen of the 
family Chang, living in the village of Chang kiachwang 
in Southern 8hiu Kwang, was supposed to be pos- 
sessed by an evil spirit. While thus affected and hav- 
ing lost entirely her consciousness, she went to another 
village where lived her future mother-in-law of the 
Sen family, going directly to the door without a guide, 
though she had never been there before, and could not 
have known the way. A young girl going to the 
house of her future mother-in-law is entirely contrary 
to Chinese etiquette, and the last thing a betrothed 
girl in her sane mind could be induced to do. Her 
future father-in-law and mother-in-law were averse to 
receiving her, but were almost obliged to do so in or- 
der to civoid scandal. They were sure by her appear- 
ance that she was possessed by an evil spirit, and ap- 
plied to two Christians, Changho-yi and Chaoyu-yieh, 
living in the same village, to come and cast it out. 
It was from them that I heard the story. When they 
went with Mr. Sen to try to cast out the demon it 
boldly defied them, saying, "I will not go. I once 
found a home in a family named Mu which spent 
60,000 cash (about $50.), in their attempt to drive me 
away, but without avail ; and do you think you can 
cast me out ?" While the two Christians were offering 
a prayer for help the girl came to herself at once and 
immediately returned to her own home as anxious to 
be there as they were to have her. 

418 



APPENDIX I. 

(g) 

EXPERIENCES OF CHU CHING. 

Chiu clii-Cliiug is a prominent and highly esteemed 
native Christian living in eastern En Chiu. He was 
the first convert in that region, and the stations in 
that vicinity, now numbering seven, owe their exist- 
ence mainly to his influence and labors. In cases of 
supposed possession by evil spirits, he was the person 
generally applied to in that neighborhood for assist- 
ance. He has given me at length his views and exper- 
iences, but there is in the main so little to distinguish 
them from each other, and from those that have alrea dy 
been narrated, that there is no occasion to record them. 
He states that he undertook this business with great 
reluctance, but feeling that he could notconcientiously 
decline it. He says that he has never failed in a single 
case, and the effects of his labors in this direction have 
been helpful to him in his evangelistic work. One case 
that greatly tried his faith and courage I give below 
as narrated by him, and in his own words, 

"I was applied to one day by a man of a very re- 
spectable family to go to see his mother who was pos- 
sessed by a demon which they could not by any means 
rid themselves of. When possessed she insisted on be- 
ing provided with wine and meat which she took in 
inordinate quantities, though in her normal condition 
she never took wine at all. I went to the place in com- 
pany with a few other Christians. Arrived at the 
bouse, we found a large number of relations and 
419 



420 DEMON-POSSESSION 

neighbors assembled, and the woman wild and un- 
manageable, and several strong men with difficulty 
kept her under control. It was with fear and tremb- 
ling that I commenced the work before me. When I 
addressed the demon demanding that it should leave, 
the woman flew at me like a fury, exclaiming, ' Who 
are you?' I knelt down in prayer, the sweat stream- 
ing from every pore, and oppressed Avith an awful 
sense of personal weakness and responsibility. The 
woman was at once restored, and with unaffected sur- 
prise and chagrin apologized for the condition in 
which her visitors had found her and her house. She 
was convinced of the truth and importance of Christ- 
ianity and commenced studying Christian books, but 
was afterwards restrained from continuing their study 
by the influence of the male members of the family. 
Her malady did not return." 



APPENDIX I. 

(h) 

THE CASE OF A FAMILY IN EN CHIU. 

In the year 1885 in visiting the mission station in Kin- 
tswen in south-eastern En Chiu, a family consisting- of 
a man and his wife and five children, together asked 
for admission to the church. This is the story as 
given by the eldest son vrho acted as spokesman for 
the family. It was concurred in by the Christians in 
the village and neighborhood. 

"For several months my mother was sorely afflicted 
by an evil spirit. The attacks were frequent and vio- 
lent. She pined away until she was a mere skeleton. 
You see how thin and pale she is now, but she is well 
compared to what she was, and is constantly grow- 
ing stronger. We applied to the Christians here to 
cast out the demon, which they did, but it as often re- 
turned. Then we following our Christian neighbors' 
advice determined as a family to believe on and trust 
in Christ. These attacks are now less and less fre- 
quent. Whenever they come on some one of us kneels 
down and prays to Jesus, and my mother is at once 
restored. Some days since she had an attack when 
no one was in the house except my little sister, (point- 
ing to a little girl present about five years old), who 
immediately knelt down and commenced 'Our Father 
who art in Heaven, hallowed be thy name,' etc., wheji 
my mother darted towards her as if she would tear 
her to pieces, saying, 'You little wretch,' but she fell 
•^21 



422 DEMON-POSSESSION 

down insensible before she got to her; and very soon 
rose up well." 

The members of the family have since been baptized 
by Rev. Mr. Laughlin, of Wei Hein. 



APPENDIX I. 

(i) 

EXTBACTS FROM A LETTER FROM MR. SHI OF SHAN-SI. 

The following are extracts from a letter received 
April, 1888, from Mr. Shi, a prominent Christian now 
connected with the China Inland Mission, whose home 
is in the province of Shan-si. Mr. Shi is a literary 
graduate of private means, well known and much re- 
spected in the part of the province where he resides. 
A few years since he fell in with missionaries and em- 
braced Christianity. He is an earnest student of the 
Scriptures and a Christian of an unusually pronounced 
and aggressive type. 

Having heard of his remarkable success in found- 
ing opium refuges on a plan devised by himself, and 
also in healing diseases by prayer, and in dealing with 
cases of supposed demon-possession, I wrote to him 
asking for information on this subject. The letter 
from which the following extracts are taken was his 
reply. 

In the introduction of his letter he gives an inter- 
esting account of his conversion. He continues: "I 
had not at first the courage to confess Christ before 
others. But soon after this new experience I destroyed 
all the idols in my house, fitted up a room for Chris- 
tian worship, had family prayers every day with my 
mother and my wife, and public worship every seventh 
day. One day my wife was very suddenly possessed 
by a demon. Assuming a violent and threatening 
manner, she attacked me. endeavoring to stop the 
423 



424 DEMON-POSSESSION 

worship. At first I was put to my wit's end and knew 
not what to do. Suddenly I bethought myself of the 
words of Scripture in which our Lord gave to his dis- 
ciples power to heal diseases and cast out devils, and 
in Christ's name, and with the laying on of my hands, 
I commanded the demon to depart. My wife awoke 
as from a sleep, and was immediately well, and joined 
us in worshiping aud praising God for his goodness. 
The faith of all my family was much strengthened.' 

Then followed a detailed account of several cases of 
casting out demons very similar to those which are 
to be found in previous chapters of this book. The 
two closing cases with the conclusion of the letter will 
give a good idea of its general contents. 

"In the village of Hu-tsai, less than a mile from my 
own home, lives a relative of mine named Han Yang- 
lin A servant of his Hieh Pei-Chwang believed and 
received baptism. Suddenly his young son was pos- 
sessed by a demon, writhed in agony, foamed at the 
mouth and with a loud cry fell down insensible. The 
family were in great consternation. T was not at 
home at the time, but my wife hearing of the event, 
after prayer for help and guidance, went to the house 
and in the name of Christ prayed, with the laying on 
of hands. The child awoke perfectly well. Afterwards 
Han Yang-lin's own little boy was seized by a demon, 
and afflicted in the same manner. His mother immedi- 
ately got into her cart with the boy in her arms, and 
came to my house to ask my wife to pray over him. 
My wife first exhorted her to believe in Christ and 
then prayed for the child when it immediately recov- 
ered. (Compare Mark ix, 17-29.) 

"During the eighth month of the present year a 
man named Heo Tai-ts, living in the village of Hu-kia, 
was possessed by a demon which came and went. 
When it left him he was extremely weak owing in part 



APPENDIX I. (i) 425 

probably to the fact that he was an opium-smoker. 
When the demon possessed him tlie strength of three 
or four men was not sufficient to control him. His 
mother applied to ' Wu-po ' (exeorcist) to expel the 
demon, but it answered them in a loud voice, 'I am not 
afraid of you. I am only afraid of the one great God.' 
Their village was only about a mile from the village 
of Keo-si where lives a Christian named Liang Tao- 
yuen. He hearing of the matter exhorted Heo Tai-ts 
to believe in God and pray for succor. When he had 
recovei'ed he started to go to my house. On the way 
while he was passing the home of Liang Tao-yuen, the 
demon took possession of him again in a most violent 
manner, and called on several members of his family 
to take hiui back to his home. Liang Tao-yuen fol- 
lowed him, and spent the night in praying oA'er him. 
He was restored to his normal consciousness. The 
folloAving day Liang Tao-yuen assisted him to mount 
a donkey to come to my house. I was absent in the 
city of Ho Cliiu. My wife was at home, and exhorted 
him to depend on God rather than man, saying our 
Christian teachers cannot be always present with us, 
but our Lord is. A Christian, JenSan-yiu, Avent with 
him to his house and cai?t away his idols, and his 
mother and wife joined in prayer for his recovery. 

"When Heo Tai-ts was at my house, the demon 
came and insisted on his returning home, but my 
wife prayed for him, in the name of the Lord, and 
the demon left him. She urged Jen San-yiu to pi'ay 
with him, with laying on of hands and fasting, so 
that the demon would not dare to return any more. 
He soon recovered entirely, and also broke off the 
opium habit. He changed his name from Tai-ts, to 
Su-sing, (restored to life) in attestation of the Lord's 
having given him bark to life again. The disciples 
brought to Christ from the region south-east of us 



426 DEMON-POSSESSION 

have come from this beginning. Five families were 
freed from the opium habit, cured of their diseases, 
cast away their idols, and gave themselves to the Lord. 

"Numerous cases of this kind need not be repeated 
in detail ; they are certainly unmistakable evidences of 
the power of Christ. Believers ought not to be distin- 
guished as ancient and modern. At the present time the 
power to cast out demons and heal diseases, whether 
in China or other lands, is only from Christ. With- 
out Him we can do nothing. When our Lord wishes to 
advance and hasten his kingdom, break down the power 
of Satan, and bring deliverance to his elect from their 
sins. He first makes one of those who believe on Him 
to give hearing to deaf ears, to open blind eyes, so 
that dwellers in cities and villages all may know that 
the worship of idols is an offense to the Most High, 
not only of no profit, but a snare and curse, and 
tiiat only those who believe and trust in Christ, and 
look to Him for redemption, shall enjoy everlasting 
happiness and peace, both of body and mind. 

"I well know that all we can do is only Christ's 
power manifesting itself through us, as his instru- 
ments, to the glory of our Heavenly Father. When 
you thank God for his grace and mercy I beg you not 
to attribute anything to us. We desire with the four 
and twenty elders of Revelation to cast our crowns 
before the throne and say : To our Lord alone belongs 
all honor and glory.* I close with respectful salu- 
tations, praying that Christ may ever be with you, 
completing through you whatever work He has 

assigned to you. 

Your Brother, 

Shi. " 
* Rev. iv. 10, II. 



APPENDIX II. 

OTHER TESTIMONIES. 



(0 
Austin Phelps, D. D. on Modern Demonism. 

"If the Biblical demonology is 2, fact in the divine organiza- 
tion of the universe, and if demoniac craft is a fact in the 
divinely permitted economy of probation, what else would 
seem more natural than these marvels over which science 
despairs? What else is the demoniac world more likely to be 
engaged in? If it may be that sin, matured and aged, tends to 
reduce the grade of guilty intellect, what else is more probable 
than these frivolities and platitudes which make up much of 
the spiritualistic revelations? On the other hand, what else 
than the marvels bordering on miracle, which this modern 
theory offers to gaping curiosity, are more likely to be 'signs 
and wonders' which in the last times are, if possible, todeceive 
God's elect?"* My Portfolio; pp. ijo. 

(2) 
Dr. "Wm Ashmore and Archdeacon Moule on Chinese 
Spiritism. 

To the testimonies from China may be added some state- 
ments made by two more of the most widely experienced mis- 
sionaries in thatcountry. Thefirst istheRev. Dr. William Ash- 
more, who says as follows: 

"I have no doubt that the Chinese hold direct communica- 
tions with the spirits of another world. They never pretend 
that they are the spirits of departed friends. They get them- 
selves into a certain state and seek to be possessed by these 
spirits. I have seen them in certain conditions invite ih^ 

*M[att. xxiv. 24. 



428 DEMON-POSSESSION 



spirits to come and inhabit them, Theii eyes become frenzied, 
their features distorted, and they pour out speeches which are 
supposed to be utterances of the spirits." 

Quoted in "Ancieut Heathenisvi and Modern Spiritualism." 

By H, L. Hastings. Boston, iSgo. pp. 211. 

The second witness is the Ven. Arthur E. Moule, t>. D., 
Archdeacon in Mid-China. After thirty years of residence in 
that country he says: "From my own personal observations I 
am inclined to believe that amidst a great preponderance of 
deliberate imposture, for the sake of g^in, there is as much 
positive intercourse with the darker regions of the nether 
world as that professed or possessed by the Jewish witches of 
old." See p. 231 of his 'New China and Old. London, Seeley 
& Co., iSgi." 

(3) See p. 285. 
Mr. G. H. Pember and Charlotte Elizabeth on the De- 
moniac and the Medium as described in the Bible. 

"An ohh is a soothsaying demon, but by an earlier use the 
word is also applied to the person connected with such a 
demon. Originally it signified a skin bottle,and its transition 
from this first meaning to its second may be clearly detected 
in the following exclamation of Elihn: 'Fori am full of mat- 
ter, the spirit within me constraineth me. Behold, my belly is 
as wine which hath no vent; it is ready to burst like new bot- 
tles. ' Job xxxii. 18, ig. 

"The word appears, then, to have beenusedof those into whom 
an unclean spirit had entered, because demons, when about to 
deliver oracular responses, caused the bodies of the possessed 
to grow tumid and inflated. We may perhaps compare Virgil's 
description of the soothsaying sibyl [Aen vi. 48-jl), for he 
tells us that her breast began to swell with frenzy, and her 
stature appeared to increase, as the spirit, or the god, drew 
nearer. 

"According to some, however, the medium was called an obh 
merely as being the vessel or sheath of the spirit; but in either 
case the term was afterward applied to the demon itself. That 



APPENDIX 4-?9 



the spirit actually dwells within the person who divines by it 
we may see from a previously quoted passage of Leviticus, the 
literal rendering of which is 'A man or a woman when a demon 
is in them,' etc. {Lev. xx. 27.) And in strict accordance with 
this is the account of the Philippian damsel, who had a 
Pythonic spirit. For Paul compelled the spirit to come out of 
her, and she instantly lost all her supernatural power. From 
the stories of mediaeval witches, and from what we hear of 
modern mediums, it seems likely that a connection with an ol>'i 
is frequently, if not always, the result of a compact, whereby 
the spirit, in return for its services, enjoys the use of the me- 
dium's body. 

"Indeed there is reason to believe that a medium differs from 
a demoniac, in the ordinary use of the term, merely because in 
the one case a covenant exists between the demon and the pos- 
sessed; whereas the frightful duality and confusion in the other 
arises from the refusal of the human spirit to yield a passive 
submission, and acquiesce in a league with the intruder." Pp. 
260-1. Revell's ed. of Eartli's Earliest Ages. By Rev. G. H. 
Pember, M. A. 

"Against the sin of witchcraft, the acquirement of power or 
knowledge by means of Satanic communications, the law was 
very strict. " {Leviticus xx. sj. ) 

"By this we see that Satan had contrived to obtain a footing 
among God's peculiar people, that he had seduced them into 
holding intercourse with his subordinates, for the purpose of 
sharing such supernatural gifts as he could impart." 

'The case of those possessed with devils is represented as 
being nearly always one of great suffering. The exceptions 
seem to be those instances where the infernal inmate was a 
welcome confederate, for the sake of such supernatural powers 
as he could confer." (As the Pythian damsel, Simon Magus, 
Elymas the Sorcerer, and others.) Pp. 49, 64-5, of Princi- 
palities and Powers. By Charlotte Elizabeth. Am. ed.,N. Y- 
1842. 



430 DEMON-POSSESSION 

(4) See p. 99. 

Virgil's Cumaean Sibyl. 

" 'Now to the mouth they come,' aloud she cries, 

'This is the time, enquire your destinies. 

He comes — behold the god!' Thus while she said, 

(And shivering at the sacred entry, staid) 

Her color changed, her face was not the same, 

Her hair stood up, convulsive rage possessed 

Her trembling limbs, and heaved her laboring breast. 

Greater than human kind she seemed to look. 

And with an accent more than mortal spoke; 

Her staring eyes with sparkling fury roll. 

When all the god came rushing on her soul. 

Swiftly she turned, and foaming as she spoke, 

'Why this delay?' she cried, 'the powers invoke; 

Thy prayers alone can open this abode. 

Else vain are my demands, and dumb the god.' 

* * * » 
"Struggling in vain, impatient of her load, 

And laboring underneath the ponderous god. 
The more she strove to shake him from her breast, 
With more and far superior force he pressed, 
Commands his entrance, and, without control, 
Usurps her organs and inspires her soul. 

* * -X- » 

"Thus from the dark recess the Sibyl spoke, 
And the resisting air the thunder broke, 
The cave rebellowed and the temple shook; 
The ambiguous god who ruled her laboring breast 
In these mysterious words his mind expressed, 
Some truths revealed, in terms involved the rest. 
At length her fury fell; her foaming ceased. 
And, ebbing in her soul, the god decreased.'" 
From the AL^ieid, Bk. VI., beginning with line 67 of Dryden's 
Translation. 



APPENDIX 431 



(5) 
William James, M. D., Professor, formerly of Physiology, 
and now of- Psychology, at Harvard University, on the 
Medium Trance. 

"We believe in all sorts of laws of nature which we cannot 
ourselves understand, merely because men whom we admire 
and trust vouch for them. 

"If Messrs. Helmholtz, Huxley, Pasteur and Edison were 
simultaneously to announce themselves as converts to clairvoy- 
ance, thought transference, and ghosts, who can doubt that 
there would be a popular stampede in that direction? We 
should have as great a slus-h of 'telepathy,' in the scientific 
press as we now have of 'suggestion' in the medical press. We 
should hasten to invoke mystical explanations without winking 
and fear to be identified with a by-gone regime'xi we held back. 
In society we should eagerly let it be known that we had always 
thought there was a basis of truth in haunted houses, and had, 
as far back as we could remember, had faith in demoniacal 
possession , 

"Now, it is certain that if the cat ever does jump this way the 
cautious methods of the S. P. R. (Society for Psychical Re- 
search) will give it a position of extraordinary influence. 

"Now, the present writer (not wholly insensible to the ill 
consequences of putting himself on record as a false prophet) 
must candidly express his own suspicion that sooner or later 
the cat must jump this way. 

"The special means of his conversion have been the trances of 
the medium whose case in the 'Proceedings' was alluded to 
above. 

"Knowing these trances at first hand, he cannot escape the 
conclusion that in them the medium's knowledge of facts in- 
creases enormously, and in a manner impossible of explana- 
tion by any principles of which our existing science takes ac- 
count. Facts are facts, and the larger includes the less; so 
these trances doubtless make me the more lenient to the other 
facts recorded in the 'Proceedings.' 



432 DEMON-POSSESSION 

"I find myself also suspecting that the thought-transference 
experiments, the veridical hallucinations, the crystal vision, 
yea, even the ghosts, are sorts of things which with the years 
will tend to establish themselves. All of us live more or less on 
some inclined plane of credulity. The plane tips one way in 
one man, another way in another; and may he whose plane 
tips in no way be the first to cast a stone! 

"But whether the other things establish themselves more and 
more, or grow less and less probable, the trances I speak of 
have broken down for my own mind the limits of the admitted 
order of nature. Science, so far as science denies such ex- 
ceptional facts, lies prostrate in the dust for me; and the most 
urgent intellectual need which I feel at present is that science 
be built up again in a form in which such facts shall have a 
positive place. 

"Science, like life, feeds on its own decay. New facts burst 
old rules; then newly divined conceptious bind old and new to- 
gether in a reconciling law Mr. 

Myers seeks to interpret mediumistic experiences and ghostly 
apparitions as so many effects of the impact upon the sublim- 
inal consciousness of causes 'behind the veil.' The effects, 
psychologically speaking, are hallucinations; yet so far as they 
are 'veridical' they must be held probably to have an 'objec- 
tive' cause. What that objective cause may be Mr. Myers does 
not decide; yet from the context of many of the hallucinations 
it would seem to be an intelligence other than that of the me- 
dium's or seer's ordinary self, and the interesting question is: 
Is it what I have called the extra-conscious intelligence of per 
sons still living, or is it the intelligence of persons who have 
themselves passed behind the veil? Only the most scrupulous 
examination of the 'veridical' effects themselves can decide." 

From The Forum for August, 1892. 

(G) 
Rev. H. R. Haweison the Persistence of Occult Phenom- 
ena. 

' Face to face v/ith certain alleged phenomena of an unintel- 



yiPPENDIX 433 



ligible character, repeated experience has at last placed one 
conclusion beyond dispute, viz., that it is unsafe to denounce 
what it may be difficult to examine, but still more risky not to 
examine what we propose to denounce. But it is a busy 
world, and you may fairly ask: 'Why should I attend to 
ghosts, or for the matter of that, any of those bogey phe- 
nomena, which I am told on excellent authority can be ac- 
counted for by fraud, credulity, hallucination, or misunder- 
standing?' I will answer that question first, 

"We must attend to occult phenomena (were there no other 
reason) because of their obstinate persistency. That is Her- 
bert Spencer's test of reality. The broad backs of those much 
belabored but patient beasts of burden called Fraud, Credulity, 
Hallucination and Misunderstanding have at last refused to 
bear any more loading. Who's to carry what is left? for this 
obstinate residuum, it seems, cannot be destroyed. Compara- 
tive studies in these days are all the fashion. Will no one 
give us a comparative study of ghosts? Will no one even pro- 
vide us with an introductory and concise study of occult phe- 
nomena in and out of the Bible, in history, ancient and 
modern, sacred and profane? Lastly, in a word, will no one 
after loading the four beasts as heavily as possible, produce the 
fifth beast whose name is Truth, and who will bear without 
hesitation or fatigue that puzzling residuum of indisputable 
but unintelligible phenomena? 

"Is it not strange that the occult, or what we commonly call 
the miraculous, weathers age after age of scepticism? True, that 
at this very moment, we are living in an age of scientific 
ostriches, who mumble, with their heads in the sand, that no 
one now believes in miracles; that ghosts never appear; that 
second-sight and premonitions and dreams that come true, and 
prophecies that are verified, have all vanished before the light 
of knowledge, and the scrutiny of science. True also it is that 
never were there a greater number of intelligent people con- 
vinced of the reality and importance of these occult phenomena. 
The persistency of the occult is at any rate a fact, and a stul?? 



434 DEMON-POSSESSION 

born one. From age to age the same unexplained phenomena 
occur. In spiritualism more than in anything else history re- 
peats itself. From age to age a number of supposed super- 
naturalisms are exposed or explained; from age to age a resid- 
uum cannot be exposed or explained. No, not by Crooks, or 
Wallace, or Lodge, or Flammarion, or the Berlin conjurer, 
Bellachini; or the French conjurer, Houdin; or the English, 
conjurers, Maskelyne and Cook, or Sidgewick and the Psychi- 
cal society, or any other society, or anybody else. 'This gives 
to reflect,' as the French say." 

From the Fortnightly Review, February, 1893. 

(7) 
Lyman Abbott on Demon Possession. 

"For reasons stated in my Life of Christ, Chapter xiii., I 
believe not only that there really was, but there really still is, 
such a phenomenon." 

Outlook, Aug. 25, 1894, p. 314. 

(8) See page 291. 
Regarding High Magic. 

The term magic may refer only to sleight of hand. But it 
has also been defined as "the art of putting in action the 
power of spirits, or the occult powers of nature." This defini- 
tion offers an alternative. The magicians of Egypt and Baby- 
lon mentioned in the Bible belonged to a class of wonder-work- 
ers who perhaps have their best modern parallels in India, 
though they are still to be found in Egypt and elsewhere. In 
the highest forms of magic there is all the appearance of some 
superhuman agency. Whether such an agency may ever be 
involved is a question usually answered by the prepossessions 
of the person judging. Mistaken prepossessions are hard to 
dislodge, though sometimes with a sufficient range of facts, and 
a sufficiently candid mind, this may be effected. 

It can hardly be doubted that in the Bible a degree of 
power to work miracles by the agency of Satan or of demons, 
i5> attributed to men. Apart from the old Testament, we have 



APPENDIX 435 



the prediction of the Saviour that false Christs and false proph- 
ets would arise, who would 'show great signs and wonders, 
so as to deceive, if it were possible, the very elect.'' (Matt, xxiv, 
24.) The apostle Paul predicts the coming of a "man of sin," 
a "lawless one," "after the working of Satan with all power of 
signs and lying wonders." {2 TJies. II. 8, 9.) John saw in 
vision "another wild beast coming up out of the earth. And 
he doeth great wonders, so that he maketh fire come down on 
the earth in the sight of men; and deceiveth those that dwell on 
the earth by the means of those miracles which he had power to 
do." {Rev. xiii. I i-i^.) 

In Rev. xvi. 13-14, he describes "three unclean spirits like 
frogs, . . . the spirits of demons working miracles, which 
go forth unto the kings of the whole world to gather them to the 
battle of that great day of God Almighty." 

In Rev. xix. ^o, he speaks of "the false prophet that wrought 
miracles before him (the beast), with which he deceived them 
that received the mark of the beast." 

Some of the wonders wrought by the high caste fakirs of 
India are narrated in the North Aincricati Review for January^ 
j8gj, in an article entitled "High Caste Indian Magic." The 
writer, Harry Kellar, is a professional juggler of thirty years' 
experience, who has spent fifteen years in India and the far 
east. He says that he would be the last to concede anything 
supernatural in their power, having spent his life in "combat- 
ing the illusions of supernaturalism, and the so-called mani- 
festations of spiritualism." But he also says that "through a 
thousand years of rumor the high caste fakir has succeeded in 
preserving the secret of his powers, which have on more than 
one occasion baffled my deepest scrutiny and remained the 
inexplicable subject of my lasting wonder and admiration." 

He supposes these magicians to have "discovered natural 
laws of which we in the west are ignorant," and to overcome 
"forces of nature which to us seem insurmountable." 

He describes in particular three great feats which have been 
repeatedly witnessed, and well authenticated by other compe- 



436 DEMON-POSSESSION 

tent observers besides himself. These are "feats of levitation, 
or the annihilation of gravity; feats of whirling illusion, in 
which one human form seems to multiply itself into many, 
which again resolve themselves into one; and feats of voluntary 
interment." 

The mysterious and even dreadful facts that Mr. Kellar de- 
tails introduce us at once to the very heart of the province of 
high magic, and they are such as may well be viewed in the 
light of such other facts as those given in the present volume. 

Once admit that invisible spirits have access to men, with 
power to communicate with them, and to produce in and 
through them mental, moral, and also physical effects, as the 
Scriptures evidently teach, and we have a theory that easily 
and naturally covers many facts that cannot otherwise be ex- 
plained. And there are facts for which every other theory is 
only a promise to explain that has never been fulfilled. 

These Indian phenomena are shown at length in the writ- 
ings of Louis Jacolliot, a French author and rationalist long 
resident in India. Their discussion on Biblical grounds, to- 
gether with many other equally marvelous facts, may be 
found in a book by an able English solicitor, Robert Brown, 
entitled Demonology and Witchcraft with Especial Reference 
to Modern Spiritualism So-Called, and the "■Doctrines of De- 
monsy (London, John F. Shaw 6^ Co., i88g.) This work is 
not without faults. But it manifests legal acumen, Hebrew 
scholarship, uncompromising fidelity to the authority of the 
Bible, and a familiarity with those phenomena under dis- 
cussion which are most extraordinary, and also most character- 
istic. It is a book that ought not to be overlooked in the study 
of this subject. Upon the assumption that demons have any- 
thing to do with this species of magic the matter forms a dis- 
tinct department of demonology, of which here only this brief 
mention can be made. 

The wonders narrated by Mr. Kellar may have excited his 
admiration, but they are well suited to excite the horror of 
most observers. The moral quality of the spirits concerned in 



APPENDIX 437 



their production, whether human only, or other than human, 
can be determined only by moral tests. Miracles of this kind 
have always been associated with and conducive to, the worst 
forms of pagan superstition, and the darker and more grovel- 
ing the superstition so much the more terrible has been the 
form in which the wonders have appeared, as may be seen in 
Mr. Kellar's own account of the witch doctors in Natal. In 
all times they have been exhibited to support the claims of 
idolatrous worship. They have invariably tended to draw 
men from the worship of the supreme God, to the worship of 
intermediate beings, however called, "gods many and lords 
many," (/ Cor. viii. j) including the open and avowed worship 
of demons. And even in the most enlightened lands where, as 
among modern spiritualists, prodigies in any degree similar 
occur, their tendency and result are the same. God is ignored 
or becomes an impersonal pantheistic force, while the spirits 
are followed up with the devotion of a passionate infatuation. 
The moral law becomes despised, and the character of the de- 
votees tends to grow more depraved and blighted to the end. 
There are apparent exceptions to this rule, but that this is the 
rule may be regarded as the verdict of history. Consult Dr. 
Joseph Ennemoser's History of Magic. 2 vols. London, 1854. 
H. G. Bohn; Narratives of Sorcery and Magic from the most 
Authentic Sources. By Thos. Wright, M. A., F. S. A. Am. 
ed. N. York, 1852. Redfield; Lenormant's Chaldean Magic. 
London, 1877. Bagster. These books lie within easy reach on 
the shore of the ocean of the literature of magic. 

(H. W. R.) 



BIBLIOGRAPHICAL INDEX. 



An index of the books and authors consulted 
in the preparation of this volume, or referred to 
in it ; with a more particular account of some 
which are regarded as important to its theme, 
but insufficiently known, or which are insuffi- 
ciently described elsewhere in its pages. 



PAGE 

Abbott, Lyman 434 

Alford, Henry, D. D 289 

Late Dean of Canterbury. The New Testament (Au- 
thorized Version Revised); Daldy, Isbister & Co., Lon- 
don, 1876. 

Athanasius 131 

Atkinson, Rev. J. A 125 

(See Wesley.) 

Augustine 270, 295, 296, 337 

Aurelius, Marcus 330 

Baker, Wm., D. D 355 

Bartlett, Geo. C 380 

Baxter, Richard 349. 356 

Beecher, Rev. Charles 125 

"Spiritual Manifestations." 302 pages, 8 x 5^ in. 
Lee & Shepard, Boston, 1879. "For the earnest ex- 
pectation of the creature waiteth for the manifestation 
of the Sons of God." Rom. viii. 19. 

This book, assuming the reality of spiritual manifesta- 
tions, apd the correcti]ess of the Piblical view of them, 

[439] 



440 BIBLIOGRAPHICAL INDEX. 

interprets that view, and its wide bearing upon related 
matters, in a lucid, original, and highly suggestive man- 
ner. The earlier studies of the same author in this field 
were published in 1853, in a volume called, "A Review 
of the Spiritual Manifestations." Read before the 
Congregational Association of New York and Brooklyn. 
75 pages ; G. P. Putnam & Co. Both books deserve to 
be read. 

Bell, Rev. Charles 354 

Besant, firs. Annie 378 

Blackwell, Anna 359 

Blavatsky , riadame 378 

Blumhardt, Johann Christoph iii-ii6, 352 

Among modern witnesses to the facts of possession, 
of exorcism, and of healing through believing prayer, 
Blumhardt may fairly be regarded as holding the first 
place. Perhaps no man of recent times has had a more 
intimate and practical acquaintance with these matters 
at first hand, and no student of them can afford to over- 
look his life and work. Subjected as these were to a 
searching and public scrutiny, and every test that friends 
or foes could make, this only resulted in a perfect vindi- 
cation of his claims from all suspicion, and the wonder- 
ing approval of those who came to know the facts. He 
was born in 1805, and died in 1880, He was graduated 
in theology at the University of Tiibingen, a man of 
thorough cultivation and generous tastes. Familiar with 
the whole course of Biblical criticism, he yet always 
maintained an active evangelical faith. His character 
was strong, guileless, unassuming, magnanimous, and 
just. He had a singularly well-balanced judgment, 
rare penetration in his knowledge of men, executive 
power and unusual tact. Although a conservative Lu- 
theran clergyman, he had world-wide sympathies. For 
many years he maintained a ministry of relief to suffer- 
ing minds and bodies, with the most beneficent results, 
to which hundreds can still testify. He was so trans- 
parently noble, and his wisdom and influence so marked 
that, whatever explanation may be made of his work, it 



BIBLIOGRAPHICAL INDEX. 441 

must still be of unique interest to a student, upon psy 
chological as well as moral and religious grounds. 

His biography in German has reached a fifth enlarged 
edition, which should be translated into English. A 
much briefer account of him exists in English, entitled, 
'•Pastor Blumhardt and His Work," by Rev, W. Guest, 
with an Introduction by Rev. C. H. Blumhardt (a 
brother). Morgan & Scott, London, 1881. This con- 
tains a chapter by Henry Drummond, describing a visit 
to Blumhardt's institution in Bad Boll, and expressing 
confidence in the character and results of its work. 
The German biography is as follows : Pfarrer Johann 
Christoph Blumhardt. Ein Lebensbild, von Friedrich 
Ziindel, Pfarrer. Fiinfte vermehrte Auflage. Zurich, 
1887. 552 pages, 9 •4: x6>^. 

Brace, Charles Loring 149 

"The Unknown God ; or Inspiration among Pre-Chris- 
tian Races," by C. L. B., author of " Gesta Christi," 
"Races of the Old World," etc. 336 pages, cr. 8vo. 
A. C. Armstrong & Son, New York, 1890. 

Brainerd, David 149 

" Memoirs of David Brainerd, Missionary to the Indians 
of North America," by Jonathan Edwards, D. D. and 
Sereno E. Dwight, D. D. Edited by J. M. Sherwood. 
Funk & Wagnalls, New York and London, 1885. 

Brewster, Sir David 355 

Brown, J. B 362 

Brown, Robert 362, 436 

"Demonology and Witchcraft," with special reference 
to modern "Spiritualism," so-called ; and the Doctrines 
of Demons. " In the latter days some shall depart from 
the faith, giving heed to seducing spirits, and doctrines of 
demons. ... If thou put the brethren in remembrance 
of these things, thou shall be a good minister of Jesus 
Christ." I Tim. iv. i, 6. 354 pages, 7^ x 5. John 
F. Shaw & Co., London, 1889. Also by the same au- 
thor, "The PersonaHty and History of Satan." 216 
pages. S. W. Partridge & Co., London, 1887. 



442 BIBLIOGRAPHICAL INDEX. 

Buckley, J. M., LL. D 291, 299 

"Faith Healing, Christian Science, and Kindred Phe- 
nomena." 308 pages. The Century Co., New York, 
1892. 

Bush, Rev. Qeorge 351 

Bushnell, Horace, D. D 272 

" Nature and the Supernatural, as together constitut- 
ing the one system of Gpd." Chas. Scribner, New York, 
1858. 

Buyer 380 

Capital Code of Connecticut, The 300 

Cardwell, Rev. Robt. C 95, loi, 261 

Carpenter, Dr. Wm. B 219 

"Principles of Mental Physiology," with their applica- 
tion to the training and discipline of the mind, and the 
study of its morbid conditions. l2mo. D. Appleton 
& Co., New York. Also by the same, "Mesmerism, 
Spiritualism, etc.. Historically and Scientifically Con- 
sidered." i2mo. D. Appleton & Co., New York. 

Calmet, Augustine 364 

Chamberlain, Prof. Basil Hall 104 

"Things Japanese," being notes on various subjects 
connected with Japan. 408 pages ; folded map. Ke 
gan Paul, Trench, Triibner, & Co., London, 1890. 

Chambers Encyclopaedia of Religious Knowledge 1 251 

Clark, Adam, LL. D 125 

(See Wesley.) 

Clement of Alexandria 192, 295 

Coke, Lord 301 

Coleman, Dr. Lyman 133 

"Ancient Christianity Exemplified in Private, Domestic, 
Social, and Civil Life of the Primitive Christians ; and 
in the Original Institutions, Offices, Ordinances, and 
Rites of the Church." Lippincott & Co., Philadelphia, 
1853. (On Christian Exorcists, see pages 191-193. 
Also on Energumens and Demoniacs, page 124.) 
Colquohoun, J. C , 35^ 



BIBLIOGRAPHICAL INDEX. 443 

Cook. Joseph 127, 330 

" Spiritualism as an If : " Nine lectures, reported in the 
Independent, New York, 1880, January 29 to March 25. 
Also two lectures (IV and V) on Zollner, in Cook's vol- 
ume Occident. Houghton, Mifflin & Co., Boston, 1884. 

Crawford, F. Harion 383 

Crooks, Prof. William 361 

Crowe, Mrs. Catherine 369 

Cyprian 131 , 294, 395 

Dadmun, John H 363 

D' Assier , Adolphe 365 

Davis, Andrew Jackson 360 

DeFoe, Daniel 349, 364 

De Plancy, Collin 352 

Des Mousseaux, Chevalier G 365 

Dialectical Society 's Report 362 

Dorman, Rushton H 108, 151 

"Origin of Primitive Superstitions, and their Develop- 
ment into Worship of Spirits, and the Doctrine of Spir- 
itual Agency among the Aborigines of America." 398 
pages, 8vo., illustrated. J. B. Lippincott & Co., Phila- 
delphia, 1881. 

Dryden, John 430 

Translation of "Virgil." 

Du Bois, Constance Goddard 384 

Dyer, Rev. T. F. Thistleton, fl. A 367 

Edelweiss 362 

Edgren, A. H 357 

Edmunds, Judge John W 360 

Elam, Dr. Charles 383 

Elizabeth, Charlotte 349, 350, 428 

"Principalities and Powers in Heavenly Places," with 
an introduction by Rev. Edward Bickersteth. (Ameri- 
can edition) John S. Taylor & Co., New York, 1842. 

Ellinwood, Frank F., D. D 17a 

Secretary of the Board of Foreign Missions of the Pres- 
byterian Church, U. S. A. Lecturer on "Comparative 
Religion," in the University of the City of New York. 



444 BIBLIOGRAPHICAL INDEX. 

" Oriental Religions and Christianity," a course of lect- 
ures delivered on the Ely Foundation, before the stu- 
dents of Union Theological Seminary, New York, in 
189 1. 384 pages. Chas. Scribner's Sons, New York, 
1892. 

Elliott, Charles Wyllys 370 

Emerson, Ralph Waldo 349, 388 

Encyclopaedia Britannica 294 

Ninth edition. 

Ennemoser, Joseph, n. D 351, 437 

Born in the Tyrol, 1787 ; died, 1854. Professor of 
Medicine at Bonn, 1819. After 1841 he practiced 
medicine in Munich. His principal work is " Magnet- 
ism in its Historical Development" (Der Magnetismus 
in seiner geschichtlichen Entwicklung), Leipsic, 1819. 
A second edition of this appeared with the title, " His- 
tory of Animal Magnetism," in 1844, the first volume 
of which forms the " History of Magic." This last was 
translated into English by Wm. Howitt, and published 
in Henry G. Bohn's "Scientific Library," in London, 
1844. It is the best known historical summary of facts 
in this department. Full title: "The History of 
Magic," by Joseph Ennemoser. Translated from the 
German by^William Howitt. To which is added an 
•'Appendix of the most Remarkable and best Au- 
thenticated Stories of Apparitions, Dreams, Second 
Sight, Somnambulism, Predictions, Divination, Witch- 
craft, Vampires, Fairies, Table-Turning, and Spirit 
Rapping. Selected by Mary Howitt." 2 vols., with 
index, 471 pages and 518 pages, lYz x 4^^. 

Eschenmayer, Adam Karl August, M. D 351 

* ' Ethics o< Spiritualism " 525 

A System of Moral Philosophy. 

Pavonius 370 

Fairfield, Francis Qerry 191-195, 319 

"Ten Years with Spiritual Mediums." I2mo., 182 
pages. D. Appleton & Co., New York, 1875. 
Fieid.Miss A. M 88 



BIBLIOGRAPHICAL INDEX. 445 



Fisher, Qeorge P., LL. D ^97 

«« Outlines of Universal History." American Book Co., 
New York (Copyrighted), 1885. 

Fiske, John 37«. «73 

Fleming, Rev. John, A. B 375 

Qall, Rev. James 270. 376 . 

"Primeval Man Unveiled ; or the Anthropology of the 
Bible." 372 pages, 8 x 5^. Hamilton, Adams, & Co., 
London, second edition, 1880. 

The reader who begins this book with a smile of in- 
credulity is likely to finish it with a high degree of re- 
spect, and a mind refreshed by its unusual merits. The 
author's identification of the Satanic race with a pre- 
Adamic human race, whose remains are assumed to be 
certainly found in the earth's strata, is sustained with 
a learning in Biblical and natural science, an ingenuity 
and freedom from dogmatic temper that are rarely com- 
bined. However the principal argument of the book 
may fare, its incidental value would be widely conceded. 
Its discussion of the scientific value of the Bible, and its 
interpretation of many points, are far above common- 
place. It is written in a strong and beautiful style, and 
is a book to widen the horizon of nearly every reader. 
It has been said of it that "The key to the whole work 
is the inviolability of law, and its corollaries, one of 
which is that evangelical Christianity, with its doctrines 
of miracles, atonement, and resurrection, is the only 
system consistent with the high demands of natural and 
ethical science." 

Gibier, Dr. Paul 362 

Giles, Herbert A 72 

Translator of " Liao-Chai," which see. 

Grant, Miles 328, 329 

Author of "What is Man?" "The Soul, What is 
it?" "The Spirit, What is it?" "The Rich Man 
and Lazarus," etc. 

"Spiritualism Unveiled, and Shown to be the Work 
of Demons." An examination of its origin, morals, 



446 BIBLIOGRAPHICAL INDEX. 

doctrines, and politics. 77 pages, 6^ x 4^. Office of 
The Crisis, 144 Hanover St., Boston, Mass., 1866. 

Glanvil, Rev. Joseph 349, 356 

Godwin, William 379 

Goethe 351 

Gordon, William R., D. D 362 

Graesse 348 

Griesinger, W., fl. D 116, 117, 197, 350 

" Mental Pathology and Therapeutics." Medical works 
in general become rapidly obsolete. It is an indication 
of the high rank attained by Dr. Griesinger's volume 
that, although its first edition appeared in Germany in 
1845, a second was issued 1864, from which the English 
translation was made, and published in 1867, and the 
American edition was issued so recently as 1882, by 
Wm. Wood & Co., New York. 

Gurney, Edmund, il. A 367, 388 

Hammond, Wm. Alexander, fl. D., LL. D 175, 237 

"Nervous Derangement, Somnambulism, Hypnotism," 
etc. Geo. P. Putnam's Sons, New York, 1881. 

Various other works by Dr. Hammond on Insanity 
and Diseases of the Nervous System, are published by 
D. Appleton & Co., New York. 

Hastings, Horace L 129, 133, 339, 428 

Editor and author with Wm. Ramsey (see Ramsey). 

Haweis, Rev. H. R 432 

Hawthorne, Nathaniel 383 

Hecker, J. F. K.. M. D 147 

Professor at the University of Berlin. " Epidemics of 
the Middle Ages." Translated by B. G. Babbington, 
M. D., F. R. S. Published by the Sydenham Society, 
London, 1844. 

Henderson, Rev. James, D. D 270 

Hermon, Henry 383 

Hesiod 369 

Hlld.J. A 358 

Hodgson, Dr. Richard 221, 382 

Holland, Sir Henry, M. D 205, 382 



BIBLIOGRAPHICAL INDEX. 447 

Holmes, Oliver Wendell, M. D 219 

" Pages from an Old Volume of Life." A collection of 
essays. Houghton, Mifflin, & Co., Boston, sixth edi- 
tion, 1887. 

See essays on " Mechanism in Thought and Morals," 
and on "Automatism in Crime." 

Home, D. D 380 

Horst 357 

Howells, Wm. D 383 

Howitt, William 357 

Howitt, Mary (See Ennemoser) 

Hudson, Thos. J 382 

Hume, David 337 

Huysmans, J. K 368 

Imperial Bible Dictionary 370 

Patrick Fairbairn, Editor. New edition, 6 vols. Blackie 
& Son, London, 1890. 

Jackson, Samuel J 351 

Jacoliiot, Louis 436 

" Le Spiritisme dans le Monde, et les Sciences Occultes 
dans 1' Inde." 

His other principal works are : "La Genfese de 1' Hu- 
manity," " Fetichisme," " Polytheisme," "La Bible 
dans I'Inde." Lenoir says of him: "L'auteur se 
donne comme un rationaliste. II en a en effet les quali- 
tes, — impartialite, rectitude de pensee ; il en a aussi le 
defaut, une ignorance complete du Christianisme, et de 
son histoire." 

James 1 356 

King of England. 

James, Dr. William 204, 208, 382, 431 

Professor of Psychology, and formerly of Physiology, at 
Harvard University. "The Principles of Psychology." 
2 vols., Svo. American Science Series, Advanced 
Course. Henry Holt & Co., New York, 1890. 

Jewett, Rev. Edward H., S. T. D 289 

Professor of Pastoral Theology in the General Theolog- 
ical Seminary of New York. " Diabology ; the Person 



448 BIBLIOGRAPHICAL INDEX. 

and Kingdom of Satan." (The Bishop Paddock Lect- 
ures for 1889.) 197 pages, Z% x 6. T. Whittaker, 
New York, 1889. 

Johnson, Franklin, D. D 38a 

Josephus 342 

Jung, Johann Heinrich 35' 

Justin Martyr 13' 

Kant 364 

Kardec, Allan 358 

Keller, Prof. Harry 435 

Kerner, Andeas Justinus, n. D 125, 350 

(1786-1862.) Graduate of TUbingen. " Geschichten 
Besessener neuerer Zeit." Beobachtungen aus dem 
Gebiete kakodamonisch-magnetischer Erscheinungen. 
Von Justinus Kerner ; nebst Reflexionen von C. H. 
Eschenmayer uber Besessenseyn und Zauber. Karls- 
ruhe. G. Braun, 1834. 189 pages, 8;^ x 5. Second 
edition, 1835. 

These narratives of modern cases of possession, quoted 
by Dr. Griesinger, form perhaps the most important 
monograph exclusively upon this theme hitherto pub- 
lished. Kerner's best known book in this department 
is "The Seeress of Prevorst," first issued in Stuttgart in 
1829. The fourth edition in 2 vols., 1846; fifth edi- 
tion, 1877. This was translated into English by Mrs. 
Catherine Crowe, and an American edition issued by 
Harper Bros., New York, 1845, entitled, "The Seeress 
of Prevorst:" being revelations concerning the inner 
life of man, and the interdiffusion of a world of spirits 
in the one we inhabit. Communicated by J. Kerner. 

Kernot, Henry 35© 

Knighton, W., Esq •«>' 

Krishaber 213 

Krummacher, F. W 354 

Lactantius '3> 

Lang, Andrew 37' 

Author of " Custom and Myth," 1884 ; " Myth, Ritual 
and Religions," 2 vols, 1887 ; "Cock Lane and Com- 
mon Sense," 1894. 



BIBLlOGkAPHtCAL INDEX. 449 

Langley, Samuel Pierpont, Ph. D., LL. D 14a 

Secretary of the Smithsonian Institute, and a Vice-presi- 
dent of the British Society for Psychical Research. 

The article quoted forms a chapter in his volume 
called, "The New Astronomy." Houghton, Mifflin, & 
Co., Boston, 1892. 

Lane.E.W 380 

Lecanu, Abb^ 353 

Leclsrcq, Bouch^ 358 

Lee, Franklin W 384 

Leiand, Chas. Godfrey 376 

Lenoir, Eugene 361 

Lenormant, Francois 374. 437 

"Chaldean Magic; Its Origin and Development." 
Translated from the French, with considerable addi- 
tions by the author, and notes by the editor (W. C. R.). 
432 pages, 8j^ X 5^. Samuel Bagster & Sons, London, 
1877. 

Levi, Eliphaz 3S8 

"Liao-Chai." 7'. 73 

"Strange Stories from a Chinese Studio." Translated 
and annotated by Herbert A. Giles, of Her Majesty's 
Consular Service. 2 vols., 432 pages and 404 pages, 
8vo. Thos. De La Rue & Co., no Bunhill Row, Lon- 
don. 

The full title in Chinese is " Liao-Chai-Chih-I," fa- 
miliarly known as the "Liao-Chai." The author was 
P'u Sung-Ling, who first completed his collection in 
1679, although, owing to his poverty, it was not pub- 
lished until 1740. Since then many editions and com- 
mentaries have appeared, the best in 1842 in sixteen 
small octavo volumes of about 160 pages each. Mr. 
Giles' translation includes only 164 of the best stories. 
(See his Introduction.) 

Lillie, Arthur 380 

Liseux, Isidore 3^5 

Longfellow, H. W 268, 384 

Lubbock, Sir John 380 

29 



450 BIBLIOGRAPHICAL INDEX. 

Lucian 192, 193 

Magica de Spectris 364 

Mahomet 297, 298, 313, 360, 379 

Malleus Maleficarum 355 

Martin, Wm. A. P., D. D., LL. D 171 

President of the Tung-Wen College, Pekin. "The 
Chinese, Their Education, Philosophy, and Letters." 
319 pages, i2mo. Harper Bros., New York, 1881. 
riarsh, Leonard, M. D 133, 357 

(1800-1870.) He was a brother of President James 
Marsh of the University of Vermont ; studied medicine 
in New York with Dr. Valentine Mott, who was known as 
the " father of American surgery ;" received his med- 
ical degree at Dartmouth College. After some years of 
practice he was, in 1855, "made Professor of Greek 
and Latin in the University of Vermont ; and in 1857 
was transferred to the Chair of Vegetable and Animal 
Physiology, which he held until his death. He was a 
man of singularly penetrative and independent intellect, 
widely read in general literature, as well as in his pro- 
fession, and in the branches in which he gave instruc- 
tion." It may be hoped that Prof. J. E. Goodrich, of 
Burlington, who makes the above statement for this vol- 
ume, will prepare a new edition of the "Apocatastasis," 
which President Felton, of Harvard, pronounced a mas- 
terly work. The " Apocatastasis ; or Progress Back- 
wards, A new Tract for the Times. ' ' 204 pages, 10 x 6^ . 
Chauncey Goodrich, Burlington, Vt., 1854. 

riaskelyne, J. K 362 

Hather, Cotton, D. D 126, 303, 355 

The "Wonders of the Invisible World," being an ac- 
count of the trials of several witches, lately executed in 
New England, to which is added a farther account of 
the trials of the New England witches, by Increase 
Mather, D. D., President of Harvard College, Boston, 
1693. John Russell Smith, London, 1862. 291 pages, 
7 X 4^, with portrait. 



BIBLIOGRAPHICAL INDEX. 451 

This is a comparatively recent edition of a famous 
book produced in the time and heat of the witchcraft 
excitement in New England. Men now write books to 
show what fools the forefathers were for supposing that 
anything besides human agency, credulity, or disease 
was involved in the curious phenomena connected with 
ancient witchcraft. But the opportunity remains of 
studying at first hand, in our own day, generically simi- 
lar phenomena, and many forgotten books on witchcraft 
are full of data that may profitably be compared with 
existing facts. 

Matson, William A., D. D 353 

Maurice, Frederick Dennison, fl. A 3io>3i2 

Chaplain of Lincoln's Inn, and Professor of Divinity in 
King's College, London. "Theological Essays," dedi- 
cated to Alfred Tennyson, Esq., Poet Laureate. Cam- 
bridge, Mac Millan, & Co., 1853. (See chapter on 
"The Evil Spirit," p. 41.) 

Maury, L. F. A 3S8 

McDonald, Rev. W. M 363 

Mc Rae, Rev. Thaddeus 109 

Pastor of Presbyterian Church, Mc Veytown, Pa. ' ' Lect- 
ures on Satan." 173 pages, i6mo. Gould & Lincoln, 
Boston, 1871. 

neinliold, W 383 

nitchell, S. Weir, M. D 214 

" Transactions of the College of Physicians of Philadel- 
phia," April, 1888. 

Moll, Albert 229, 230 

Professor at the University of Berlin. "Hypnotism," 
408 pages. Contemporary Science Series. Scribner, 
Welford, & Co., Yew York, 1890. 

Moreton, Andrew 364 

Morrison, Rev. A. B 363 

Moses, Rev. Wm. Stainton 360 

Moule, Ven. Arthur E., B. D 4^7 

Archdeacon in Middle China. "New China and Old." 
Seeley & Co., London, 1891. 



452 BIBLIOGRAPHICAL INDEX. 

Muir, Sir Wm., LL. D 298, 313 

Principal of the University of Edinburgh. " The Life 
of Mahomet, from Original Sources." Published in 4 
vols, in 1858-1861. Abridged edition in one volume. 
Smith, Elder, & Co., 1877. 

nUller, flax 273 

Murray, David Christie 383 

Music, John R 384 

flyers, Fred'k W. H., M. A 188-204, 223, 324-227, 233, 

241 , 242, 367 

Member of the Council of the Society for Psychical Re- 
search. " Proceedings of the S. P. R." 

Needham, Mrs. Geo. C 353 

Newton, Rev. R. Heber, D. D 142, 345 

Nevins, Winfield S 306 

" Witchcraft in Salem Village, in 1692," together with 
some account of other witchcraft persecutions in New 
England and elsewhere. Salem, Mass., North Shore 
Pub. Co., and Lee & Shepard, Boston, 1892. 

Nichols, Dr. T. L 327 

Olcott, Henry G 365, 378 

Ormiston, James K 353 

Owen, Robert Dale 361 

Peelce, Mrs. flargaret D 384 

Pember, G. M., n. A 206, 269, 376, 428 

" Earth's Earliest Ages, and their Connection with 
Modern Spiritualism and Theosophy." Hodder & 
Stoughton, London, 7th edition, (i) XXXIII. 494 
pages. Small 8vo., with Index. 1893. American edi- 
tions are published by two firms; viz., A. C. Armstrong 
& Son, New York, 1885 ; F. H. Revell Co., New York, 
Chicago, and Toronto. 

Phayre, Lieut. General Sir Robert, K. C. B 396 

Phelps, Rev. Austin, D. D 318, 320, 437 

Dr. Phelps has four short chapters upon Spiritualism 
which, as an evangelical interpretation, have perhaps 
never been surpassed in strength and beauty of style, 
or breadth and cogency of reasoning. They have the 



BIBLIOGRAPHICAL INDEX. 453 



following titles : " Spiritualism, What it is Not ; " Spir- 
itualism Probably of Satanic Origin;" "Ought the 
Pulpit to Ignore Spiritualism ? ; " " How Shall the Pul- 
pit Treat Spiritualism ? " The first two are published 
as a tract : " Spiritualism, The Argument in Brief." 
Congregational Publishing Society, Boston, 1871. 35 
pages. The last two form chapters XVII and XVIII in 
his volume, called "My Portfolio." Chas. Scribner's 
Sons, New York, 1882. 280 pages. 

Especial value attaches to the testimony of Dr. Phelps 
from the fact that in his own father's house at Strat- 
ford, Conn., occurred the most remarkable series of 
occult phenomena which have ever been put on record 
in the United States. It would aid the cause of truth if 
an exhaustive monograph regarding those events might 
be prepared and bound in one volume with these four 
chapters. 

Plato '92. 270 

Pliny 296, 297 

Plummer, Dr ^^^ 

Podmore, Frank, M. A 3^7 

Ramsey, William, D. D "OO. «33. '93 

(1803-1858). Graduate of Princeton College and Semi- 
nary ; missionary of the A. B. C. F. M. in India, 1831- 
34. Pastor of the Cedar St. Presbyterian Church in 
Philadelphia, 1837-1857. A man learned in many lan- 
guages, efficient, and fruitful in his ministry. His testi- 
mony to facts observed in India and elsewhere is largely 
that of a competent personal witness. In 1856 there 
appeared from his pen : " Spiritualism, A Satanic Delu- 
sion, and a Sign of the Times," edited with a preface 
by H. L. Hastings. " The God of Peace shall bruise 
Satan under your feet shortly." Rom. xxi, 20, 122 
pages, i2mo. Peace Dale, R. I. Published by H. L. 
Hastings. Four or five thousand copies were issued. 
Recently Mr. Hastings has embodied the contents of 
this book with additional matter in a consecutive series 
of tracts, to be made, when complete, into a new vol- 
ume. The series already numbers ten parts and 316 



454 BIBLIOGRAPHICAL INDEX. 

pages, 7^ x6^. It is prepared with ability and much 
experience. The titles of the separate tracts are as 
follows : — 

1. "Spiritual Manifestations : Their Nature and Sig- 
nificance," by W. R., i888. 

2. " Spirit Workings in Various Lands and Ages," 
by W. R., edited with additions by H. L. H., i888. 

3. "Familiar Spirits: their Workings and Teach- 
ings." 1888. 

4. " The Mystery Solved : Spiritual Manifestations 
Explained," by W. R., 1888. 

5. "The Depths of Satan : A Solution of Spirit Mys- 
teries," by W. R., 1889. 

6. "Trying the Spirits): An Examination of Modem 
Spiritualism," by H., 1889. 

7. " Ancient Heathenism and Modern Spiritualism," 
by H., 1890. 

8. " Primitive Christianity and Modern Spiritual- 
ism," by H., 1890. 

9. " Witchcraft : Is it a Reality or a Delusion ? " by 
H., 1893. 

10. "Necromancy," by H., 1893. Published at The 
Scripture Tract Repository, 47 Cornhill, Boston. 

Reifsneider, Anna C 384 

Ribot, Th^odule 189, 304, 227, 234, 381 

Professor of Comparative and Experimental Psychology 
in the College de France, editor of the Revue Philoso- 
phique de la France et de /' Etranger. Author of " Eng- 
lish Psychology." From the French, London, H. S. 
King & Co., 1873. "German Psychology of To-day : 
The Empirical School." Translated from second 
French edition, by Jas. Marsh Baldwin. Preface 
by Jas. Mc Cosh. C. Scribner's Sons, 1886. " L' He- 
r^dite ; Etude Psychologique." Paris, 1873. English 
translation, London, 1875 ; " La Philosophie de Scho- 
penhauer," Paris, 1874; "Diseases of Memory," Inter- 
national Science Series. D. Appleton, New York. " Dis- 
eases of Personality," authorized translation. Opea 



BIBLIOGRAPHICAL INDEX. 455 

Court Pub. Co., Chicago, 1891. 157 pages, 8x5^. 
"The Physiology of Attention ; " Open Court Pub. Co., 
1894. Select Works of Ribot : viz., " Diseases of Mem- 
ory ; " " Diseases of Will ; " " Diseases of Personality ; " 
translated from the French, by J. Fitzgerald, M. A. 
48, 48, and 52 pages respectively, 8x6. The Humboldt 
Pub. Co., New York. (Cr. 8vo.) 

Robinson, Chas. &., D.D., LL. D api 

"The Pharaohs of the Bondage and the Exodus." 
The Century Co., New York, and T. Fisher Unwin, 
London. 199 pages. 

Rollin. Chas 205 

Roskoff, Gustav 3S3 

Rydberg, Victor 357 

Sampson. Rev. Geo. Whitfield, D.D 151 

Former president of Columbian University, Washing- 
ton, D. C. Cover title, " Physical Media in Spiritual 
Manifestations," proper title, "The Physical in Spirit- 
ualism ; or the Spiritual Medium not Psychical but 
Physical." Illustrated by attested facts in universal 
history, and confirmed by the ruling philosophy of all 
ages. Presented in a series of letters to a young friend. 
J. B. Lippincott Co., Philadelphia, 1881. This is the 
last form in which the author has presented studies of 
many years in this department, two previous volumes 
being these : — 

1. "To Daimonion ; or the Spiritual Medium,'.' by 
Traverse Old field. Gould & Lincoln, Boston, 1851. 

2. " Spiritualism Tested." 185 pages. i6mo. Gould 
& Lincoln, i860. 

3. "Physical Media in Spiritual Manifestations." 
1869. Among other of the more important works tak- 
ing a view similar to that presented by Dr. Sampson, 
are several by Baron Karl von Reichenbach (1788- 
i'869), who wrote largely upon animal magnetism, and 
with whom originated the name and discussion of Od, 
Odyle, or Odit force. Reichenbach's "Dynamics of 
Magnetism" was translated by Dr. John Ash burner of 



456 BIBLIOGRAPHICAL INDEX. 



the Royal Irish Academy, and the American edition 
was published by Redfield, New York. 

Count Ag^nor De Gasparin wrote " Science vs. Mod- 
ern Spiritualism," a treatise on turning tables, the 
supernatural in general, and spirits. Translated from 
the French by E. W. Robert. Introduction by Rev. 
Robert Baird, D.D. 2 vols. 470 and 469 pages. 
1% 5^5/^- Kiggins & Kellogg, New York, 1856. 

Dr. E. C. Rogers wrote '* Philosophy of Mysterious 
Agents, Human and Mundane ; Or the Dynamic Laws 
and Relations of Man," embracing the natural philoso- 
phy of phenomena styled "Spiritual Manifestations." 
336 pages. 8X ^5/4- ]o^^ P. Jewett & Co., Boston, 
1852. Also "A Discussion of the Automatic Powers 
of the Brain," being a defense against Rev. Charles 
Beecher's Attack [see Beecher] upon "The Philoso- 
phy of Mysterious Agents," in his "Review of Spirit- 
ual Manifestations. " John P. Jewett & Co., Boston, 
1854. 

5argeBt, Epes 48, 361, 378 

(1812-1880), Author and Journalist. " Planchette ; the 
Despair of Science," being a full account of modern 
Spiritualism ; its phenomena and the various theories 
regarding it, with a survey of French spiritism. 
404 pages. 6)4 x4^. Roberts Bros., Boston, 1869. 
Also "The Proof Palpable of Immortality," an account 
of modern Spiritualism, 2nd edition, Boston, 1876 ; 
"The Scientific Basis of Spiritualism." 372 pages. 
i6mo. Colby & Rich, Boston, l88o-'8i. 

Savage, Rev. Minot J. 360 

Scott, Reginald 356 

Scott, Sir Walter .355, 383 

Scott, Rev. Walter 131 

President and theological tutor of Airedale College, 
Bradford, Yorkshire. "The Existence of Evil Spirits 
Proved ; and their Agency Particularly in Relation to 
the Hvman Race Explained and Illustrated." 2 Cor. 
II, 2. The Congregational Lecture, 9th Series. Jack- 



BIBLIOGRAPHICAL INDEX. 457 

son & Walford, i8 St. Paul's Church Yard, London, 
1843. Third new and uniform edition, 1853. 

Seybcrt Commission, Tlie 316 

"Preliminary Report." 160 pages. 8^ ^Syi- J- B. 
Lippincott Co., Philadelphia, 1887. 

5haler, Nathaniel Southgate (vil.) 

Prof, of Geology at Harvard University. "The Inter- 
pretation of Nature." XT, 305 pages. Houghton, 
Mifflin & Co., Boston, 1893. 

Sinistrari, D'Ameno 365 

Soldau, W. a 355 

Southey, Robert 125 

Spencer, Herbert 374. 380 

St. Hartin, M. D 93 

Stanley, Arthur Penrhyn, D.D 297, 3*9 

"Lectures on the History of the Eastern Church," etc. 
Chas. Scribner, New York, 1862. From the second 
London edition. On "Mahomet" see pp. 360,361. 
Also, " Lectures on the History of the Jewish Church." 
3 vols. Scribner, Armstrong, & Co., New York, 1877. 
On "Socrates" see vol. 3, p. 224. 

Stead, W.T 360, 383, 385 

Stevens, E. Winchester, M. D 220 

A pamphlet entitled "Psychical and Physio-Psycholog- 
ical Studies : The Watseka Wonder ; Narrative of Start- 
ling Phenomena Occurring in the Case of Mary Lurancy 
Vennum." Also, included in the same pamphlet, 
"Mary Reynolds; A Case of Double Consciousness," 
by Rev. Wm. S. Plummcr, D.D. Republished by per- 
mission from Harpers' Magazine for May, i860. 38 
pages, (i) HI, l2mo. Religio-Philosophical Pub. Co., 
Chicago, 1887. Inside title: "The Case of Lurancy 
Vennum ; A Psychological Study and Authenticated In- 
stance of Spirit Manifestation." The publisher's first 
note is dated 1879. His second note states that 50,000 
copies of the case of Lurancy Vennum had been pub- 
lished, including the original publication in the Religio- 
Philosophical Journal. 



458 BIBLIOGRAPHICAL INDEX. 

Stevenson, Robert Louis 383 

Stilling. (See Jung.) 351 

Stockman, E. A 355 

Swedenborg 360, 379 

Tertullian 128-130 

Tregortha, John 370 

Tuke, Daniel Hack 382 

Tylor, Edward Buraett, LL. D., F. R. A.... 108, 148, 152, 374, 380 
Author of " Researches into the Early History of Man- 
kind ;" "Primitive Culture : Researches in the Devel- 
opment of Mythology, Philosophy, Religion, Language, 
Art and Custom." 2 vols. 8vo. Murray, London, 
1871, second edition, 1873, third edition, 1891. First 
American edition, Estes & Lauriat, Boston, 1874. Third 
American edition from second English. 2 vols. 502 
and 470 pages. Henry Holt, New York, 1889. 

Vaughn, Thomas 358 

Virgil 99, 430 

Dryden's Translation, .^neid, VI, line 77. 

Waite, Arthur Edward 358, 379 

Wallace, Alfred Russell 344, 361 

Watson, Augusta Campbell 384 

Weatherby, Lionel A., M. D 362 

Wesley, John 125 

" Memoirs of the Wesley Family," collected principally 
from original documents, by Adam Clarke, LL. D., 
F. A. S., 4th edition, revised, corrected, and consider- 
ably enlarged. 2 vols. Wm. Tegg, London. See Vol. 
I, 245-291. Also, "Life of John Wesley," by Robert 
Southey. Newly edited by Rev. J. A. Atkinson. 
Fred'k Warne & Co., London and New York, 1889. 

Whately , Richard 13a 

(1787-1863.) Archbishop of Dublin. "Lectures on 
Scriptural Revelations Respecting Good and Evil An- 
gels." i2mo. London, 1854. American edition, 174 
pages. Lindsay& Blakiston, Philadelphia, 1856. 
White, Andrew Dickson, LL. D 119, 251, 254 



BIBLIOGRAPHICAL INDEX. 



459 



Wlgan, Arthur Ladbroke 205, 215 

" A New View of Insanity, The Duality of Mind, proved 
by the structure, functions, and diseases of the brain, 
and by the phenomena of mental derangement ; and 
shown to be essential to moral responsibihty." With an 
appendix. 8vo. 469 pages, XII. Longmans, Brown, 
Green, & Longmans, London, 1844. 

Wilkins, Mary E 384 

Wilson, Rev. John Leighton 109 

For eighteen years a missionary in Africa, and after- 
ward a secretary of the P. B. F. M., "Western Africa. 
Its History, Condition, and Prospects," with numerous 
engravings, portrait, and map. i2mo. 527 pages. 
Harper Bros., New York, 1856. 

Winslow, Forbes Benignus, fl. D., D. C. L 306 

(1810-1874.) 

Woods, Katherine P 384 

Wright, Thos., M. A., F. S. A 437 

Corresponding Member of the National Institute of 
France. "Narratives of Sorcery and Magic." From 
the most authentic sources. 2 vols. 8vo. Bentley, 
London, 1 851. American edition, I vol. 420 pages. 
Red field, New York. 

Xenophon ayo 

Zollner 210 

ZUndel. (See Blumhardt.) 



CLASSIC AUTHORS. 

Aurelius 330 

Favonius 270 

Hesiod 269 

Lucian 192 

Plato i»92 

Puny 296-7 

Virgil 430 

Xenophon 270 



CHRISTIAN FATHERS, 
Athanasius 131 

A"g"st'"« IzgsS 

Clemens Alex \ ^ , 

(295 

Cyprian 131 

Justin Martyr 131 

Lactantius 132 

TertuUian 128 



460 BIBLIOGRAPHICAL INDEX. 



JOURNALS. 

Athenaeum 369 

The Arena 142, 345 

Blackwood's 367 

Borderland , 383, 385 

Boston Post 369 

" Transcript 369 

The Century 142 

The Christian Herald and Signs of the Times 84 

The Congregationalist 378 

Contemporary Review 95 

Courrier des Etats-Unis 368 

The Forum 433 

The Fortnightly Review 241, 434 

The Independent (N. Y.) 127, 320 

Light 348 

Missionary Herald 372 

Monthly Mag. of Social Science and Progressive Literature . 327 

The New York Herald 354 

The New York Sun 368 

The New York Tribune 377 

The Nineteenth Century 101 

The North American Review 435 

The Old and New Testament Student 262 

Popular Science Monthly 191, 252, 356 

Proceedings of the S. P. R 48, 221, 383, 385 

Religio-Philosophical Journal \^ ^ 

Transactions of the College of Physicians of Philadelphia. 214 
Woman's Work For Woman 87 



BIBLICAL INDEX. 



GENESIS. 

6:2-4 ••• 374 

EXODUS. 

7 : 12, 22 291 

8:7, 18, 19 291 

LEVITICUS. 

17:7 294 

19 :3I 292 

20 : 6 292 

20 : 27 284, 429 

DEUTERONOMY. 

18: 10, II 285 

32:17 294 

1 SAMUEL. 

28 271 

I KINGS. 
22 : 18-22 269 

2 KINGS. 

9 : 22 302 

2 CHRONICLES. 

33:6 302 

JOB. 

I & 2 267 

32 : 18, 19 428 

PSALMS. 

104 : 30 389 

106:28, 34-38 294 

DANIEL. 
2:2 292 

MICAH. 
5 : 12 302 

11 



NAHUM. 
3:4 302 

MATTHEW. 

4:8, 9 267 

4 :24 181 

6:13 288 

7:22, 23 43. 259 

8:16 181 

8 : 28, 29 257 

8:29 278 

8 131 258, 276 

9:32, 33 i8i 

9:33 281 

10 : 1 248 

ID : II 181 

1 1 : 3-6 282 

12 : 22-29 253, 281 

12 : 22-30 264 

12 :27 259 

12 :43 248 

12:43, 44 258 

12:43-45 276 

17:15 65 

17 : 19 289 

24:24 427,43s 

MARK. 

I : 21-28 261 

I : 24, 25 283 

I :27, 28 281 

I :32 i87 

3:23 83 

3:11 86 

3:12 283 

3:15 i8i 

3 -22 253 

3 : 22-27 264 

5:6, 7 257 

5:9 258 

[461] 



462 



BIBLICAL INDEX. 



13 



17-29 
18 ... 
:i7 .. 



:36, 37- 



LUKE. 



406 
181 
424 
256 
282 

281 



4: 

4:31-37 261 

6 

7 



8: 
8: 
8: 
9: 
9: 
9: 
10 
10 
10 
10 
II 
II 
II 
II 
II 
II 
II 
12 

n 

16 
16 
22 
22 
22 
24 

I : 
12 
13 

14 
14 
16 



17, I» 181 

19-23 282 

2 : 258 

27, 28 257 

29 256 

30 83 

38.39 88 

I 181 

39 256 

49.50 59 

17 56 

17, 18 247 

17-20 265 

19 267 

4 288 

14-23 253,264 

20 281 

19 259 

21 267 

IS 253 

24 248 

50 284 

16 288 

19-31 271 

27 273 

31 268 

53 266 

31. 32 124 

37-39 342 

JOHN. 

i-io 74 

:3I 266 

:2, 27 287 

: 12 289 

: 30 266 

: II 266 



ACTS. 

10 :38 265 

10 :47 21 



16 : 16 264, 293 

16 : 16-18 83, 252, 415, 429 

16 : 17 259, 260 

17 =23 270 

19:14-17 70 

19:19 348 

23:8 391 

25 : 19 270 

ROMANS. 

1 170, 377 

I : 21-28 170 

1 :25 331 

7:17-23 2X2 

7:21-23 338 

8 : 26 124 

16:20 i 

1 CORINTHIANS. 

5:5 269 

8:5 437 

10:19. 20 292, 377 

10 : 20 83, 294 

12 389 

12:6 389 

2 CORINTHIANS. 

2:11 60 

4:4 267 

5=2 270 

" :i4. IS ..• 393 

12 :7 269, 288 

GALATIANS. 

1:8 393 

3:5 289 

5 : 20 302 

EPHESIANS. 

2 : 2 , 390 

3:19. 20 391 

4:19 287 

6:12 266, 373 

COLOSSIANS. 

1 : 13 266 

1 THESSALONIANS. 
5:21, 22 394 

2 THESSALONIANS. 

2 : 8, 9 435 



BIBLICAL INDEX. 



46^ 



I TIMOTHY. 

3 : " 263 

4:1. 2 393 

2 TIMOTHY. 

3:3 263 

TITUS. 

2:3 263 

HEBREWS. 

I :i3. 14 342 

7:25 124 

12:9 391 

12:23 342 

JAMES. 
2:19 363 

4:4. 5 390 

4:7 89, 262, 280 



2 PETER. 
2:4 270 

I JOHN. 

3:4 338 

4:1 272 

4:1-3 324,392 

4:4 124, 318 

JUDE. 

6 270 

9 267 

REVELATION. 

1:5 393 

4: ID, II 426 

12 : 9 267 

I3:"-I54 435 

16:13, 14 435 

19:20 435 

22:8, 9 392 



PATHOLOGICAL INDEX. 

A Numerical Index of the Cases of Possession Detailed 
IN THIS Volume. 



Cases in China. 

No. of Case, Pages. 

1. The boy Liu 12 

2. The man Kwo 17 

3. The woman Kwo 30 

4. A female medium. ... 36 

5. Case at Shin-tsai 38 

6. Case at Chwang-lo. . . 52 

7. Case of Wang Wu 

Fang 54 

8. Second case of Wang 

Wu Fang 55 

9. Chin, the scholar 61 

10. Boy at Chefoo 64 

1 1. Case at Yang-fu Miao. 75 

12. Case near Fat-shan. . . 76 

13. Case near Canton. .. . 78 

14. Case at Hong-Kong. . 79 

15. Tsai Se-hiang 79 

16. The woman Yang. .. . 82 

17. The woman at Fu- 

chow 84 

18. The Yong family .... 88 

19. Case in Chimi 149 

20. The Sung family 273 

(Described in the Appendix.) 

21. Mrs. Sie 333 

22. Mrs. Ku 334 

23. The Chang family... 340 

24. The Chu family in Sa- 

Wo 345 



25. The slave girl 352 

26. Case in Eastern En- 

Chiu 354 

27. The betrothed girl . . . 356 

28. Experience of Chiu- 

Ching 357 

29. Family in Kin-tswen. . 359 

30. Mrs. Shie 361 

31. Two boys in Hu-tsai. . 362 

32. Heo Tai-ts of Hu-kia. 362 

In India. 

33. The devil dancer 97 

34. Melata 102 

In Japan. 

35. Dr.Baelz's case, a girl. 105 

36. Dr. Gamanouchi's 
case, a boy 107 

In Germany. 

37. Blumhardt's case, 

Gottliebin Dittus.. iii 

38. Dr. Griesinger's cases : 

No. XV 119 

No. XVI 120 

No. XVII 122 

Other Cases. 

39. Dr. Tylor's case 148 

40. Sidney Dean 218 

41. The Watseka Wonder. 220 



[4G4] 



GENERAL INDEX. 



Absurdities and rubbish found 
equally in old and new litera- 
ture of the occult. Each 
reader to do his own sifting, 

353. 369- 

Acupuncture in exorcism, 53, 

54. 67. 

Adjuration, its effect on de- 
mons. TertuUian, 129 ; Cyp- 
rian, 131. 

Afflicted, the, in Salem witch- 
craft regarded as demoniacs, 

304-3"- 
Africa, possession in, 156 ; 

witchcraft in, 301, 311. 
Agrippa, Cornelius, 379. 
Ahab, demons in case of, 269. 
Ahriman, 372. 
Air, the habitat of demons, 

128. 
Alford, Dean, his rendering of 

Gal. iii. 5, 289. 
American Psychical Society, 

385. 
Angel, speaks, 124 ; power of, 
129 ; guardian, 63 ; mani- 
festations of good angels, 

354, 271 ; literature of angel- 
ology, 353 ; Bible test of 
good, 391, 392. 

Animism, Tylor on, 161-164, 

373; Hammond on, 178; 

persistence of this view, 163. 
A-priori reasoning upon the 

occult, 339, 341, 344 ; A. R. 

Wallace on, 344, 345, 370. 
Apparitions, to G. Dittus, 112, 

113; of Castor, 128, 129; 

of lambent lights, 322 ; 

James on, 432 ; Haweis on, 

30 



433; Kant on, 364; Posi- 
tivist testimony as to reality 
of, 365 ; literature of, 363. 

Appearance of demoniacs, 37, 
48, 49. 

Appendix, referred to, 92. 

Apocatastasis, See Leonard 
Marsh, 133, 357. 

Appolonius of Tyanna, 379. 

Apotheosis of departed spirits, 
62, 63, 269, 374, 377, 378. 

Asia, possession theory in S. E. 
Asia, 157. 

Ashmore on Chinese spiritism, 
427. 

Astrology, 299. 

Athanasius on exorcism, 13 1. 

Augustine on Platonic view of 
demons, 270, 295, 296 ; on 
miracles, 337. 

Aura, peripheral nervous, 196. 

Aurelius, Marcus, use of word 
demon, 330. 

Author (J. L. Nevius), Intro- 
duction. Explanatory Note. 
Arrival in China, and incre- 
dulity as to demons, 9, 10, 
262. His teacher in the 
language the first witness, 9, 
10. Removal to Shantung, 
Called on for exorcism, 138. 
Issues circular, 41. 

Auto-hypnotism, see Hypno- 
tism, and 229. 

Automatic writing ; case of 
Sydney Dean, 218; Myers 
on, 48, 69, 188, 204, 223, 
233, 221. See Planchette, 
Mediumistic literature ; 348, 
360. 

[-165] 



466 



GENERAL INDEX. 



Baelz, Dr., his facts, 104-106 ; 
his theory of possession by 
fox in Japan, 201. 

Baptist mission (English), tes- 
timony from, 52, 62. 

Baslian, Dr., quoted by Tylor, 

158. 

Beecher, Rev. Chas., 125, note; 
also, Bibliograph. Index. 

Beelzebub and Satan, inter- 
changeable terms, 264. 

Belden, Dr., his case, 238. 

Bible, reading for exorcism, 
76. Furnishes key to diffi- 
culties, 243, 244 ; evidential 
value to Bible of these mod- 
ern facts, 243, 244 ; five 
views examined of the Bible 
doctrine of possession, 245- 
254 J authority of Bible as- 
sumed by author, 245 ; the 
sixth and author's view of 
Bible doctrine of possession, 
254 ; twenty-four points' of 
correspondence between Bi- 
ble cases and modern cases 
of possession, 255-261. Bi- 
ble account of spiritistic phe- 
nomena, 323, 348, 391 ; Bi- 
ble tests of the spirits, 324, 
392 ; agreement of Bible 
with outside testimony, 244 ; 
the various Greek words 
and equivalents used for 
evil spirits in New Testa- 
ment, 263-266 ; Satan and 
the demons, 264-266 ; value 
of Bible testimony at its 
least estimate, 348 ; Bible 
account of angelic appear- 
ances, 354 ; Bible forbids 
communication with the 
dead, 392 ; index of Bible 
passages referred to. 461. 

Biography, its contribution to 
data of the occult, 272, 379. 

Birma, fever demon of, 157. 

Black Art, 386. 



Blasphemy of demons, 123, 
125. 

Blumhardt, John Christopher, 
his testimony, I11-116, 191 ; 
the man and his biography. 
See Bibliog. Index. 

Bodily inflictions by demons, 
14, 287, 288 ; see physical. 

Boehme, 380. 

Boston Public Library, litera- 
ture of spiritism in, 358. 

Bourne, Rev. Ansel, case of 
alternating personality, 215, 
216, 457. 

Brace, Chas. L., on primitive 
monotheism, 172. 

Brain, abnormal double action 
explained by its two halves ; 
Dr. Baelz on this, 201-204. 
Dr. James, 204, 215 ; Ribot 
and Griesinger, 204, 205 ; 
Wigan, 205, 215 ; Holland, 
205. 

Brainerd, Rev. David, a case 
described by, 149. 

Brutes frightened by spirits, 
405; possessed by spirits, 
258. 

Buckley, Dr. J. M., 291, 299, 
301, 

Buddha, 70. 

Buddhism recognizes posses- 
sion, 158; exorcism by Budd- 
hist sects, 202. 

Bushnell, Rev. Horace, on col- 
lecting data, 272. 

Cagliostro, 379, 

Canton, 76. 

Capital Code of Connecticut on 
witchcraft, 300. 

Cardan, Jerome, 379. 

Cardwell, Robert C, D. D., 
his testimony as to posses- 
sions in India, 95, 261. 

Cases of possession. See Pos- 
session, and Index of cases; 
twenty-four points of cor- 



GENERAL INDEX. 



467 



respondence between the 
Chinese and New Testament 
cases, 255-261 ; fourteen 
points of correspondence 
with spiritualism, 321, 322. 

Cerebration, unconscious, 219, 
224. 

Ceylon, Vedas of, 154. 

Chamberlain, Prof. B. H., on 
possession in Japan, 104. 

Chang Chwang Tien-ts, village, 
402. 

Chang Kia Chwang, village, 
10, 418. 

Chang-lo, a district, 45, 52. 

Chefoo, 10, 44, 64, 62, 401. 

Che-Kiang, province, 9. 

Chia-Sioh, a place, 87. 

Chi-Mi, a village, 149. 

China' s Millions, quoted, 73. 

Chinese Christians, casting out 
spirits, 14. (See also Index 
of Cases.) Their piety, 339; 
who were formerly demo- 
niacs, 148, 149; their belief in 
the reality of possession, 15 ; 
unready with testimony, 15, 
16 ; dispossession and faith 
healing among, 282 ; their 
testimony, 137-139; its 
value, 140-143. 

Chinese view of possession and 
of spirits, 16, 17, 32, 33, 89, 
408. 

Christ, his doctrine as to Satan, 
262 ; an expert who can be 
trusted, 393. 

Christian Faith, only defense 
against evil sprits, 391; only 
link with the Spirit of God, 
391; endangered by seduc- 
ing spirits, 392, 393. 

Christian Fathers, their testi- 
mony quoted, 127-133, 192, 
294, 295, 298 ; Athanasius, 
131 ; Augustine, 270, 295, 
337; Clemens Alex., 192, 
295 ; Cyprian, 131 ; Justin, 



131 ; Lactantius, 132 ; Ter- 
tullian, 128. 

Christlieb, Theodore, endorses 
the possession theory, 1 10, 
112. 

Church Missionary Society's 
testimony, 84. 

Chwang-teo, village, 273. 

Cinnabar used in exorcism, 32. 

Circular letter, 41-44. 

Clairvoyance, 33, 83, 50, 296. 

Clemens, Alex., on polyglottic 
powers of demons, 192. 

Clarke, Dr, Adam, 125, note. 

Classic authors cited ; Aurelius 
330 ; Favonius, 270; Hesiod, 
269 ; Lucian, 192 ; Plato, 
192, 270 ; Pliny, 296, 297 ; 
Virgil, 430 ; Xenophon, 270. 

Coke, Lord, third Institute 
quoted on witchcraft, 301. 

Coleman, Lyman, 132, note. 

Compact between witch and 
demon, 301, 310. 

Compound, use of the term in 
the East, 11. 

Conclusion, author's, 332. 

Conclusion, general, 387. 

Confucian exorcism, 68. 

Connecticut capital code de- 
fines witch, 300. 

Conjurors, Taoist, 69, 70 ; 
Sandwich Islands, 155 ; Sing- 
pho, 154. 

Consciousness, total suppres- 
sion of normal consciousness 
common in possession. See 
index of cases, and 24, 38, 
39, 46, 49, 50, 53, 54, 57, 85, 
143, 144, 150, 217, 349, 
et al. Partial suppression of 
consciousness, 15^. 

Double consciousness, 105, 
106, 119, 120, 199, 257. 
Griesinger on interior con- 
tradiction of consciousness. 
199 ; Myers on duplicated 
individuality, 189 ; sublim- 



468 



GENERAL INDEX. 



inal consciousness, 224-227 ; 
the underlying psychical 
unity contrasted with person- 
ality, 226; Dr. James on 
empirical and habitual con- 
sciousness, 225, 226. 

See Cerebration, Duality, 
Knowledge, Memory, Per- 
sonality, Possession, Self, 
Soul, Thought, Trance. 

Contemporary Review, 95. 

Contortions of demoniacs, 53. 
112,362. 

Contradiction, interior, Dr. 
Griesinger on, 199. 

Cook, Joseph, no, 127, 320. 

Countenance changed in pos- 
session, 47, 124, 346. 

Credulity, Dr. Hammond on, 
176, 177. 

Criterion of experience, 337, 
343 ; of Christ's doctrine, 

393. 394- 
Croesus tests the oracle, 296. 
Cross, sign of in exorcism, 131, 

132. 
Curiosity to witness the occult, 

386. 
Crux interpretum of early 

Genesis, 374. 
Cyprian, 131. 

Dean, Sidney, his automatic 
writing, 218. 

Dead, the, communication with, 
apparent instances of, 46, 
75, 156, 220, 233, 234, 271, 
274, 341, 296, 408; for- 
bidden in Bible, 392. See 
Necromancy. 

Dr. Dee, 379. 

Delphic oracle, 293, 311. 

Demi-gods, 372. 

Demons, who they are, 49, 62, 
219, 266, 269; Bible view 
of their relation to Satan, 
260, 269, 270 ; silence of 
Bible regarding demons. 269, 



270 ; shows their reality, 292; 
Greek view, Hesiod, 269 ; 
Plato, 192, 270, note, 293, 
294; Josephus's view, 342; 
Gall's view, a pre-Adamic 
race, 270, 376; Chinese view 
62, 63, 323. 

Their own claims, preten- 
sions and acknowledgments ; 
to be spirits, genii, 32, 46 ; 
to be spirits of the dead, 46, 
62, 63, 75, 112. 129, 154; 
James, 220 ; Myers, 233, 
234, 271, 272, 274, 296, 346; 
to be gods, demanding wor- 
ship, 15-17, 22, 24, 25, 46, 
49, 50, ICX3, 106, 107, 123, 
130, 159. 276,395,398, 402; 
to be God, 100, 123; to be 
demons, or evil spirits, 53, 
129, 130, 186. 

Their relation to each 
other; claim authority over 
other spirits, 26 ; insubordi- 
nation to their chief, 278, 
279 ; of various kinds, 53 ; 
have their individual char- 
acters, 256. 

Their powers, intellectual 
and physical; clairvoyance, 
33,83, 150, 296 ; prediction, 
33, 83, 221 ; improvise verse, 
31, 36-38, 58; speak for- 
eign and unknown languages, 
46, 47, 58, 115, 145, 190- 
193, 218, 233, 174, 380; 
confer superhuman strength, 
64, 65, 116, 400 ; make them- 
selves audible by voice and 
noise, 68, 113, 114,399,403; 
singing, 58 ; speak in their 
own several voices, 39, 46, 
49, 50, 105, 106, 114, 120, 
121, 123, 406; make them- 
selves visible by apparitions, 
112, 113, 128, 129, 322; 
James on, 431; Havveis 
no, 432 (See Apparitions) ; 



GENERAL INDEX. 



469 



make their invisible presence 
felt and recognized, 22, 36 ; 
personate different indvidu- 
als, 49, 58, 75, 76, 218, 219, 
274, 346; recognize Christ, 
27. 31, 39. 55. 56, 82, 86, 
145, 257,278, 290,397,404; 
warn men of their danger, 
115 ; make fires, 403-406, 
414; injure by bodily vio- 
lence, 14, 287, 288, 53, 112, 
398, 424; injure property, 
50, 399, 403 ; hate and 
injure exorcists, 70; frighten 
brutes, 405 ; possess brutes, 
258 ; produce dreams, 53, 
85,86, 119, 129, 162, 192; 
produce dumbness, 122 ; 
change the countenance, 37, 

48, 49 ; produce contortions, 
53, 112, 424 (See also Index 
of Cases); tyrannize over 
men, 256; inflict disease, 26, 
50,63, 128, 265, 287, 288; 
cure disease, 25, 26, 37, 39, 
48,66, 102, 128, 321, 399; 
influence and control human 
beings by temptation, obses- 
sion, and possession, 287 ; in 
possession drive men to 
drunkenness, 404, 419 ; gam- 
bling, 22, 23 ; suicide, 34, 
65, 71, 86, 97, 119, 405 ; 
violence, 23, 33, 64, 77, 53, 
96, 331, 423; self-mutilation 

49, 91, 100, 256; incendia- 
rism, 77, 94 ; obscenity. 256, 
257 ; nymphomania, 122 ; 
blasphemy, 123, 125 ; self- 
starvation, 23, 403. Demons 
have their liberty and limits, 
260 ; their raving, 24, 33, 
55, 64, 65; grief, 31, 53, 
83 ; demons "dull and triv- 
ial," 199 ; confess to being 
under involuntary restraint, 
398 ; dread Christ, and can- 
not remain in the presence 



of active Christian faith, 
hence infrequency of pos- 
session where Christianity 
prevails. See Index of Cases, 
and 27, 33, 39, 119, 194, 
114, 115, 123, 124, 278, 290, 
397, 400, 423-425 ; yield to 
adjuration in the name of 
Christ, 129, 131. 

Their fiio fives, 31, 49, 64, 
129, 273 ; desire a body, 
193, 194, 258,271,275,276; 
an instance of apparent 
good motive, 274, 295. 

Their relation to idolatry, 
59, 83, 260, 294, 377, 437 ; 
their testimony to Christ, 

283, 284, 27, 82, 39. 
Demon-worship in Inilia, 

98 ; Paul, Festus, Favonius, 
and Xenophon on, 270, note; 
368, 374. Demon of Soc- 
rates not so called by him, 
329 ; use of word "demon " 
by Aurelius, 330 ; demons 
in case of Ahab, 269 ; their 
habitat in the air, 128. 
Demoniac, as distinguished in 
Bible from witch and wizard, 

284, 285, 428, 429 ; from 
the developed medium, 65, 
286 ; becomes a medium, 65, 
66 ; cringing nature of, 64 ; 
appearance of, 37, 48, 49 ; 
contortions of, 53, 112, 424. 

Demonology of the Greeks, 
270, note ; 294 ; R. W. Emer- 
son on, 349 ; literature of, 
349 ; Encyclopedia Britannica 
on, 249, 250. 

Demonomania and 

Demonomelancholia, Dr. Grie- 
singer on, 116. 

Departments of Study con- 
cerned with the occult, 347. 

Devil (See Satan), distin- 
guished from demons in 
New Testament, 263-266. 



470 



GENERAL INDEX. 



Devil Dancers, 154, 157. 

Devil Worshipers, 367, 368. 

Disease, inflicted by demons, 
26, 50, 63, 128, 265, 287, 
288 ; cured by demons, 25, 
26, 37, 39, 48, 66, 102, 128, 
321, 399 ; some diseases 
beyond control of demons, 
26 ; distinguished from pos- 
session, 63, 132, 180-182, 
185, 188; healed in answer 
to prayer, in, 282, 423, 
426, 

Disgrace attending possession 
in view of Chinese, 16, 139, 

140, 323, 395- 
Divination (See Oracle, Pos- 
session, Planchette) by tables, 
128, 129, 83, 221, 299, 414, 

415, 378. 
Dogmatism of Science, R. 

Heber Newton on, 142, note; 

345 ; of Dr. Hammond, 179. 
Dongha at Ghonspore, 102. 
Dorman, Rushton M., 108, 

151. 152. 

Dragon Procession in China 
commemorates exorcism, 70. 

Dreams, symptoms of posses- 
sion in, 53, 119, 129, 162, 
192 ; commanded in, 85, 86; 
not commonly but some- 
times occult, 381, 282, note. 

Duality of Mind Theory, 201 ^ 
202, 204, 205. 

Edmunds, Judge, his daugh- 
ters poly glottic powers, 192 ; 
his mediumistic writings, 
360. 

Eglington, the medium, 379. 

Ellinwood, Dr. F. F. Intro- 
duction ; on original mono- 
theism, 172 note, 

Elymas the sorcerer, 429. 

Enchantment, 299. 

En-Chiu, 273, 314, 316, 419, 
421. 



Energy of the Holy Spirit, 389; 
of the evil spirit, 390. 

English Wesleyan Mission, 78, 
82. 

English Church Missionary 
Society, 84. 

Encyclopedia Britannica on 
demonology, 249, 250. 

Epilepsy confused with posses- 
sion, 182, note; 381. 

Evidence, difficulty of collect- 
ing from Chinese, 15, 16; 
summarized in eleven propo- 
sitions, 143-145 ; corroborat- 
ive, 340, 255 ; experimen- 
tal, 339 ; abundance of, 
341 ; how to deal with un- 
welcome evidence, 344. 

Evidential value to Bible of 
facts collected, 243-245. 

Evolution, used to explain 
facts, 146, 151-174. 

Experience, a test of truth, 
343 ; but inadequate as cri- 
terion, 337. 

Experiment, conditions of suc- 
cessful, 317, 318. 

Experimental research in the 
occult, 385, 386 ; its danger, 
386, 387, 392. 

Expert testimony and common 
sense, 142, note; 260, 261, 
315. 352, 386; of Christ, 
393. 394- 

Explanations of the phenom- 
ena : By imposture, 147- 
150 ; by odic force, 150, 
151 ; by evolution, 151- 
174 ; by pathology, 107, 108, 
167-169, 174-186, 195-206, 
237-241 ; by psychology, 
208-237 ; by demonology, 
243-266. 

Exorcism through faith in 
Christ exemplified in most 
of the cases described. See 
Index of Cases, 13, 28, 34, 
35'. 80, 54, 71, 74, 114, 130, 



GENERAL INDEX. 



471 



132, 145, 258 ; why exor- 
cism by Christ was wonder- 
ful to the Jews, 280, 281 ; 
why exorcism in his name 
wonderful to us, 270 ; by 
the Holy Spirit, 90 ; by faith 
expressed in reading the 
Scriptures, 75, 76 (after 
reading Chinese classics had 
failed); its mode by Christ, 
280, 282 ; by adjuration, 
129, 131 ; by a sign of the 
cross, 131 ; evidential value 
to Christianity of exorcism 
by Christian faith, 259, 282 ; 
certainty of this remedy, 
145 ; by excommunicated 
persons, 259 ; Chinese 
methods ; by chanting the 
classics, 75 ; flagellation, 
193 ; by cinnabar, 32 ; by 
acupuncture, 53, 54, 67 ; also 
50» 75> 350 ; Hindu exor- 
cism, loi ; Burman, 158; 
Japanese, 106, 202 ; singing 
in exorcism, 54-56. 
Exorcists, hated by demons, 
70 ; in early church a 
special class, 132. 

Facts, established by evidence 
collected in China, summa- 
rized in eleven propositions, 
143-145 ; of this volume 
drawn from life more than 
from literature, 333 ; still 
occurring and within proof, 
333 i belong to a great class, 
333 ; of the occult, 336 ; of 
prodigies, 340 ; designation 
of class, 334 ; their vitality 
and persistence, 334, 432 ; 
general remarks on, 333. 

Fairfield, Francis Gerry, 191, 
195 ; his theory, 319. 

Faith, Christian, in exorcism 
(which see) the sole means 
of adequate defense against 



evil spirits, 391 ; and of 
communion with Holy Spirit, 

391- 

Faith Healing among Chinese 
Christians, 282, note ; 423, 
426; with Blumhardt, iii. 

Familiar Spirits, reality of, 
292, 293 ; intercourse with, 
forbidden in Bible, 323. 

Fan-hu-li, or fox possession, 
46. 

Fathers. (See Christian Fa- 
thers.) 

Fat-shan, village, 76, 77, 79. 

Faust, 379. 

Favonius on demon-worship, 
270, note. 

Feats, the three capital feats 
of high magic in India, 435. 

Festus on Jewish religion, 270, 
note. 

Fiction, studies of occult, in, 

383. 

Field, Miss A. M., her testi- 
mony, 88. 

Figian Priests, 154. 

Fires started by spirits, 403- 
406, 414. 

Fisher, Geo. P., on Mahomet, 
297. 

Flagellation in exorcism, 193. 

Folk-lore and the occult, 371. 

Foochow, Fuchow, 45, 47, 48. 

Foster, Chas. H., the medium, 
380. 

Fox possession in China, 51, 
46, 71 ; in Japan, 104, 202. 

France, cases of possession fre- 
quent in, 117, 118; devil 
worshippers in, 368. 

Fraud in spiritualism, 146-148, 
315, 316, 150, 153. 

Fu Kien, province, cases in, 45. 

Fuchow. (See Foochow.) 

Fu-San city, 79. 

Gamanouchi, Dr., his testi- 
mony, 107. 



472 



GENERAL INDEX. 



Gambling mania induced by 

spirits, 22, 23. 
Gall, Rev. Jas., view of Satanic 

race, 270. 
Genii identified with the spirits 

and demons, 32, 46, 49. 
Ghonspore, exorcism at, 102. 
Ghosts. (See Apparitions.) 
Giles, H. A., translator of 

Liao-Chai, 72. 
Gilmour, Rev. Jas., 60. 
Gods of the heathen identified 

with demons by St. Paul, 

294, 377- 
Gravity, annihilation of in 

levitation, 436. 
Greek spiritism, 293 ; demon- 

ology, 270, 294. 
Grief, possession beginning in 
^ a fit of, 53. 
Griesinger, Dr., his rank in 

medicine, 116, 117; his 

facts, 1 17-125, 197 ; his 

theory, 201. 
Guinea, oracles of, 156. 
Guyon, Madame, 380. 

Hai-ping, district, 79. 

Hale, Sir Matthew, sense of 
responsibility in trial for 
witchcraft, 303 ; charge to 
jury, 305. 

Hall of Revelations, 48. 

Hallucinations in possession, 
118,381. 

Hammond, Dr. Wm. A., on 
induction, 175-177 ; healthy 
scepticism, 176 ; patholog- 
ical theory of possession, 
175-186, 237-241 ; his ma- 
terialistic ground, 179 ; defi- 
nition of mind, 179; mis- 
statement of facts, 179- 
186. 

Hansen, hypnotizer, 230. 

Hastings, H. L,, 129, note ; 

133, 339- 
Haunted Houses, 10-12, 322. 



Haweis, Rev. H, R., on the 
persistence of the occult, 432. 

Hecker, Dr., on imposture, 
147. 

Henderson, Rev. Jas., on de- 
mons, 270. 

Hesiod's view of demons, 269. 

Hiang-to, incense burner or 
medium, 187, 395, 397. 

Hindu case, 102; magic, 31 1, 

434- 

Hing-Kia, village, 17, 30. 

Hin-Kong village, 79. 

Hodgson, Dr. Richard, 220, 
note ; 221. 

Ho Kia-Chwang, village, 61. 

Holmes, O. W., 219. 

Holy Spirit, antagonizes the 
evil spirit, 124, note ; 318, 
331, exorcism by, 90; en- 
ergy of, 389 ; desires posses- 
sion of man, 390 ; commun- 
ion with, through faith, 391. 

Home, D. D., the medium, 379. 

Hume, David, 337. 

Hu-sien-ye, one of the fox 
fraternity, 46. 

Hwei, a market, 395. 

Hypnosis, 229, 381. 

Hypnotism, in case of Ansel 
Bourne, 216 ; Dr. James on, 
217 ; as related to the 
medium trance, 217 ; Moll 
on, 229-230 ; relation to 
possession, 201, 237, 240; 
distinguished from posses- 
sion, 230; effect of on 
memory, 229 ; like artificial 
somnambulism, 238 ; auto- 
hypnotism, 229, 

Idolatry and demon worship, 
276 ; St. Paul on, 292, 377 ; 
Christian fathers on, 127-133. 

lUuminati, the, 380. 

Illusions, 381. 

Imposture, explanation by, 150, 
153, 146-148,315-316. 



GENERAL INDEX. 



473 



Incense tables, 47. 

Incident, books of, 368. 

India, possession in, 95-103, 
158 ; high magic in, 434. 

Indians, American, witchcraft 
among, 301, 149. 

Individuality, duplicated, 189 ; 
contrasted with personaHty 
by James, 226. 

Induction, the author's, 333, 
Dr. Hammond on, 175, 179; 
by Chinese and Jews, 182 ; 
how avoided through preju- 
dice, 339, 341, 344, 370. 

Inland Mission, testimony, 73, 
361. 

Innocent, Rev. J., 82. 

Insanity confused with posses- 
sion, 63, 132, 180-182, 185, 
188, 381. 

Interment, voluntary, a magical 
feat, 436. 

Invocation of spirits, 321. 

Jamblicus, 379. 

James, Dr. Wm., on the two 
halves of brain, 204 ; on the 
soul, 208 ; alternating per- 
sonality, 213-216 ; posses- 
sion and mediumship, 217, 
218 ; limits of science in these 
matters, 231-233 ; automatic 
writing, 218; theforeign 'con- 
trol,' 219 ; the dead, 220 ; 
case of Lurancy Vennum, 
220, 221 ; the medium trance 
and readjustment of science, 

43I' 434- 
Japan, possession in, 103, 104 ; 

case of boy, 107 ; girl, 

105. 
Jewett, Rev. Edward H., on 

the last petition of the Lord's 

prayer, 289, note. 
Job, Satan in book of, 267, 

268. 
Josephus, 342. 
Journalism of the occult, 384. 



Justin Martyr, 131. 
Kabbala, 361. 
Kabbalists, 380. 
Kamtchatka, oracles, 1 54. 
Kellar, Prof. Harry, on high 

caste Indian magic, 435. 
Kerner, Dr. A J., 125, 350. 
Kiang-lan, Chinese planchette, 

48. 
Kitsuni-tsuki, fox possession in 

Japan, 104. 
Knowledge, superhuman shown 

in possession, 19O-193, 418. 

(See possession ) 
Krishaber, 213. 
Kwan-yiu, goddess of mercy, 

396- 
Kwan-tung, province, 88. 
Kwei or Mo-Kwei, demon, 

46, 83. 
Ky-uin, legion, 48, 83, 115. 

Lactantius, 132. 
Lai-shan-shin-mu, a goddess, 

397- 

Langley, Prof. S. P., 142. 

Language, forgotten language, 
spoken in hypnosis, 230 ; 
polyglottic powers of spir- 
its (See Possession), 190, 

193- 

Laughlin, Rev. 

Law, every kind has its own, 
336 ; all pervading law a 
Biblical conception, 337 ; 
sin the only breach of law 
recognized in the Bible, and 
has a law of its own, 338 ; 
miracles not a breach of law, 
337, 338 ; pervades mental 
as well as material facts, 
152. 

Legion, 83, 97, 115, 48. 

Leibnitz, his maxim, 173. 

Leng-ko, a place, 395. 

Levitation, 62 ; Taoist, 69, 70. 

Leyenberger, Rev. J. A., 35, 
36. 



474 



GENERAL INDEX. 



Li, a mile, 396. 

Liao-Chai, the Chinese book 

of folklore, 71, 72, 449 
Ling-Ku, district, 17, 38. 
Literature of the occult, 346. 
London Missionary Society, 

60, 76, 79. 
Longfellow, 268, 
Lotze on the Self, 210. 
Lunacy. (See Insanity.) 
Lucian, on polyglottic demons, 

192. 
Luciferians, sect of, 368. 
Lu-tsu, a favorite spirit, 49, 68. 

Magic, Chinese, 80 ; averred 
of Blumhardt, 112; Atha- 
nasius on, 132 ; of Egypt, 
291 ; defined, 299 ; vague- 
ness of term, 300 ; Hindu, 
311; high magic in India, 
435 ; magic in Italy, 376; 
(See Levitation, Physical 
Phenomena, Voluntary In- 
terment, Rappings, Sorcery, 
Tables. ) 

Mahomet, source of his in- 
spiration, 297, 298, 313, 
360. 

Manchuria, 70. 

Mandarin dialect, 47. 

Marsh, Leonard, 133, 

Martin, W. A. P. on primitive 
monotheism, 171. 

Marvelous, elimination of 
from nature, 366. 

Mason, Dr., quoted by Tylor, 
149. 

Materialism vs. Animism, 
Tylor, 164 ; of Dr. Ham- 
mond, 178, 179 ; of modern 
psychology, 207, 208 ; Dr. 
James on diffirulties of ma- 
terialistic explanation, 232, 

431. 432. 
Mather, Cotton, 126, 303, 
Maurice, F. D., on reality of 

Satanic agency, 311, 312. 



Mc Cartee, Dr. D. B., 106. 

Mc Rae, Rev. Thad., 109. 

Medical theory superseding 
earlier view, 267. 

Mediums, Chinese, 36-38, 25, 
148, 47, 48, 89 ; Fairfield on, 
196 ; role of mediums as- 
sumed, 217 ; development 
of, 321 ; how regarded by 
Chinese, 323 ; how related 
to possession, 332 ; dis- 
tinguished from demoniacs, 
285, 286, 332 ; identified with 
pagan pythoness and oracles, 
311, 317 ; with witch, sooth- 
sayer, necromancer, 286, 
332 ; Taoist mediums, 69, 
70 ; mediums in India, 99 ; 
Fairfield's division of medi- 
ums into those of cephalic 
and vital temperaments, 196; 
moral accompaniments of 
their art, 323 ; immense 
literature of mediumistic 
wonders, 348 ; mediumistic 
writers, 360. 

Memory, hereditary transmis- 
sion of, 192 ; quickened by 
hypnosis, 229 ; Ribot on, 

235- 

Merlin, 379. 

Mesmerism. (See Hypnotism.) 

Methodist testimony, 45, 82. 

Mi-mi religion, 83. 

Missionaries, Protestant, in- 
structions to natives, 14, 15 ; 
their views of possession 
classified, 134-136 ; value of 
their testimony, 134 ; seldom 
meet cases, and why, 136- 
139 ; Roman Catholic mis- 
sionary's view, 93. 

Miracles, not abnormal, 337; 
Augustine on, 337 ; term dis- 
tinguished from supernatu- 
ral, 338. 

Mitchell, Dr. S. W.,214. 

Mo-Kwei. demon, 83. 



GENERAL INDEX. 



475 



Moll, Albert, on autohypno- 
tism, 229. 

Mongolia, 60. 

Monotheism, the primitive 
faith, 170-173. 

Moral conditions of spirit- 
ual manifestations, 317, 318, 
327-329 ; moral character of 
demoniac, 144, 145, 194, 199; 
moral factor in pursuit of 
truth, 344. 

Moule, A. E., on Chinese spir- 
itism, 428. 

Muir, Sir. Wm., on Mahomet, 

313- 

Myers, Fred'k W. H., on mul- 
tiplex personality, 188 ; auto- 
matic writing, 204, 223, 233 ; 
alternating personality, 224 ; 
subliminal consciousness, 
224-227 ; underlying psy- 
chical unity, or individuality, 
226 ; personality applied to 
the more transient characters 
or chains of memory, the 
unmanifested self, 227 ; the 
agency of the dead, 233, 
234 ; the difficulties to be 
solved, 233, 234. 

Myths, occult phenomena so 
regarded, 334 ; John Fiske's 
definition of, 371 ; originat- 
ing in occult phenomena, 

339- 
Mythology, relation of to the 
occult, 371 ; to demonology, 

372. 
Max Miiller's view of, 373. 
Mysteries, heathen in western 

lands, 385. 

Nature, different conceptions 
of, 334 ; a proper view of 
and definition, 334 ; St. 
Paul's inventory of, 335; dis- 
tinction between nature and 
supernatural, 335 ; known 
and unknown, 337. 



Natural History, Emerson ov. 
its use, 388 ; telepathy a fact 
of, 388 ; possession a fact 
of, 387 ; Tylor on human 
life a part of, 152. 

Necromancy, 271, 272, 299, 
321, 346; communication 
with the dead, 46, 62, 63, 
75, 112, 129, 154, 220, 233, 
234, 274, 296, 40S, .-71. ^72, 

341, 342. 

Nervo-dynamic and nervo- 
psychic phenomena in me- 
diums, 195, 196. 

Nevins, on Salem witchcraft, 
306. 

Newton, R. II., on dogma- 
tism of science, 142, 345. 

Nicheren sect, exorcism by, 
106, 202. 

Nichols, Dr. T. L., on relation 
of Spiritualism to Chris- 
tianity, 327. 

Nineteenth Century, maga- 
zine, quoted, loi ; culmina- 
tions of history in, 392. 

Ningpo, author's home 9, 10. 

Nostradamus 379. 

Noyes, Rev. H. V., 76, 79. 

Nymphomania in possession, 



Oberlin, experience of spirit 
manifestations, 126. 

Obh, various meanings of this 
Hebrew term discussed by 
Pember, 428. 

Obi practice, 377. 

Obsession and possession, four 
stages, 285. 

Occult, the term, 334 ; phe- 
nomena defined, 335 ; cause 
of, 336 ; laws of peculiar yet 
a part of natural order, and 
not abnormal, 336 ; phe- 
nomena a source of super- 
stitions and myths, 339 ; 
:ibnndance of, 340 ; how re- 



476 



GENERAL INDEX. 



garded by many, 339 ; be- 
long to class of prodigies, 
340 ; pervade history, 340 ; 
experimental research in, 

386 ; danger of this, 387 ; 
a fad, 386 ; duty of under- 
standing it, 386 ; curiosity to 
witness it, 386 ; in Bible 
lands, 386 ; in heathen lands, 

387 ; rising flood of in Eu- 
rope and America. 387 ; 
Journalism of occult, 384 ; 
Havveis on persistence of 
the phenomena, 432. 

Odic force, 150, 151, 366. 
Oracles, Greek, Delphic, 217, 

293, 294; evidence of super- 
human knowledge in, 296 ; 
tested by Croesus, 296 ; and 
by Trajan ; priestess same 
as witch and medium, 310, 
311, 317. Tertullian on, 
128; Cyprian on, 131; Dr. 
Tylor on, 153 ; Sibylline, 
297; Kamtchatka, 154; 
Tahiti, 155 ; Guinea, 156. 

Oudh, loi. 

Pacific Islands, Wizard, 164. 
Paganism identified with de- 
mon-worship, 270, note; 

294, 374, 377, quoted. 
Pagoda Shadows, 88. 
Pantheism and Polytheism, 

their historical order, 170. 

Patagonian Wizard, 153. 

Pathology, literature of, 380. 

Pathological explanation of 
possession, Tylor, 167-169, 
174 ; Hammond, 1 75-186, 
237-241; Fairfield, 195-197 ; 
Griesinger, 197-201 ; Baelz, 
201-206 ; Gamanouchi, 107, 
108. 

Paul, St., his temptation, 269, 
law of the members and 
mind, 212 ; on connection of 
idolatry with demon-worship. 



292, 377 ; on Greek worship, 
270 ; his inventory of nature, 

335- 

Pember, 206, 269 ; on differ- 
ence of demoniac and me- 
dium, 428, 429. 

Personality, the new person- 
ality in possession, 107, 186- 
190, 144, 198, 203, 217, 218, 

255, 53- 

Multiplex personality (may 
be more than two selves), 

204, 257, 258, 120, 198, 188, 

205, 206. 

Diseased personality, 189 ; 
alternate, 212-216, 224-227 ; 
a mask, 226 ; a concensus, 
228 ; implications of, accord- 
ing to Dr. James, 211 ; con- 
trasted with individuality, 
226 ; assertion and recogni- 
tion of new personality, 144, 
258. (See Consciousness, 
Possession, Self, Soul.) 

Pe-ta, 23. 

Peter, St., his temptation, 268. 

Phantom. (See Apparition.) 

Pharisees, creed of, 391. 

Phenomena, occult, how dis- 
tinguished, 335, 336. 

Phelps, Dr. Austin, IIO, 126; 
on modern demonism, 427 ; 
basis of truth in Spiritualism, 
318, 319 ; adaptation to its 
ends, 320, 330 ; value of his 
testimony, see Bibliog. Index. 

Phelps, Rev. Eliakim, 125-127. 

Philippi, damsel of (Acts xvi, 
16), 293, 294. 

Physical phenomena of de- 
monism. (See possession.) 

Ping-tu, 15, 395. 

Planes of natural being, various, 

335, 336. 

Planchette, Chinese, 48, 69. 

Plato on polyglottic powers of 
demoniacs, 192 ; conception 
of demons, 270, note. 



GENERAL INDEX. 



477 



Pliny, testimony to intercourse 
with spirits, 296, 297. 

Plumb, W. J., letter, 44, 45. 

Plumber, Dr., on James iv, 7, 
261. 

Polyglottism of demoniacs, 
190-193. (See Language.) 

Polytheism and pantheism his- 
torical order, 170; begins in 
ghost worship, 276, 374, 378, 

392. 
Positivist testimony to object- 
ive reality of phantoms, 

365. 
Possession, twenty-four points 
of exact resemblance be- 
tween Chinese cases and 
those of New Testament, 
250-261 ; New Testament 
word for possession, 264 ; 
fourteen points of resem- 
blance between phenomena 
of possession and of 
Spiritualism, 321,322; phe- 
nomena of possession, 
Tylor, on their persistence, 
167 ; Chinese cases occur 
more often in rural districts, 
261 ; reluctance of natives 
to give testimony, and why, 
15, 16, 139, 140, 223, 395 ; 
possession in Africa, 156 ; 
why infrequent in Christian 
lands, 277, 278, 318, 386 ; 
bodily symptoms of approach- 
ing possession, 22, 23, 25, 
89, 346 (see also Index of 
Cases) ; plural possession 
or multiplex personality, 
one body and many spirits, 
120, 121, 188, 198, 334, 340, 
257, 258, 205, 206, 204; 
Fairfield's division of phe- 
nomena into two series, 
psychic and dynamic, 191- 
195 ; James on oblivion of 
proper self in possession, 
217 ; voluntary and invol- 

13 



untary possession, 48, 63, 
284-286, 311 ; possession 
distinguished from disease 
lunacy, epilepsy, etc., 63, 
132, 180-182, 185, 188, 
381 ; relation of possession 
to hypnosis, 230, 237-242, 
201; distinguished from 
temptation, 279; temptation, 
obsession, and possession, 
285 ; the fourth form of de- 
mon influence, 288; phys- 
ical phenomena of posses- 
sion, 61, 62, 65, 68, 70, 145, 
255, 256, 112, 113, 196,322, 
352. (Table-tipping, rap- 
ping, noises, disturbances, 
injuries, speech, writing, 
apparition of phantoms, 
movements, singing, levita- 
tion, etc.) Lyman Abbot on 
possession, 434. 

Differentiating marks of 
possession : — 

(i) The new personality 
I44» 145, 173, 186-190, 198, 
217-219, 288. 

(2) Intellectual marks 145, 
155, 173, 190-194, 233, 257-, 
58, 296. 

(3) Moral marks, 144, 145, 
194, 199. 

The possession theory, its 
origin, 187, 307; Tylor on 
its universality and persist- 
ence, 159-161; its adequacy, 
237; its sanctions, 255; im- 
plications of possession, 387; 
possession by the Holy 
Spirit, 390. 

Prayer, last petition of the 
Lord's prayer, 288 ; prayer 
in exorcism (See Index of 
Cases) ; prayer and telepa- 
thy, 389. 

Pre-Adamic race of geology 
identified with Satanic race 
by Gall, 270. 



478 



GENERAL INDEX. 



Prepossessions of judgment 
in all men, 344; how to deal 
with, 344. 

Presbyterian testimony, 76. 

Propositions, eleven, summariz- 
ing facts which are collected 
and presented in first ten 
chapters, 143-145. 

Proving the spirits, 324, 

393. 

Psychology, modern, its materi- 
alistic trend, 207, 208,381; 
explanation of possession by, 
208-237; literature of, 380; 
explanation by James, 208- 
221, 231-233,382; Myers, 
223-227, 233, 234, 241, 242 ; 
Ribot, 228, 234, 235; Moll, 
229-231; conclusions of 
psychological theories sum- 
marized by author 235-237; 
psychological explanations 
only tentative, 225, 231-236; 
limits of empirical psy- 
chology, James, 231, 432. 

Psychic phenomena, that ac- 
company the occult, but not 
to be necessarily identified 
with it, 352, 381, 385. 

Psychical Congress in Chicago, 

344- 
P'u Sung-ling, author of Liao- 

Chai, 72. 
Pythian spirit, 293, 294, 317, 

429. 
Python, 264. 

Questions unanswered except 
by possession theory, 173, 
174, 200, 201, 243; the first 
two questions in the dis- 
cussion, 342; questions for 
those who accept the spirit 
theory, 342. 

Ramsey, Wm., D. D., his testi- 
mony, 109. (See Bibliog. 
Index.) 



Rappings in connection with 
possession, 145, 322, 352. 

Residuum, the unexplained 
residuum of phenomena, 
Phelps on, 318, 319; Haweis, 
on, 432, 433. 

Resistance to possession, 52 ; 
by Christian faith, 391. 

Reynolds, Mary, her alternat- 
ing personality, 214. 

Ribot, Theodule, 189, 204; 
personality a development of 
organism, 227; a consensus, 
228; the problem to be 
solved physically, 234, 235. 

Richard, Rev. Timothy, his 
testimony, 62-72. 

Robertson, Dr. C. L., trans- 
lator of Griesinger, 117. 

Roman Catholic testimony, 71, 
93, 138, 364. 

Rudland, W. D., his testimony, 

73- 
Rutherford, Dr. Jas., translator 
of Griesinger, 117. 

Sacrifice to demons, 50. 
Sadducees, their creed, 391. 
Salem, witchcraft, 303-310 ; 

literature of, 355. 
Sampson, Rev. Dr. G. W., 

explains by odic force, 151. 
Sandwich Islands, conjurors, 

155- 

Sargent, Epes, 48, note, 378. 

Satan and the demons, 264- 
266, popular view and Bible 
view, 266-269 '■> hmits of his 
knowledge and authority, 
279 ; modern derision of, 
3 1 1 ; F. D. Maurice on, 311; 
his main object with men, 
275 ; Satan in Job, 267, 
268; in New Testament, 
268; in Salem, 309 ; appari- 
tion of, 367 ; Satan-wor- 
shipers, 368. 

Sa-Wo, village, 407. 



GENERAL INDEX. 



479 



Scepticism, Hammond on 
healthy scepticism, 176; 
ground of as to spirit agency, 
341, 342. 

Science, baffled, 126, 127, 195, 
432; dogmatism of, 142, 
note; 345; men of, who dis- 
regard induction, 341 ; who 
accept the spirit theory, 343; 
scientific tests of spiritism, 
and moral tests, 317, 327, 
427 ; what constitutes a scien- 
tific theory, A. R. Wallace 
on, 345. 

Scott, Rev. C. P., 138. 

Scott, Michael, 379. 

Scott, Sir Walter, 355. 

Scott, Rev. Walter, on exist- 
ence of evil spirits, 13 1. 

Scripture teaching. (See Bible.) 

Secondary Self. (See Self.) 

Secondary Symptoms. (See 
Possession.) 

Self, alternate, three types, 
213; secondary, Myers, 233, 
234; manifested and un- 
manifested, 227 ; Lotze on, 
210 ; second soul, Tylor, 
162 ; self-severance, Myers, 
189; Griesinger on divided 
self, 199. (See Conscious- 
ness, Personality, Soul.) 

Sendai, a case in, 107. 

Seybert Commission, 316. 

Shantung province, author's 
removal to, 10; famine re- 
lief in, 17, 29, 52, 82. 

Shen-si province, 29. 

Shien, term for genii, and 
used by spirits of themselves, 
32, 33, 187. 

Shie-kwei, evil spirit, 22. 

Shin, term for gods who are 
identified with spirits, 49. 

Shin-tsai, town, 38, 401, 402. 

Shin-tsuen, village, 79. 

Sibyl, Cumsean, Virgil's de- 
scription, 99, 430, 



Sibylline oracles, or priestess 
identified with writing me- 
dium, 297. 

Sie, a general term for all 
forms of demon manifesta- 
tion, 323. 

Simon Magus, a wizard, 379. 

Simulation presupposes reality, 
148. 

Sin, the only anomaly recog- 
nized in the Bible, yet has a 
law of its own, 338. 

Singing, by spirits, 58; in ex- 
orcism, 54-56. 

Singpho conjurors, 154. 

Sleep, first symptoms of pos- 
session in, 53 ; ordinary and 
occult, 381. 

Socrates, the demon of, not 
so called by himself, 329. 

Society for Psychical Research, 
221-223, 272, 316, 358, 366. 

Sofola, sorcerer, 156. 

Somnambulism, 1 17; Ham- 
mond on, 238; artificial som- 
nambulism like mesmerism 
and hypnosis, 238-240; ordi- 
nary somnambulism, 381. 

Soothsaying, 299. (See Divina- 
tion.) 

Sorcery, 299. (See Magic.) 

Soul, James on, 208-211; Ty- 
lor on its place in modern 
philosophy, 163; on second 
soul, 162. 

Spencer, Herbert, on ghost 
worship, 374 ; his test of 
reality, 433. 

Spirit, Chinese definition of, 
62, 63 (Soul of the de- 
parted, the best of whom 
become gods); its power of 
voluntary evacuation of the 
body among Chinese, 67; 
apparent cause of occult 
phenomena, 340; "unclean 
spirits," who are they ? 342; 
" spirits of the just," do they 



480 



GENERAL INDEX. 



manifest themselves? 342; 
"lying spirits," New Testa- 
ment prediction, 393; spirit 
agency, no new theme, 343 ; 
spirit theory, antecedent 
grounds of objection to, 341, 
342, 352, 370- 
Spiritualism and spiritism, 
terms distinguished, 360; an- 
cient Spiritualism, literature 
of, 357; modern Spiritualism, 
literature of, 358; a hobby, 
140, 141, 386; number of 
Spiritualists, 314; funda- 
mental assumption of, 314; 
author's premise, 314; in- 
vestigating societies, 316, 
385 ; Sybert commission, 
316; conditions of experi- 
ment, right and wrong, 317; 
success of investigation de- 
pends on moral rather than 
material conditions, 317,318; 
Dr. Phelps on residuum of 
facts, 318; universality of 
these facts, 319, 333, 349; if 
spirits, what kind ? 320; 
Joseph Cook on the two 
points in debate, 320; ap- 
plication of moral' tests, 317, 
321 ; fourteen points of re- 
semblance between phe- 
nomena of spiritism and of 
possession, 321-322; Bible 
account of these phenomena, 
322; Chinese account of, 
328; Bible test of, 324; tone 
of spiritistic literature, 324; 
hostility to Christianity, 324- 
327; lying spirits acknowl- 
edged by Spiritualists, 327- 
329; virtual atheism of, 
330 ; subtlety of, 330 ; as 
a religion, 33 1; its claims, 
325; heathen abhorrence 
and western cultivation of, 
331; has done nothing to 
better knowledge or char- 



acter, 331; seeking unto 
spirits in China, 48; Spirit 
ualism among Greeks and 
Romans, 293 ; modern phases 
of, 298, 314-332; basis of 
truth in, 314; fraud in, 315; 
relation to polytheism, 374 

Stanley, Dean, on Mahomet, 
297 ; on Socrates, 329. 

St. Martin, M. D., testimony, 

93- 

Stuart, Rev. W. R., testimony, 
84; Mrs. Stuart, 87. 

Stratford phenomena, 25, 127. 

Suicide, induced by spirits, 34, 
65, 71, 86, 97, 119, 405. 

Summary of facts of the first 
ten chapters presented in 
eleven propositions, 143- 
145; A. R. Wallace's sum- 
mary of facts to date in 
psychical research, 344. 

Supernatural, vague use of 
term, 334; proper use, 273, 
335; not to be confused with 
miracle, 338; nor with occult, 
336, 338- 

Superstitions, connected with 
magic, 300, 437 ; originating 
in occult phenomena, 339. 

Swatow, 92. 

Symptoms of possession. (See 
Possession.) 

Tables, divination by, 129. 

Tahiti, oracular eloquence, 155. 

Tai-Chow, district, 73-75. 

Tai San, a god, 149. 

Taoism mixed with demonism, 
49. 

Taoist priests, 47; conjurors, 
69. 

Ta-wang-kia, village, 57. 

Taylor, Dr., 85. 

Telepathy, Myers on, 224, 
241, 242, 272; relation to 
possession, 242; a fact in 
natural history of man, with 



GENERAL INDEX. 



481 



large implications, 388; bear- 
ings on theology, 388, 389; 
Gurney's book on, 366, 388. 

Temptation, differs from pos- 
session, 279; how reconciled 
with divine goodness, 280; 
first form of demon influence, 
287 ; of the Saviour, 268; of 
Job, 267, 268 ; of Peter, 268 ; 
of Paul, 269; how resisted, 
36, 391 ; relation to tele- 
pathy, 390; to possession, 
387, 388. 

Teng-chow-fu, 13, 396, 416. 

Terms employed for magic 
and witchcraft, their con- 
fusion, 299, 300; the term 
occult, 334, 336. 

Tertullian, 1 28-130. 

Test conditions of spiritistic 
phenomena, 327. 

Test, or criterion, of truth in 
these maters ; experience, 
337, 343; Bible, 348; Christ, 

343, 393, 394- 
Testimony of Bible, 243, 348 ; 
reason for accepting it, 343 ; 
of Christian Fathers (See 
Christian Fathers) ; of Prot- 
estant missionaries, no, 134- 
139; of Roman Catholic 
missionaries, 11, 93, 138; of 
native Christians, ten feat- 
ures of, 139-143, 260, 261, 
35 ; of antiquity, general con- 
currence of, 298; of the be- 
witched, its fourfold charac- 
ter, 304, 310; from India, 
95-103 ; of demons to Chris- 
tianity, 82, 86, 259, 283, 397 ; 
to their own character, 83 ; of 
Mongols, 60,61; of experts 
and common sense, 260, 261, 
345, 352; of experience, 343; 
of Christ as an expert, 393; 
of medical men, 352; of the 
five South Germans, 352; 
good testimony not invali- 

31 



dated by lies, 369; a-priori 
objections to testimony, 352, 
370. 

Theologians, misconception of 
miracles by, 338. 

Thought, identified by Dr. 
James with the individual, 
211, 212, 231. 

Tien-tsin, 82. 

Tissot, Prof., on polyglottism 
of demoniacs, 191. 

Titans, 372. 

Ti-ts, a pupil, 47. 

Tokyo, 103, 106. 

Trajan, tests the oracle, 296. 

Trance, 67; and hypnotism, 
217; Dr. James on the me- 
dium trance, 431, 432. (See 
Clairvoyance.) 

Travel, occult in the literature 
of, 380. 

Trying the spirits, 324, 392, 

317- 
Tu-Ching, district, 45, 51, 52. 
Tung-en tai, village, 416. 
Tung-Yoh, temple, 62. 
Tu-Shien, medium or wizard, 

286. 
Twin Mountain Stream, 17, 19. 
Tylor, Edward B., 108, 148, 

149; his facts, 152-160; his 

conclusions, 1 60-174. 
Tyranny of demon, 256. 

Uji-Jui, a Japanese tale, 104. 
Unity, underlying psychical, 

contrasted with personality, 

226. 

Vennum, Lurancy, a case of 

possession, 220. 
Virgil, 99, 430- 
Voice, changed in possession, 

118. (See Demon.) 
Voluntary interment, the fe.,t 

of Indian magic, 436. 
Voodoo practice, a form of 

spiritism, 377. 



482 



GENERAL INDEX. 



Wa-ka-ya-maken, district in 

Japan, 107. 
Wang mu-hiang-chi, a god, 22. 
Watseka Wonder, 220. 
Weekly Journal, 324. 
Weeping of demoniacs, 31, 5^, 

83- 
Wei-Hein, 422. 
Wesley family, phenomena in, 

125. 
Wesleyan ]\Iission testimony, 

78. 
Whateley, Richard, 132. 
Whirling illusion in India (high 

magic), 436. 
White, A. D., Dr., on cases of 

possession in France, 191 ; 

on the Bible doctrine, 252. 
Wigan, Dr., on duality of mind, 

205, 215. 
Williams, S. Wells, 93. 
Williamson, of Inland Mission, 

73, 74- 

Wills, Rev. W^m. A., 74. 

Wilson, Rev. J. L., log. 

Winslow, Dr. Forbes B., favors 
possession theory, 109. 

Witnesses (See Testimony), 
character of witnesses to 
facts in this volume, 134, 
140, 

Witchcraft, or "The Wizard's 
Art" named four times in 
Old Testament and once in 
New, 301 ; not a mere pre- 
tense, 284; but "a natural 
and voluntary intercourse 
with evil spirits," 292, 293 ; 
wizard and demoniac differ- 
ently regarded in the Bible, 
285, 428, 429 ; Mosaic laws 
against, 292, 293 ; modern 
witchcraft excitement begins 
about time of Reformation, 
299 ; trials for witchcraft ; 



defining terms, 299 ; com- 
mon conception of, 300, 301 ; 
witch defined by Connecti- 
cut code, 300 ; witchcraft 
among American Indians 
and in Africa, 301 ; use of 
word in Old and New Tes- 
taments, 302 ; witches the in- 
struments of demons, 302 ; 
Salem witchcraft, 303-310; 
literature of Salem witch- 
craft, 355 ; how conviction 
was secured, 304 ; broader 
definition of, 310 ; a case of 
demoniacs rather than of 
witches, 311 ; misconception 
of, 309,310; defined by C. 
Elizabeth, 429 ; wizard of 
Pacific Islands, 154; Pata- 
gonian, 153 ; literature of 
witchcraft, 355 ; abundant 
modern parallels to the old 
phenomena, 349, 357. 

Witchcraft in Italy, 376. 

Writing, automatic, in China, 
48, 69. 

Wu-kia Miao-ts, village, 32, 33. 

Wu-po, female medium or 
witch, 55, 286, 425. 

Wu-ting-fu, 82. 

Xenophon on demon-worship, 
270, note. 

Yang fu-miao, a place, 75. 
Yang kia lo, village, 82. 
Yang kia-tswen, village, 414. 
Yu-hwang, a divinity, 22. 

Zeitgeist, 217. 

ZoUner, a Biblical demonolo- 

gist, no. 
Ziindel, biographer of Blum- 

hardt, see Bibliog. Index, 



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